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Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V17, Page 410 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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RELATIVES OF THE PROPHET 1 1. Family of 'Abd al-Mo(talib, Mahomet's maternal grandfather:—*' Abbas (d. A.H. 32 or 34), *IIamza (d. A.H. 3),'Abdallah, father of the 1 * is prefixed to names which figure on occasions which seem to be historical. Female names are in italics. Prophet, *Abu Talib (said to be named 'Abd Manaf), ? *Zubair, Harith, Hajal, Moqawwam, 1lirar, *Abu Lahab (said to be named 'Abd al-'Uzza, d. A.H. 2), *Safiyyah (d. A.H. 20), Umm Hakim, al-Baida, 'Atikah, Umaimah, Arwa, Barrah. 2. Family of Abu Talib:—*'Agil (d. after A.H. 40), *Ja'far (d. A.H. 8), Talib, Tulaiq, ' Ali, the caliph, Umm Hani', Jumanah, Railah. 3. Family of Mahomet. Wives:—*Khadija (Children :—Qasim ; ? 'Abd Manaf (Tahir, Tayyib); *Zainab m. Abu'l-'As b. Rabi', d. A.H. 7 ; *Ruqayyah, m. 'Othman b. 'Allan, d. A.H. 2 ; *Umm Kulthum m. 'Othman b. 'Affan, d. A.H. 9; *F(itimah, m. d. A.H. II): *Saudah bint Zam'ah,? d. A.H. 54, *'A'ishah (Ayesha) bint A bi Bekr (d. A.H. 56), *Hafsa bint 'Omar (d. A.H. 45 or 47), *Zainab bint Khuzaimah, d. before A.H. II, *Zainab bint Jahsh, d. A.H. 20, *Umm Salimah, d. A.H. 59, *Maimunah, d. A.H. 38, *Juwairiyah, d. A.H. 56, *Umm Habibah Ramkih bint Abi Sofian, d. A.H. 44. Concubines:—*Safiyyah bint Huyyay, d. A.H. 36, *Raihanah bint Zaid, *Mdriyah the Copt, d. A.H. 15 or 16, mother of Ibrahim. (Other names given by Ibn Sa'd, vol. viii.) Chronological Table of Chief Events in the Life of Mahomet.' ? 570 Birth. ? 595 Marriage with Khadija. ? 610 Commencement of call. ? 613 Public appearance. 616 Persian conquest of the nearer East. ? 617 Flight of his followers to Abyssinia. ? 618–619 Siege in Mecca. Retractation and subsequent repudiation. Death of Abu Talib and Khadija. ? 62o Flight to Taif. 622 July 16. Beginning of the Moslem era. Sept. 20. Arrival at Kuba after the Flight. 632 Jan. 27. Death of his son Ibrahim. 632 June 7. Death of Mahomet. The following dates are given by the Arabic historians according to their own calendar. For the reasons which have been seen it is impossible to obtain certain synchronisms. A.H. 2. Rajab I. Raid of 'Abdallah b. Jahsh to Nakhlah. Ramadan 19. Battle of Badr. Shawwal 15. Attack on the Banu Qainuqa. 3. Rabia I. 14. Assassination of Ka'b b. al-Ashraf. Shawwal 7. Battle of Uhud. 4. $aphar. Massacre of Mahomet's 70 missionaries at Bi'r Ma'unah. Rabia I. Attack on the Banu Nadir. Dhu'l-Qa'da. Abortive raid called " the lesser Badr." 5. Shaaban 2. Attack on the Banu'l-Muqaliq (according to Waqidi). Dhu'l-Qa'da. Battle of the Trench. Massacre of the Banu Quraizah. 6. Jomada i. Capture of a caravan by Zaid b. IJarithah. Futile attempt to assassinate Abu Sofian. Dhu'1-Qa'da. Affair of Hodaibiyah. 7. Jomada i. Taking of Khaibar. Mission extended to the world. Dhu'l-Qa'da. Pilgrimage to Mecca (called 'umrat algadiyyah) 8 Jomada i. Expedition to Mutah. Ramadan 20. Taking of Mecca. Shawwal. Battle of Honain. Attack on Taif. 9. Mubarram. Tax-gatherers sent over Arabia. Rajab. Expedition to Tabuk. Rival Mosque built at Kuba, destroyed on Mahomet's return to Medina. Dhu'l-IIijja. Pilgrimage conducted by Abu Bekr. Abolition of idolatry in Arabia. to. Ramadan. Expedition of `Ali to Yemen. Dhu'l-Qa'da. " Farewell Pilgrimage." 1I. $aphar. Expedition ordered against the Byzantines. - Companions of the Prophet. The sahabah, as they are called, are the subject of a vast literature, and the biographical dictionaries devoted to them, of which the best known are the Usd ul-gheiba of the historian Ibn Athir and the Isabah of Ibn Hajar al-'Asgalani, enumerate many thousands. The following two lists are of special groups. - (a) Nagibs, i.e. leaders selected by Mahomet from the Medinese tribes: i. Khazrajites:—As'ad b. Zurarah, Sa'd b. al-Rabi', 'Abdallah b. Rawabah, al-Bars' b. Ma'rur, 'Abdallah b. 'Amr b. Haram, 'Ubadah b. al-$amit, Sa'd b. 'Ubadah, al-Mondhir b. 'Amr; ii. Ausites: Usaid b. Hudair, Sa'd b. Khaithamah, Rifa'ah b. 'Abd al-Mondhir. (b) Commanders of Expeditions: names occurring in (a) are not repeated: 'Abdallah b. Jahsh, `Abd ar-Rab man b. 