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Originally appearing in Volume V06, Page 98 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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RICE GAMBIT. White. Black. White. Black. Professor Major Professor Major Rice. Hanham. Rice. Hanham. 1. P-K44 P-K4 15. Q-R3 Kt-B7 2. P-KB PXP 16. XB (ch) B-K3 3. Kt-KB3 P-KKt4 17. K-B sq Q-R8 (ch) 4. P-KR4 P-Kt5 18. Kt-Kt sq Kt-R6 5. Kt-K5 Kt-KB3 19. PXKt P-B6 6. B-B4 P-Q4 20. B-Kt5 Q-Kt7 (ch) 7. PXP B-Q3 21. K-K sq P-B7 (ch) 8. Castles BXKt 22. K-Q2 P-B8=Kt 9. R-K sq Q-K2 (ch) Io. P-B3 P-Kt6 23. K-Q3 K-Q2 r1. P-Q4 Kt-Kt5 24. PXB (ch) K-B2 12. Kt-Q2 QXP 25. Q-K7 (ch) K-Kt3 13. Kt-B3 Q-R3 26. Q-Q8 (ch) RXQ 14. Q-R4 (ch) P-B3 27. BXQ and mates The Rice Gambit (so called after its inventor, Prof. Isaac L. Rice of New York), whether right or not, is only possible if Black plays 7. B -Q3. Paulsen's 7. B-Kt2 is better, and avoids unnecessary complications. 8. P-Q4 is the usual move. Leaving the knight en prise, followed by 9. R-K sq, constitutes the Rice Gambit. The interesting points in the game are that White subjects himself to a most violent attack with Impunity, for in the end Black could not save the game by 22. P-B8 claiming a second queen with a discovered check, nor by claiming a knight with double check, as it is equally harmless to White. GIuoco PIANO. White. Black. White. Black. Steinitz. Bardeleben. Steinitz. Bardeleben. I. P-K4 P-K4 14. R-K sq 2. Kt-KB3 Kt-QB3 KB QP-KB3 3. B-B4 B-B4 6. QR P - 1B3 sq P-B3 Kt-B3 17. P-Q5 PXP 5• P-Q4 PXP 18. Kt-Q4 K-B2 6. PXP B-Kt5 (ch) 19. Kt-K6 KR-QB sq 7. Kt-B3 P-Q4 20. Q-Kt4 P-KKt3 8. PXP KKtXP 21. Kt-Kt (ch) K-K sq 9. Castles B-K3 22. RXKt (ch) K-B sq to. B-KKt5 B-K2 23. R-B7 (ch) K-Kt sq II. BXKt QBXB 24. R-Kt7 (ch) K-R sq 12. KtXB QXKt 25. RXP (ch) Resigns. 13. BXB KtXB As a matter of fact, Bardeleben left the board here, and lost the game by letting his clock run out the time-limit ; but Steinitz, who remained at the board, demonstrated afterwards the following variation leading to a forced win:- White. Black. White. Black. Steinitz. Bardeleben. Steinitz. Bardeleben. 25. . . . . . . K-Kt sq 31. Q-Kt8 (ch) K-K2 26. R-Kt7 (ch) K-R sq 32. Q-B7 (ch) K-Q sq 27. Q-R4 (ch) KXR 33. Q-B8 (ch) Q-K sq 28. Q-R7 (ch) K-B sq 34. Kt-B7 (ch) K-Q2 29. Q-R8 (ch) K-K2 35. Q-Q6 mate. 30. Q-Kt7 (ch) K-K sq This game was awarded the prize for " brilliancy " at the Hastings tournament, 1895. II QUEEN'S GAMBIT. Black. I. P-Q4 2. PXP 3. P-K4 4. PXP B- 6. Kt-KB3 7. Castles 8. P-KR3 9. P-QB3 White has a somewhat freer Roy LOPEZ. White. Black. White. Black. Halpprin. Pillsbury. Halprin. Pillsbury. I.P-K4: P-K4 14. P-Kt6 BP XP 2. Kt-KB3 Kt-QB3 15. Kt-Q5 PXKt 3. B-Kt5 Kt-B3 16. KR-K sq (ch) K-B sq 4. Castles Kt X P 17. R-R3 Kt-K4 5. P-Q4 Kt -Q3 18. 6. PXP Kt XB 19. R- B3 (ch) K -Kt sq 7. P-QR4 P- 3 20. B-R6 Q.-Ka 8. P- 6 PX 21. BXP KXB 9. PXKt Kt-K2 22. R-Kt3 (eh) K-B sq to. Kt-B3 Kt-Kt3 23. R-B3 (ch) K-Kt2 It. Kt-Kt5 B-K2 24. R-Kt3 (ch) K-B sq 12. Q-R5 BXKt 25. R-B3 (ch) K-Kt sq 13.BXB Q-Q2 Draw. This brilliant game, played at the Munich tournament, 1900, would be unique had the combinations occurred spontaneously in the game. As a matter of fact, however, the whole variation had been elaborated by Maroczy and Halprin previously, on the chance of Pillsbury adopting the defence in the text. The real merit belongs to Pillsbury, who had to find the correct defence to an. attack which Halprin had committed to memory and simply had to be careful to make the moves in regular order. White. Pillsbury. 1. P-K4 2. Kt-KB3 3. P-Q4 4. KtXP 5. Kt-QB3 6. KKt-Kt5 7. P-QR3 8. KtXB 9. PXP to. B-KKt5 Castles ii. B-K2 P-45 12. Kt-K4 Q- 4 (ch) 13. P-Kt4 Q-K4 14. KtXKt (ch) PXKt 15. B-R6 P-Q6 White. Black. White. Black. Anderssen. Dufresne. Anderssen. Dufresne. 