RELIEF , a
See also:term in sculpture signifying
See also:ornament, a figure or figures raised from the ground of a
See also:surface of which the sculptured portion forms an inherent
See also:part of the
See also:body of the whole . The design may be in high relief—"
See also:alto-relievo" (q.v.), or low relief— " bas-relief" or "basso-relievo" (q.v.); in the former case the design is almost wholly detached from the ground, the
See also:attachment, through " under-cutting," remaining only here and there; in the latter it is wholly attached and may scarcely rise above the surface (as in the
See also:modern medal), or it may exceed in
See also:projection to about a
See also:half the proportionate
See also:depth (or thickness) of the figure or
See also:object represented . Formerly three terms were commonly employed to
See also:express the degree of relief — altorelievo, basso-relievo and mezzo-relievo (or half-relief) ; but thetwo last-named have been merged by modern
See also:custom into " low-relief," to the disadvantage of accurate description . The term relief belongs tc modern sculpi use . I o low relief .13 under-stood by us Pliny applied the word anatlypta, but it is to be observed that
See also:embossing and
See also:chasing came within the same category . It may be considered that less sculptural skill (independently of manipulative skill) is needed in high relief than in low relief, because in the former the true relative
See also:pro-portions in the
See also:life (whether figure or other object) have to be rendered, while in the latter, although the true height and, in a measure, breadth can be given, the thickness of the object is reduced by at least one-half, sometimes to almost nothing; and yet in spite of this departure from actuality, this
See also:abandonment of fact for a pure
See also:convention, a true effect must still he produced, not only in respect to perspective, but also of the actual shadows
See also:cast . And insomuch as the compositions are often extremely complicated and have sometimes to suggest retreating planes, the true
See also:plane of the material affords little
See also:scope for reproducing the required effect . In the beginning the essential idea of the relief was always maintained: that is to say, the sense of the flatness of the slab from which it was cut was impressed throughout the design on the mind of the spectator . Thus the Egyptians merely sunk the outlines and scarcely more than suggested the modelling of the figures, which never projected beyond the
See also:face of the surrounding ground . The Persians, the Etruscans and the Greeks carried on the
See also:art to the highest perfection, alike in sculpture and architectural ornament, and they applied it to
See also:gem sculpture, as in the case of "
See also:cameo." Similarly, the inverse treatment of relief—that is, sunk below the surface, in
See also:order that when .tsed for
See also:seals a true relief is obtained—was early brought to
See also:great completeness; this
See also:form of
See also:engraving is called " intaglio." The degree of projection in relief, broadly speaking, has varied greatly with the periods of art . Thus, in
See also:Byzantine and Romanesque art the relief was low . In
See also:Gothic it increased with the increased
See also:desire to render several planes one behind the other .
With theadvent of the
See also:Renaissance it became still more accentuated, the heads and figures projecting greatly; but such high relief is sometimes found in early
See also:work, especially in
See also:metal-work . Although we see a return to
See also:lower relief in the
See also:Henri II.
See also:period, it becomes stronger in the
See also:Louis XIII.
See also:style, very full in Louis XIV. and Louis XV., but in Louis XVI. is considerably reduced . (M . H .
RELICS (Lat, reliquiae, the equivalent of the Engli...
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