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RAYAH (Arabic ra'iyah, peasants, subj...

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Originally appearing in Volume V22, Page 933 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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RAYAH (Arabic ra'iyah, peasants, subjects, flock, herd, ra'a, to pasture, cf. " ryot," an Indo-Persian variant of the same word), the name given to the non-Moslem subjects of a Mahommedan ruler; all who pay the haraj or poll-tax levied earth's atmosphere. Lord Rayleigh had an interest in abnormal psychological investigations, and became a member and vice-president of the Society for Psychical Research. He was one of the original members of the Order of Merit, instituted in connexion with the coronation of King Edward VII. In 1904 he was awarded a Nobel prize, and at the end of 1905 he became president of the Royal Society, of which he had been elected a fellow in 1873, and had acted as secretary from 1885 to 1896. He remained president till 1908, in which year he was chosen to succeed the 8th duke of Devonshire as chancellor of Cambridge University. For a popular but authentic account of some of Lord Rayleigh's scientific work and discoveries, see an article by Sir Oliver Lodge in the National Review for September 1898. on unbelievers. Five classes of rayahs existed under Turkish rule,—(r) the Greek, or Roum milleti; (2) the Armenian, or Emeni milleti; (3) the Catholic Armenians—eremeni gatoliki milleti; (4) the Latin Christians, or Roum gatoliki milleti; and (5) the Jews, or ichondi milleti. The name rayah is most commonly used of the peasants, but it does not apply only to the agricultural populations. It depended on status, fixed by religious faith.
End of Article: RAYAH (Arabic ra'iyah, peasants, subjects, flock, herd, ra'a, to pasture, cf. " ryot," an Indo-Persian variant of the same word)
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