See also:born on the 21st of
See also:July 1810 at
See also:Aix-la-Chapelle . His early
See also:life was a struggle with poverty . When a boy he went to
See also:Paris and obtained a situation in a large drapery
See also:establishment, where he remained, occupying every spare
See also:hour in study, until he was in his twentieth
See also:year . Then he entered the 1
See also:cole Polytechnique, and passed in 1832 to the Ecole
See also:des Mines, where he
See also:developed an aptitude for experimental chemistry . A few years later he was appointed to a professorship of chemistry at
See also:Lyons . His most important contribution to organic chemistry was a series of researches, begun in 1835, on the haloid and other derivatives of unsaturated
See also:hydrocarbons . He also studied the alkaloids and organic acids, introduced a
See also:classification of the metals according to the facility with which they or their sulphides are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, and effected a comparison of the chemical composition of atmospheric air from all parts of the
See also:world . In 184o he was recalled to Paris by his
See also:appointment to the
See also:chair of chemistry in the &
See also:pie Polytechnique; at the same
See also:time he was elected a member of the Academie des Sciences, in the chemical section, in
See also:room of P . J . Robiquet (178o-184o); and in the following year he be-came
See also:professor of physics in the
See also:College de France, there succeeding P . L .
See also:Dulong, his old
See also:master, and in many respectshis
See also:model .
From this time
See also:Regnault devoted almost all his
See also:attention to
See also:practical physics; but in 1847 he published a four-
See also:treatise on Chemistry which has been translated into many
See also:languages . Regnault executed a careful redetermination of the specific heats of all the elements obtainable, and of many compounds—solids, liquids and gases . He investigated the expansibility of gases by
See also:heat, determining the coefficient for air as o•oo3665, and showed that, contrary to previous opinion, no two gases had precisely the same
See also:rate of expansion . By numerous delicate experiments he proved that Boyle's
See also:law is only approximately true, and that those gases which are most readily liquefied diverge most widely from obedience to it . He studied the whole subject of thermometry critically; he introduced the use of an accurate air-thermometer, and compared its indications with those of a
See also:mercurial thermometer, determining the absolute dilatation of mercury by heat as a step in the
See also:process . He also paid attention to hygrometry and devised a hygrometer in which a cooled
See also:surface is used for the deposition of moisture . In 1854 he was appointed to succeed J . J . Ebelmen (1814-1852) as director of the
See also:porcelain manufactory at Sevres . He carried on his
See also:research on the expansion of gases in the laboratory at Sevres, but all the results of his latest
See also:work were destroyed during the Franco-German War, in which also his son
See also:Henri (noticed above) was killed . Regnault never recovered from the
See also:blow, and, although he lived until the 19th of
See also:January 1878, his scientific labours ended in 1872 . He wrote more than eighty papers on scientific subjects, and he made important researches in conjunction with other workers .
His greatest work, bearing on the practical treatment of steam-engines, forms vol. xxi. of the Memoires de l'Academie des Sciences .
HENRI REGNAULT (1843-1871)
JEAN BAPTISTE REGNAULT (1754-1829)
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