French philosopher, was
See also:born at
See also:Montpellier on the 1st of
See also:January 1818, and educated in
See also:Paris at the Ecole Polytechnique . In early
See also:life he took an
See also:interest in politics, and the approval extended by Hippolyte
See also:Carnot to his
See also:Manuel republicain de l'homme et du citoyen (1848) was the occasion of that
See also:minister's fall . He never held public employment, but spent his life writing, retired from the
See also:world . He died on the 1st of
See also:September 1903 . Renouvier was the first Frenchman after
See also:Malebranche to formulate a
See also:complete idealistic
See also:system, and had a vast influence on the development of French thought . His system is based on
See also:Kant's, as his chosen
See also:term " Neo-criticisme " indicates; but it is a trans-formation rather than a continuation of Kantianism . The two leading ideas are a dislike to the Unknowable in all its forms, and a reliance on the validity of our
See also:personal experience . The former accounts for his acceptance of Kant's phenomenalism, combined with rejection of the thing in itself . It accounts, too, for his polemic on the one
See also:hand against a Substantial Soul, a Buddhistic Absolute, an Infinite Spiritual Substance; on the other hand against the no less mysterious material or dynamic substratum by which naturalistic
See also:Monism explains the world . He holds that nothing exists except presentations, which are not merely sensational, and have an
See also:objective aspect no less than a subjective . To explain the formal organization of our experience he adopts a modified version of the Kantian categories . The insistence on the validity of personal experience leads Renouvier to a yet more important divergence from Kant in his treatment of volition .
Liberty, he says, in a much wider sense than Kant, is man's fundamental characteristic . Human freedom acts in the phenomenal, not in an imaginary noumenal sphere . Belief is not intellectual merely, but is determined by an
See also:act of will affirming what we hold to be morally
See also:good . In his religious views Renouvier makes a considerable approximation to Leibnitz . He holds that we are rationally justified in affirming human immortality and the existence of a finite
See also:God who is to be a constitutional ruler, but not a
See also:despot, over the souls of men . He would, however, regard atheism as preferable to a belief in an infinite Deity . His chief
See also:works are: Essais de critique generale (1854-64), Science de la morale (1869), Uchronie (1876), Esquisse d'une
See also:classification systematique
See also:des doctrines philosophiques (1885-86), Philosophic analytique de l'histoire (1896-97), Histoire et solution des problemes metaphysiques (19ot); Victor Hugo: Le Pate (1893), Le Philosophe (1900);
See also:Les Dilemmes de la metaphysique pure (1901); Le Personnalisme (1903) ; Critique de la
See also:doctrine de Kant (1906, published by L . Prat) . See L . Prat, Les Derniers entretiens de
See also:Charles Renouvier (1904) M . Ascher, Renouvier and der franzosische Neu-Kriticismus (1900) ; E .
See also:Janssens, Le Neocriticisme de C .
R . (19o4); A . Darlu, La Morale de Renouvier (19o4); G . Seailles, La Philosophie de C . R . (1905); A .
See also:Arnal, La Philosophic religieuse de C . R . (1907) .
SIR PETER LE PAGE RENOUF (1822-1897)
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