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PROCLUS, or PROCULUS (A.D. 410-485)

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Originally appearing in Volume V22, Page 418 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PROCLUS, or PROCULUS (A.D. 410-485), the chief representative of the later Neoplatonists, was born at Constantinople, but II PROCOPIUS brought up at Xanthus in Lycia. Having studied grammar under Orion and philosophy under Olympiodorus the Peripatetic, at Alexandria, he proceeded to Athens. There he attended the lectures of the Neoplatonists Plutarch and Syrianus, and about 450 succeeded the latter in the chair of philosophy (hence his surname Diadochus, which, however, is referred by others to his being the " successor " of Plato). As an ardent upholder of the old pagan religion Proclus incurred the hatred of the Christians, and was obliged to take refuge in Asia Minor. After a year's absence he returned to Athens, where he remained until his death. His epitaph, written by himself, is to be found in Anthologia palatina, vii. 451. Although possessed of ample means, Proclus led a most temperate, even ascetic life, and employed his wealth in generous relief of the poor. He was supposed to hold communion with the gods, who endowed him with miraculous powers. He acted up to his famous saying that " the philosopher should be the hierophant of the whole world " by celebrating Egyptian and Chaldaean as well as Greek festivals, and on certain days performing sacred rites in honour of all the dead. His great literary activity was chiefly devoted to the elucidation of the writings of Plato. There are still extant commentaries on the First Alcibiades, Parmenides, Republic, Timaeus and Cratylus. His views are more fully expounded in the IIEpi rits Kara HAaTwva OeoXoyias (In Platonis theologiam). The FTOLXELWOLS BE0AOyuK17 (Institutio theologica) contains a compendious account of the principles of Neoplatonism and the modifications introduced in it by Proclus himself. The pseudo-Aristotelian De causis is an Arabic extract from this work, ascribed to Alfarabius (d. 950), circulated in the west by means of a Latin translation (ed. O. Bardenhewer, Freiburg, 1882). It was answered by the Christian rhetorician Procopius of Gaza in a treatise which was deliberately appropriated without acknowledgment by Nicolaus of Methone, a Byzantine theologian of the 12th century (see W. Christ, Gesch. der griechischen Litteratur, 1898, § 692). Other philosophical works by Proclus are Th o xELWOIc (Pima?) Tl IIEpi KLV~70"EWS (Institutio physica sive De motu, a compendium of the last five books of Aristotle's HEpi ebuau d c aKpoaaecss, De physica auscultatione), and De providentia et fato, Decem dubitaliones circa providentiam, De malorum subsistentia, known only by the Latin translation of William of Moerbeke (archbishop of Corinth, 1277-1281), who also translated the XTOLXELwoLS OEOXO'yLKit into Latin. In addition to the epitaph already mentioned, Proclus was the author of hymns, seven of which have been preserved (to Helios, Aphrodite, the Muses, the Gods, the Lycian Aphrodite, Hecate and Janus, and Athena), and of an epigram in the Greek Anthology (Anthol. pal. iii. 3, 166 in Didot edition.) His astronomical and mathematical writings include `TaoTurronr s TWV aOTpovoµLKWV inroOEQEwv (Hypotyposis astronomicarum positionum, ed. C. Manitius, Leipzig, 1909); Hept oc/iaipas (De sphaera); Hapackpaols cis TIP HroXemaiou TErpa/30ov, a paraphrase of the difficult passages in Ptolemy's astrological work Tetrabiblus; Eis Tb apWTOV TWv EbKAEIbov oTTOLXELwv, a commentary on the first book of Euclid's Elements; a short treatise on the effect of eclipses (De efectibus eclipsium, only in a Latin translation). His grammatical works are: a commentary on the Works and Days of Hesiod (incomplete); some scholia on Homer; an elementary treatise on the epistolary style, HEpL brurroXtuaiov XapaKTiipos (Characteres epistolici), attributed in some MSS. to Libanius. The X pforoisaOta ypapparu d by a Proclus, who is identified by Suidas with the Neoplatonist, is probably the work of a grammarian of the 2nd or 3rd century, though Wilamowitz-Mbllendorff (Philolog. Untersuch. vii.; supported by O. Immisch in Festschrift Th. Gomperz, pp. 237-274) agrees with Suidas. According to Suidas, he was also the author of 'ErrLXElpitµara Lit Kara XptcrrlavCv (Animadversiones duodeviginti in christianos). This work, identified by W. Christ with the Institutio theologica, was answered by Joannes Philoponus (7th century) in his De aeternitate mundi. Some of his commentary on the Chaldaean oracles (AbyLa XaXSaiKa) has been discovered in modern times. There is no complete edition of the works of Proclus. The selection of V. Cousin (Paris, 1864) contains the treatises De providentia et fato, Decem dubitaliones, and De malorum subsistentia, the commentaries on the Alcibiades and Parmenides. The Institutio theologica has been edited by G. F. Creuzer in the Didot edition of Plotinus (Paris, 1855); the In Platonis theologiam has not been reprinted since 1618, when it was published by Aemilius Portus with a Latin translation. Most recent editions of individual works are: Commentaries on the Parmenides, French translation with notes by A. E. Chaignet (1900-1903) ; Republic, by W. Kroll (1899-1901); Timaeus, by E. Diehl (1903- ); Hymns, by E. Abel (1883) and A. Ludwich (1895); commentary on Euclid by G. Friedlein (1873) ; Aoyla XaMaisa, by A. Jahn (1891) ; Characteres epistolici, by A. Westermann (1856), Scholia to Hesiod in E. Vollbehr's edition (1844). Thomas Taylor, the " Platonist," translated the commentaries on the Timaeus and Euclid, The Theology of Plato, the Elements of Theology, and the three Latin treatises. On Proclus generally and his works see article in Suidas; Marinus, Vita Procli; J. A. Fabricius, Bibliotheca graeca (ed. Harles), ix. 363–445; W. Christ, Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur (1898), § 623; J. E. Sandys, Hist. of Classical Scholarship (1906), i. 372; J. B. Bury, Later Roman Empire (1889), i. 13, where Proclus is styled the " Hegel of Neoplatonism " ; on his philosophy, T. Whittaker, The Neo-Platonists (1901), and NEOPLATONISM. Extracts from the Rpno•ro,aaOia are preserved in Photius (Cod. 239), almost the only source of information regarding the epic cycle; on the question of authorship, see Christ § 637, and Sandys, p. 379; also D. B. Monro's appendix to his ed. of Homer's Odyssey, xiii.–xxiv. (1901).
End of Article: PROCLUS, or PROCULUS (A.D. 410-485)
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