See also:ancient capital of the "
See also:White Syrians " of
See also:Cappadocia, which
See also:Croesus of
See also:Lydia is stated by
See also:Herodotus to have taken, enslaved and ruined, after he had declared war on the rising power of
See also:Persia and crossed the Halys (after the
See also:middle of the 6th century B.C.) . Thereafter he fought a
See also:battle near the city, and retired again across the
See also:river to his ultimate defeat and
See also:doom .
See also:Pteria is mentioned by no other ancient authority, but it is of
See also:interest if, as seems highly probable, (1) its " White Syrian " inhabitants were what we
See also:call "
See also:Hittites " (q.v.), or at least, participants in the " Hittite
See also:civilization "; (2) its remains are to be seen in the immense prehistoric city and remarkable
See also:rock-sculptures near Boghaz Keui in Cappadocia, about roo m. east of
See also:Angora and beyond the Kizil Irmak (Halys) . This is the chief " Hittite " site in
See also:Asia Minor, far
See also:superior in extent to either
See also:Euyuk or Giaur Kalesi, which seem to have been its dependencies, and a centre from which roads, marked by the occurrence of " Hittite " monuments, radiate towards
See also:Syria and the
See also:Aegean .
See also:Sir W . M .
See also:Ramsay has shown with great probability that it was the importance of Pteria and its
See also:bridge over the Halys which diverted the Persian " royal road " far to the
See also:north of its natural
See also:line . This road, in fact, followed an earlier
See also:main track whose ultimate
See also:objective had been different . The remains of Boghaz Keui are indubitably pre-Persian and pre-Greek . They consist of a large fortified city on a steep slope enclosed by two deep ravines, and falling to northward over 800 ft. from
See also:summit to
See also:base . The acropolis was strengthened with a circle of
See also:stone redoubts, between which led very narrow gateways, and with
See also:internal redoubts as well . Just inside what seems to have been its
See also:principal entrance is a rock
See also:face inscribed with nine lines of " Hittite " characters, greatly perished (Nishan Tash), and a similar inscription, equally illegible, can be detected on a neighbouring rock .
Below the acropolis on the north-east is a residentialquarter, containing large ruins of what seems to have been a palace or
See also:temple built
See also:round a central
See also:court . The whole site is surrounded by a strong
See also:wall, 14 ft. thick, with towers about
See also:loo ft. apart . The
See also:monument, however, which earliest rendered Boghaz Keui famous is the sculptured rock grotto, 1 m. to the east, called Yasili Kaya . Here two hypaethral galleries are adorned with reliefs in panels, the larger gallery showing two processions, which, starting on both walls from the entrance, meet at the
See also:head of the grotto . On the
See also:left wall are 45 figures, headed by a gigantic male figure, erect on the bent necks of two men . On the right wall he is opposed by a
See also:female of almost equal stature
See also:standing on a
See also:leopard or lioness, and followed by a
See also:young male with battle-
See also:axe, erect on a similar beast . Behind these are some 20 figures of mitred priests, &c . There can be no doubt that the female is the great Nature goddess of western Asia, attended by her spontaneously-generated son, with whose help she creates the
See also:world (see GREAT
See also:MOTHER OF THE GODS) . Priests or minor divinities follow them . The other procession, according to the
See also:analogy of other monuments, should be composed of mortals bearing sacra and headed by their
See also:king, who makes offering or dedicates his city to, or engages in some mystic union with, the goddess . The figure following him seems to be that of his high
See also:priest . " Hittite " symbols are carved above many of the figures .
Besides the processions there are five
See also:independent reliefs in the small gallery and its approach, one repeating the figure of the high priest . In 1906, as the result of the
See also:discovery of cuneiform tablets at Boghaz Keui by E . Chantre in 189o, a concession for the excavation of the site was obtained by the Berlin
See also:Oriental Society, and H . Winckler was sent to make a preliminary examination . He found a number of tablets in two
See also:languages, Babylonian and
See also:local, the latter being that of the Arzawa letters found at Tell el-Amarna . Among them was a cuneiform copy of the treaty made by Rameses II. in his loth
See also:year with the king of the Kheta, and inscribed on a wall at
See also:Karnak . In 1907 Winckler returned with O . Puchstein and others and made
See also:regular excavations, laying
See also:bare much of the fortifications and two temples, and finding inscribed monuments and many more tablets . From those written in Babylonian Winckler has established the fact that Boghaz Keui was the capital of a powerful Hatti
See also:dynasty from the middle of the 16th century B.c. to at least 1200 B.C . He claims further that its ancient name was Hatti . At the height of its power it ruled all Asia Minor down to the Aegean and
See also:northern Syria to the headwaters of the
See also:Orontes, and was also overlord of the Mitanni and the Amurri (Amarru) in
See also:Mesopotamia . It had continual relation on terms of equality with
See also:Egypt and Babylonia .
See also:kings of the Kheta, alluded to by name In
See also:Egyptian texts, have been identified with kings of Boghaz Keui . The decline of Hatti power began with the expansion of
See also:Assyria after Itoo B.C. and Cappadocia seems to have been inferior to
See also:Phrygia after the rise of the Midaean dynasty in the 9th and 8th centuries . It should be added that the
See also:identification of Boghaz Keui with the Pteria of Heroditus has not yet been confirmed, and the latter name has been claimed for a
See also:primitive site at Ak-alan near
See also:Samsun by Th . Makridi Bey, as the result of his excavations for the Constantinople Museum in 1907 (see HITTITES) .
PTERIDOPHYTA (Gr. 1ripts, fern, and d,vrde plant)
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