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Originally appearing in Volume V18, Page 599 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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RESULTS OF MISSIONS The Christian Church bases its missionary enterprise upon the spirit, the example, and the commandment of its Founder, and regards the duty as just the same whether the results be[RESULTS results. If, however, we are to take statistical returns for what they are worth, it is estimated that the Christians in heathen lands gathered by Protestant missions probably amount to five millions, and a similar total may be ascribed to Roman Catholic missions, making ten millions in all. This, however, includes adherents still under instruction for baptism, and their children. The inner circle of communicant members is hardly more than one-third of the total. Missions are however a far greater thing after all than simple proselytism. It would require many a volume to tell of what they have done for civilization, freedom, the exploration of unknown regions, the bringing to light of ancient literatures, the founding of the science of comparative religion, the broadening of the horizon of Christian thought in the homelands, and the bringing of distant peoples into the brotherhood of nations. These are results that cannot be put into figures. While it is true that very diverse opinions are held concerning missions, it is indisputable that the most favourable testimonies come from those who have really taken the most pains to examine and understand their work. The one discouraging feature, from the Christian point of view, is the backwardness of Christendom in its great enterprise. If the Churches did their foreign work with the same energy which they throw into their home work, the results would be very different. The figures given below are taken from a table compiled by Dr D. L. Leonard, and refer only to Protestant missions to non- I.-STATISTICS OF THE GREAT RELIGIONS (From The Blue Book of Missions, 1907),OF THE WORLD. Christians. Moham- Confucian- Animists, Roman Eastern Jews. medans. Buddhists. Hindus. ists and Shintoists. Fetishists, Unclassed. Totals. Protestants. Catholics. Churches. Taoists. &c. Africa . 2,665,000 2,493,000 3,799,000 381,000 50,810,000 11,000 277,000 31,000 - 97,179,500 125,500 157,722,000 America, N. . . 64,488,000 36,693,000 1,000,000 1,069,000 15,000 5,000 94,000 85,00 - 20,000 8,002,000 z11,651,000 Amesica, S. . 362,000 36,125,000 - 22,000 10,000 - 108,000 4,000 - 1,262,000 63,000 37,956,000 Asia . . . 1,542,000 5,385,000 17,144,000 482,000 141,456,000 137,900,000 209,152,000 291,030,000 24,900,000 41,436,000 5,693,000 876,120,000 Australasia . 3,424,000 964,000 1,000 17,000 3,000 4,000 1,000 31,000 - 40,000 70,000 4,555,000 Europe. . 92,922,000 183,754,E 98,213,000 9,247,000 3,576,000 - - - - - 1,319,000 389,031,000 Malaysia . . 416,500 7,095,500 - 3,000 20,760,000 - 27,000 570,000 - 16,445,000 62,000 45,379,000 Oceania . 247,000 129,000 - 1,000 - 15,000 - 65,000 - 507,000 18,000 982,000 Aggregate . . 66,066,5oo 272,638,500 120,157,000 11,222,000 216,630,000 137,935,000 209,659,000 291,816,000 24,900,000 157,069,500 15,352,500 1,623,446,000 558,862,000 large or small. It appeals to common sense, saying in effect, " If it be a fact that a Divine Person came into the world to bless mankind, all men ought to know it, and have a right to know it. However much or (if you will) little a Buddhist or a Christian and non-Protestant peoples. The figures are for 1907, and should be compared with those in the Statistical Atlas. This list gives a total of 69 Foreign Missionary Societies, of which 34 are American, 19 British, so German, and 6 other societies. The statistics for these 69 societies may be grouped as follows:- II.-SUMMARY OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARY WORK. OTHER SOCIETIES, Viz. Totals for 1895 Paris Society, AMERICAN. BRITISH. GERMAN. Swiss Romande, Totals for (showing growth Netherlands Societies, Christendom. between 1895 and Scandinavian Societies, 1907). &c. Ordained Missionaries 1,911 1,98o 932 912 5,735 4,028 Laymen 535 1,738 168 361 2,802 1,477 Unmarried women . . 1,527 2,332 150 378 4,387 2,578 Ordained natives . . 2,312 2,141 197 623 5,273 4,295 Communicants (full members) 545,180 565,179 240,883 466,208 1,817,450 995,793 Numbers added in 1906 . 63,916 38,614 25,983 12,336 140,849 63,081 Adherents 1,286,259 1,398,306 540,073 1,136,500 4,361,138 2,770,801 Schools 8,855 11,789 2,878 5,346 28,868 19,384 Scholars . . . . 