See also:born at
See also:Saint- Geniez in
See also:Rouergue on the 12th of
See also:April 1713 . He was educated at the Jesuit school of
See also:Pezenas, and received
See also:priest's orders, but he was dismissed for unexplained reasons from the
See also:parish of Saint-Sulpice,
See also:Paris, to which he was attached, and thenceforward he devoted himself to society and literature . The
See also:Raynal wrote for the Mercure de France, and compiled a series of popular
See also:bin superficial
See also:works, which he published and sold himself . These—L'Histoire du stathouderat (The
See also:Hague, 1748), L'Histoire du
See also:parlement d'Angleterre (
See also:London, 1748), Anecdotes historiques (Amsterdam, 3 vols., 1753)—gained for him
See also:access to the salons of Mme . Geoffrin, Helvetius, and the baron d'Holbach . He had the assistance of various members of the philosophe coteries in his most important
See also:work, L'Histoire philosophique et politique
See also:des etablissements et du commerce des Europeens dans
See also:les deux Indes (Amsterdam, 4 vols., 1770) .
See also:Diderot indeed is credited with a third of this work, which was characterized by Voltaire as " du rechauffe avec de la declamation." The other chief collaborators were Pechmeja, Holbach, Paulze, the
See also:farmer-general of taxes, the Abbe
See also:Martin, and Alexandre Deleyre . To this piecemeal method of composition, in which narrative alternated with tirades on
See also:political and social questions, was added the further disadvantage of the lack of exact information, which, owing to the dearth of documents, could only have been gained by
See also:personal investigation . The "philosophic " declamations perhaps constituted its chief
See also:interest for the general public, and its significance as a contribution to democratic propaganda . The Histoire went through many
See also:editions, being revised and augmented from
See also:time to time by Raynal; it was translated into the
See also:languages, and appeared in various abridgments . Its introduction into France was forbidden in 1779; the
See also:book was burned by the public executioner, and an
See also:order was given for the arrest of the author, whose name had not appeared in the first edition, but was printed on the title page of the
See also:Geneva edition of 1780 . Raynal escaped to
See also:Spa, and thence to Berlin, where he was coolly received by
See also:Frederick the
See also:Great, in spite of his connexion with the philosophe party .
See also:Petersburg he met with a more cordial reception from Catherine II., and in 1787 he was permitted to return to France, though not to Paris . He showed generosity in assigning a considerable income to be divided annually among the
See also:peasant proprietors of upper
See also:Guienne . He was elected by
See also:Marseilles to the States-general, but refused to sit on the score of age . Raynal now realized the impossibility of a peaceful revolution, and, in terror of the proceedings for which the writings of himself and his friends had prepared the way, he sent to the Constituent
See also:Assembly an address, which was read on the 31st of May 1791, deprecating the violence of its reforms . This address is said by Sainte-Beuve (Nouveaux lundis, xi.) to have been composed chiefly by Clermont
See also:Tonnerre and
See also:Pierre V . Malouet, and it was regarded, even by moderate men, as
See also:ill-timed . The published Lettre de l'abbe Raynal a l'Assemblee nationale (loth Dec . 1790) was really the work of the comte de
See also:Guibert . During the Terror Raynal lived in retirement at Passy and at Montlhery . On the
See also:establishment of the
See also:Directory in 1795 he became a member of the newly organized Institute of France . He died in the next
See also:year on the 6th of
See also:March at Chaillot . A detailed bibliography of his works and of those falsely attributed to him will be found in
See also:Querard's La France lilteraire, and the same author's Supercheries devoilees .
Thebiography by A . Jay, prefixed to Peuchet's edition (Paris, to vols, 182o-1821) of the Histoire . . . des hides, is of small value . To this edition Peuchet added two supplementary volumes on colonial development from 1785 to 1824 . See also the
See also:anonymous Raynal demasque (1791); Cherhal
See also:doge . de G . T . Raynal (an . IV.) ; a
See also:notice in the Moniteur (5 vendemiaire, an . V.); B . Lunet, Biographie de l'abbe Raynal (
See also:Rodez, 1866); and J .
See also:Morley, Diderot (1891) .
RAYMUND OF TRIPOLI
RAYNALD OF CHATILLON (d. 1187)
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