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RAVEN (O.E. hrafn, ,Icel. hrafn, Dan....

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Originally appearing in Volume V22, Page 923 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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RAVEN (O.E. hrafn, ,Icel. hrafn, Dan. ravn, Du. raaf, Ger. Rabe), the largest of the birds of the order Passeres, and a member of the family Corvidae, probably the most highly developed of all birds. Quick-sighted, sagacious and bold, the raven preys on the spoils of fishers and hunters, as also on weakly An illustration appears in Sonnerat's Voyages aux Irides orientales (Paris, 1806), vol. i. p. 182. animals among flocks and herds. A sentiment of veneration but some of the most striking features of the churches of or superstition has from remote ages and among many races Ravenna—the colonnades, the mosaics, perhaps the cupolas—attached to it. The raven is associated with various characters are not so much Byzantine as representative of early Christian of history, sacred or profane—Noah and Elijah, Odin and art generally. The following are the most important churches Flokki, the last of whom by its means discovered Iceland. of Ravenna, arranged in the order of the dates generally attri-It is said to have played its part in the mythology of the Red buted to them: Indian; and it has often figured in prose and verse, from the time of Shakespeare to that of Poe and Dickens. Superstition has been generally succeeded by persecution, which in many districts has produced extirpation. The raven breeds very early in the year, in England resorting to its nest, which is usually an ancient if not an ancestral structure, about the middle or towards the end of January. 3. S. Agata 4. S. Pier Crysologo (chapel) 5. S. Giovanni Battista . 6. SS. Nazario e Celso . 7. S. Pier Maggiore (now S. Francesco) 8. S. Teodoro (now Santo Spirito)—A. 9. S.Maria in Cosmodin(Arian baptistery)—A. . 10. S. Martino in Coelo Aureo (now S. Apollinare Nuovo) Church. 1. Metropolitan Church, or 2. Ecclesia Ursiana, and baptistery adjoining . S. Giovanni Evangelista Builder. Date. S. Ursus . 37o-390(?) Galla Placidia . 425 Gemellus . about 430 S. Peter Chrysologus about 450 Baduarius . about 458 Galla Placidia . Bishop Neon (?) Theodoric (?) . 493-526 Therein are laid from five to seven eggs of the common Corvine coloration (see CROW), and the young are hatched before the end of February. In more northern countries the breeding season is naturally delayed, but everywhere this species is almost, if not quite, the earliest breeder. The raven measures about 26 in. in length, and has an expanse of wing consider-ably exceeding a yard. Its bill and feet are black, and the same may be said of its whole plumage, but the feathers of the upper parts as well as of the breast are glossy, reflecting a bright purple or steel-blue. The species (Corvus corax) inhabits the whole of Europe, and the northern if not the central parts of Asia; but in the latter continent its southern range is not well determined. In America it is, or used to be, found from the shores of the Polar Sea to Guatemala if not to Honduras, but is said hardly to be found of late years in the eastern part of the United States. In Africa its place is taken by three allied but well-differentiated species, two of which (Corvus umbrinus, readily distinguished by its brown neck, and C. affinis, having its superior nasal bristles upturned vertically) also occur in south-western Asia, while the third (C. leptonyx or C. tingitanus, a smaller species characterized by several slight differences) inhabits Barbary and the Atlantic Islands. Farther to the southward in the Ethiopian region three more species appear whose plumage is varied with white—C. scapulatus, C. albicollis, and C. crassirostris—the first two of small size, but the last rivalling the real raven in that respect. (A. N.) RAVEN-HILL, LEONARD (1867- ), English artist and illustrator, was born on the loth of March 1867. He was educated at Bristol grammar school and the Devon county school, and studied art at Lambeth and then in Paris under MM. Bougereau and Aime Morot. He began to exhibit at the Salon in 1887, and in the Royal Academy in 1889. In 1893 he founded, with Arnold Golsworthy, the humorous and artistic monthly The Butterfly (1893-94, revived in 1899-1900). He contributed to many illustrated magazines, and began to work for Punch, with which he was afterwards prominently associated, in 1896. He illustrated Sir Walter Besant's East London (Igor) and J. H. Harris's Cornish Saints and Sinners; he published the impressions of his visit to India on the occasion of the tour of the prince and princess of Wales as An Indian Sketch-Book (1903); and his other published sketch-books include Our Battalion (1902) and The Promenaders (1894).
End of Article: RAVEN (O.E. hrafn, ,Icel. hrafn, Dan. ravn, Du. raaf, Ger. Rabe)

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