344,213 619,399 139,891 199,402 1,302,905 786,002 1906 . , . £4,256,029 1 • • £4,473,9331 Moslem may need to know of Christ, he certainly has a claim to be told of Him. The responsibility, if there be any, of believing, rests with the individual told; the responsibility of telling him rests with the Christian Church." On this view of the matter, results, however desirable, are no certain test of a mission doing its work. A mission in Persia, with its handful of converts, has, on this view, as much right to support and appreciation as a mission in southern India with its tens of thousands. Again, on the hypothesis that Christianity is true, the statistics at a particular period are no test of success at all. For in them the dead are not counted; and the converts who are already dead are-at least in respect of individual salvation-the surest of £2,724,194 £3,095,915 1907 • £3,932,377 A world missionary conference was held at Edinburgh in June 1910, which aimed at making, on a scale far more comprehensive than had been previously attempted, a thorough and scientific study of the. problems involved in the relation of Christianity to the non-Cllristian world. For two years preceding the conference eight representative commissions investigated the following questions: 1 The Statistical Atlas (1910) puts it at £5,071,225, of which British and American societies each find about £2,000,000, and German societies £427,455. 1895 1900 1905 (I) Carrying the Gospel to all the non-Christian world; (2) the Church in the mission field; (3) education in relation to the Christianization of national life; (4) the missionary message in relation to non-Christian religions; (5) the preparation of missionaries; (6) the home base of missions; (7) missions and governments; (8) co-operation and the promotion of unity. The reports on these subjects in eight volumes, together with a ninth volume giving the proceedings of the conference itself, and a statistical atlas, will for some time be the vade mecum of information on Christian missions, and precludes the need of any attempt at a bibliography here, an attempt which would indeed be doomed to failure. It may not, however, be out of place to call attention, in addition to literature already cited, to a few recent books, chiefly manuals, in several of which full lists of missionary books are given. E. M. Bliss, The Missionary Enterprise (1908); E. Stock, A Short Handbook of Missions (1904); H. H. Montgomery, Foreign Missions (1904) ; T. Moscrop, The Kingdom Without Frontiers (1910) ; W. T. Whitley, Missionary Achievement (1908) ; S. L. Gulick, The Growth of the Kingdom of God (1897) ; B. Lucas, The Empire of Christ, a study of the missionary enterprise in the light of modern religious thought (1907) ; R. H. Malden, Foreign Missions, a study of some principles and methods (1910); G. Smith, Short History of Christian Missions (1897); G. Warneck, Outline of a History of Protestant Missions (1901; new German ed., 1910). See also J. S. Dennis, Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions (1902), Christian Missions and Social Progress (3 vols., 1897) ; G. Warneck, Modern Missions and Culture (1882) ; E. Stock, History of the Church Missionary Society (3 vols., 1899) ; J. B. Myers, Centenary Volume of the Baptist Missionary Society (1892) ; R. Lovett, History of the London Missionary Society (2 vols.,. 1899) ; J. Lowe, Medical Missions, Their Place and Power. A somewhat overlooked side of missions, viz. the " attempt to estimate the contribution of great races to the fulness of the Church of God," is presented in Mankind and the Church, edited by Bishop H. H. Montgomery (1907). The Encyclopaedia of Missions (2nd ed., 1904) edited by Bliss, Dwight and Tupper; The Blue Book of Missions by H. O. Dwight (1907); and the already mentioned Statistical Atlas of Missions (1910) by H. P. Beach, are all of the highest value. For Roman Catholic Missions see Missiones Catholicae cura S. Congregationis de Propaganda Fide descriptae (Romae, ex Typographia poly g llotta S. C. de Prop. Fid. [official biennial publication]) ; Louvet, Les Missions Catholiques [au] xix Siecle (Lyon, Bureau des Missions Catholiques, 14 Rue de la Charite, 1900) ; Piolet, Les Missions Catholiques Franfaises [au] xix'. Siecle (6 vols., Paris, A. Colin, 5 Rue des Mezieres) • H. A. Krose, Katholische Missionsstatistik (19o8); K. Streit, Katholischen Missionsatlas (1908). (E. Sr; H. T. A.; A. J. G.)
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