'Auf, Abu Bekr, Abu Qatadah, Abu 'Ubaidah b. al-Jarrab, 'Ali, 'Alqamah b. Mujazziz, 'Amr b. al-'As (ibn el-Ass), Bashir b. Sa'd, Uabbak b. Sofian, Ghalib b. 'Abdallah, Ibn Abi'l-Auja, Ka'b b. 'Umair, Khalid b. al-Walid, Kurz b. Jarir, Marthad b. Abi Marthad, Mubammad b. 1 Dates are given A.D. Maslamah, Qutbah b. 'Amir, Sa'd b. Abi Waggas, Sa'd d. Zaid, Salama b. `Abd al-Asad, Shuja' b. Wahb, 'Ubaidah b. al-Harith, 'Ukkashah b. Mil an, 'Umar b. al-Khattab, Usamah b. Zaid, 'Uyainah b. Him, Zaid b. I;Iarithah. Lives of the Prophet (t indicates that the work is lost) ; f'Urwah b. Zubair (d. 712–713) ; tMusa b. 'Ukbah (d. 758–759) ; tMohammed b. Isbaq (d. 768) ; Mohammed b. Hisham (d. 828–829), ed. Wustenfeld (Gottingen, 186o) ; reprinted in Egypt by Zubair Pasha, a series of excerpts from the last; Mohammed b. Omar al-Waqidi (d. 823), portion published by Kremer (Calcutta, 1855), abridged trans. of a fuller copy by Wellhausen, Muhammad in Medina (Berlin, 1882); Mohammed b. Sa'd (d. 844–845), an encyclopaedic work on the history of Mahomet and his followers, called Tabagat, ed. Sachau and others (Berlin, foil.) ; Mohammed b. Jarir al-Tabari (see TABARI). Many more writers on this subject are enumerated in the Fihrist, cf. Sprenger's Leben Muhammads, iii. 54-76. Among the most popular compilers of later times are: Ibn al-Athir (q.v.) al Jazari, the historian (d. 1233) ; Abmad b. Ali al Kastalani (d. A.D. 1517), whose al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah was published with commentary (Cairo, 1278) ; I Iosain b. Mohammed al Diyarbakri (d. 1574) whose work Ta'rikh al-Khamis was published in Cairo, A.H. 1382; 'Ali b. Burhan al-din al-Ijalabi (d. A.D. 1634), whose biography called Insan al-'uyun was published in Cairo, A.H. 1292. To these must be added all the collections of Tradition. Modern Authorities.—The critical study of the Life of Mahomet be-gins in Europe with the publication by Th. Gagnier in 1723 of the Life by Abulfeda (q.v.). Presently there appeared an apologetic biography by Henri Cmte. de Boulainvilliers (2nd ed., Amsterdam, 1731), to which Gagnier replied in 1732 (La Vie de Mahomet, traduite, &c. ibid.). The next considerable advance in the treatment of the subject is marked by the biography of G. Weil (Muhammed der Prophet, Stuttgart, 1843), which is wholly without religious bias; the popular life by Washington Irving (London, 1849) is based on this. That by J. L. Merrick (the Life and Religion of Mohammed, -Boston, U.S.A., 185o) rests on Shiite sources. The search for MSS. in India con-ducted by A. Sprenger led to the discovery of fresh material, which was utilized by Sprenger himself in his unfinished Life of Mohammad (Pt. 1, Allahabad, 1851), and his more elaborate Das Leben and die Lehre des Mohammad (Berlin, 1861–1865), and by Sir William Muir in his Life of Mahomet, London, 1858–1861) 4 vols.: afterwards abridged in one volume and reprinted. These are still the standard treatises on thesubject; the pro-Christian bias of Muirisvery marked, while Sprenger has hazarded numerous conjectures on subjects with which he had little familiarity. The biography by S. W. Koelle, Mohammed and Mohammedanism (London, 1889), is pro-Christian, the popular work of Syed Ameer Ali The Spirit of Islam, (London, 1896) an apology for Mahommedanism. Later treatises, resting on original authorities, are those by H. Grimme Mohamed, (Munster, 1892, and Munich, 1904), F. Buhl, Mohameds Liv (Copenhagen, 1903—Danish: since translated into German), D. S. Margoliouth Mohammed and the Rise of Islam (N.Y., 1905, &c.), and Prince Caetani Annuli del Islam, i. ii. (Milan, 1905-1907). For the direction of public opinion in Mahomet's favour the Lecture on The Hero as Prophet in Carlyle's Heroes and Hero-worship (London, 1846) was singularly effective; his views were enforced by R. Bosworth Smith Mohammed and Mohammedanism, (London, 1873, &e.). A some-what similar line was taken in France by J. Barthelemy Saint-Hilaire, Mahomet et le Coran, (Paris, 1865), while the Vie de Mahomet d'apres la Tradition of E. Lamairesse and G. Dujarric (Paris, 1897) is written entirely from the Moslem standpoint. See further CALIPHATE, ad init.; MAHOMMEDAN INSTITUTIONS; MAHOMMEDAN LAW; MAHOMMEDAN RELIGION. (D. S. M.*)

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