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RATRAMNUS (d. c. 868)

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Originally appearing in Volume V22, Page 919 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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RATRAMNUS (d. c. 868), a theological controversialist of the second half of the 9th century, was a monk of the Benedictine abbey of Corbie near Amiens, but beyond this fact very little of his history has been preserved. He is best known by his treatise on the Eucharist (De corpore et sanguine Domini liber), in which he controverted the doctrine of transubstantiation as taught in a similar work by his contemporary Radbertus Paschasius. Ratramnus sought in a way to reconcile science and religion, whereas Radbertus emphasized the miraculous. Ratramnus's views failed to find acceptance; their author was soon forgotten, and, when the book was condemned at the synod of Vercelli in 1050, it was described as having been written by Johannes Scotus Erigena at the command of Charlemagne. In the Reformation it again saw the light; it was published in 1532 and immediately translated. In the controversy about election, when appealed to by Charles the Bald, Ratramnus wrote two books De praedestinatione Dei, in which he maintained the doctrine of a twofold predestination; nor did the fate of Gottschalk deter him from supporting his view against Hincmar as to the orthodoxy of the expression " trina Deitas. " Ratramnus perhaps won most glory in his own day by his Contra Graecorum opposita, in four books (868), a valued contribution to the controversy between the Eastern and Western Churches which had been raised by the publication of the encyclical letter of Photius in 867. An edition of De corpore et sanguine Domini was published at Oxford in 1859. See the article by G. Steitz and Hauck in Hauck's Realencyklopadie fur protest. Theologie, Band xvi. (Leipzig, 1905) ; Naegle, Ratramnus and die heilige Eucharistic (Vienna, 1903) ; Schnitzer, Berengar von Tours; and A. Harnack, History of Dogma, v., pp. 309–322 (1894-9). RATTAllI, URBANO (1808-1873), Italian statesman, was borp on the 29th of June 18o8 at Alessandria, and from 1838 practised at the bar. In 1848 he was sent to the chamber of deputies in Turin as representative of his native town. By his debating powers he contributed to the defeat of the Balbo ministry, and for a short time held the portfolio of public instruction; afterwards, in the Gioberti cabinet, he became minister of the interior, and on the retirement of the last-named in 1849 he became practically the head of the government. The defeat at Novara compelled the resignation of Rattazzi in March 1849. His election as president of the chamber in 1852 was one of the earliest results of the so-called " connubio with Cavour, i. e. the union of the moderate men of the Right and of the Left; and having become minister of justice in 18J3 he carried a number of measures of reform, including that for the suppression of certain of the monastic orders. During a momentary reaction of public opinion he resigned office in 1858, but again entered the cabinet under La Marmora in 1859 as minister of the interior. In consequence of the negotiations for the cession of Nice and Savoy he again retired in January 186o. He was entrusted with the formation of a new ministry in March 1862, but in consequence of his policy of repression towards Garibaldi at Aspromonte he was driven from office in the following December. He was again prime minister in 1867, from April to October. He died at Frosinone on the 5th of June 1873. His wife, whom he married in 1863, was a remark-able woman. She was the daughter of Sir Thomas Wyse, British plenipotentiary at Athens, and Laetitia Bonaparte, niece of Napoleon I. Born in Ireland in 1833, she was educated in Paris, and in 1848 married a rich Alsatian named Solms; but the prince-president refused to recognize her, and in 1852 she was expelled from Paris. Her husband died soon after; and calling herself the Princesse Marie de Solms, she spent her time in various fashion-able places and dabbled in literature, Eugene Sue and Francois Ponsard being prominent in her court of admirers. She published Les Chants de l'exilee (1859) and some novels. After Rattazzi's death, she married (1877) a Spaniard named Rute; she died in February 1902. See Madame Rattazzi, Rattazzi et son temps (Paris, 1881); Bolton King, History of Italian Unity (London, 1899).
End of Article: RATRAMNUS (d. c. 868)
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