1. P-K4 P-K4 13. Q-R4 B-Kt3 2. Kt-KB3 Kt-QB3 14. QKt-Q2 B-Kt2 3. B-B4 B-B4 15. Kt-K4 B4 4. P-QKt4 BXP 16. BXP -R4 5. P-B3 B-R4 17.Kt-B6 (ch) PXKt 6. P-Q4 PXP 18. PXP R--Kt sq 7. Castles P-Q6 19. QR-Q sq QXKt 8. Q-Kt3 Q-B3 20. RXKt (ch) KtXR 9. P-K5 Q-Kt3 21. QXP (ch) KXQ to. R-Ksq KKt-K2 22. B-B5 (ch) K-Ksq It. B-R3 P-Kt4 23. B-Q7 (ch) K moves 12. QXP R-QKt sq 24. BXKt mate. This game is most remarkable and brilliant. The coup de repos of 19. QR-Q sq is the key-move to the brilliant final combination, the depth and subtlety of which have never been equalled, except perhaps in the following game between Zukertort and Blackburne:- ENGLISH OPENING. White. Black. White. Black. Zukertort. Blackburne. Zukertort. Blackburne. t. P-QB4 P-K 18. P-K4 QR=QBsq 2. P-K3 Kt -1B3 19. P-K5 t-IK sq, 3. Kt-KB3 P -QKt3 20. P-B4 P-Kt3 4. B-K2. B - Kt2 21. R-K3 B4 5. Castles P -Q4 22. PXP e. p. KtXP 6. P - 4 B -Q3 23. P-B5 Kt-K5 7. Kt-33 Castles 24. BXKt PXB 8. P-QKt3 QKt-Q2 25. PXKtP R-B7 9. B-Kt2 Q-K2 26. PXP (ch) K-Rsq to. Kt-QKt5 Kt -K5 27. P-Q5dis. (ch) P-K4 II. KtXB P X Kt 28. Q- t4 R-B4 12. Kt-Q2 QKt -B3 29. -B8 (ch) XP 13. P-B3 Kt X Kt 30. QXP (ch) K-Kt2 14. QXKt PXP 31. BXP (ch) KXR 15. BXP P -Q4 32. B-Kt7 (ch) K-Kt sq i6. B-Q3 KR-B sq 33. QXQ Resigns. 17. QR-Ksq R -B2 This game, played in the London tournament, 1883, is one of the most remarkable productions of modern times, neither surpassed nor indeed equalled hitherto. End Games.-A game of chess consists of three branches-the opening, the middle and the end game. The openings have been analysed and are to be acquired by the study of the books on the subject. The middle game can only be acquired practically. The combinations being inexhaustible in their variety, individual ingenuity has its full scope. Those endowed with a fertile imagination will evolve plans and combinations leading to favourable issues. The less endowed player, however, is not left quite defenceless; he has necessarily to adopt a different system, namely, to try to find a weak point in the arrangement of his opponent's forces and concentrate his attack on that weak spot. As a matter of fact, in a contest between players of equal strength, finding the weak point in the opponent's armour iS the only possible plan, and this may be said to be the fundamental principle of the modern school. In the good old days the battles were mostly fought in the neighbourhood of the king, each side striving fora checkmate. Nowadays the battle may be fought anywhere. It is quite immaterial where the advantage is gained be it ever so slight. Correct continuation will necessarily increase it, and the opponent may be compelled to surrender in the end game without being checkmated, or a position may be reached when the enemies, in consequence of the continual fight, are so reduced that the kings themselves have to take the field-the end game. The end game, therefore, requires a special study. It has its special laws and the value of the pieces undergoes a considerable change. The kings leave their passive role• and become attacking forces. The pawns increase in value, whilst that of the pieces may diminish in certain cases. Two knights, for instance, without pawns, become valueless, as no checkmate can be effected with them. In the majority of cases the players must be guided by general principles, as the standard examples do not meet all cases. The handbooks as a rule give a sprinkling of elementary endings, such as to checkmate with queen, rook, bishop and knight, two bishops, and pawn endings pure and simple, as well as pawns in connexion with pieces in various forms. Towards the end of the 19th century a valuable work on end games was published in England by the late B. Horwitz; thus for the first time a theoretical classification of the art was given. This was followed by a more comprehensive work by Professor J. Berger of Gratz, which was translated a few years later by the late Mr Freeborough. A few specimens of the less accessible positions are given below :- Position from a Game played by the late J. G. Campbell in 1863.
End of Article: RICE GAMBIT
RICE (Greek 6p6 a, Latin oryza, French riz, Italian...

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