See also:Indian botanist, the cultivated
See also:rice with all its numerous varieties has originated from a
See also:wild plant, called in India Newaree or Nivara, which is indigenous on the
See also:borders of lakes in the Circars and elsewhere in India, and is also native in tropical
See also:Australia . The rice plant is an
See also:annual grass with long linear glabrous leaves, each provided with a long sharply pointed -ligule . The spikelets are
See also:borne on a compound or branched spike, erect at first but afterwards bent downwards . Each spikelet contains a solitary flower with two
See also:outer small barren glumes, above which is a large tough, compressed, often awned, flowering glume, which partly encloses the somewhat similar
See also:pale . Within these are six stamens, a hairy ovary surmounted by two feathery styles which ripens into the fruit (
See also:grain), and which is invested by the husk formed by the persistent glume and pale . The cultivated varieties are extremely numerous, some kinds being adapted for marshy
See also:land, others Rice (Oryza saliva). for growth on the
See also:hill- sides . The cultivators A, spikelet (enlarged) ; B, bearded variety make two
See also:principal C, spikelet of B (enlarged). divisions according as the sorts - are early or
See also:late . Rice has been cultivated from
See also:time immemorial in tropical countries . According to Stanislas
See also:Julien a ceremonial ordinance was established in
See also:China by the emperor
See also:Chin-nung 2800 years B.C., in accordance with which the emperor sows the rice himself while the seeds of four other kinds may be sown by the princes of his
See also:family . This fact, joined to other considerations, induced Alphonse de Candolle to consider rice as a native of China . It was very early cultivated in India, in some parts of which
See also:country, as in tropical Australia, it is, as we have seen, indigenous .
It is not mentioned in theBible, but its culture is alluded to in the
See also:Talmud . There is
See also:proof of its culture in the
See also:Euphrates valley and in
See also:Syria four
See also:hundred years before Christ .
See also:Crawfurd, on philological grounds, considers that rice was introduced into
See also:Persia from
See also:southern India . The
See also:Arabs carried the plant into Spain . Rice was first cultivated in Italy near Pisa in 1468 . It was not introduced into S . Carolina until 1700, and then, it is said, by accident, although at one time the southern
See also:United States furnished a large proportion of the rice introduced into commerce . Rice sports into far more varieties than any of the corns
See also:familiar to Europeans; for some varieties grow in the
See also:water and some on dry land; some come to maturity in three months, while others take four and six months to do so . A very full account of the cultivation of rice in India will be found in
See also:Dictionary of the Economic Products of India . Rice constitutes one of the most important articles of
See also:food in all tropical and subtropical countries, and is one of the most prolific of all crops . The rice yields best on low lands subject to occasional inundations, and thus enriched by alluvial deposits . An abundantrainfall during the growing
See also:season is also a desideratum .
Rice is sown broadcast, and in some districts is transplanted after a fort-
See also:night or three
See also:weeks . No
See also:special rotation is followed: indeed the
See also:soil best suited for rice is
See also:ill adapted for any other
See also:crop . In some cases little manure is employed, but in others abundance of manure is used . No special tillage is required, but weeding and irrigation are requisite . Rice in the husk is known as " paddy . On cutting across a grain of rice and examining it under the microscope, first the flattened and dried cells of the husk are seen, and then one or two layers of cells elongated in a direction parallel to the length of the seed, which contain the
See also:gluten or nitrogenous
See also:matter . Within these, and forming by far the largest
See also:part of the seed, are large polygonal cells filled with very numerous and very minute angular
See also:starch grains . Rice is not so valuable as a food as some other cereals, inasmuch as the proportion of nitrogenous matter (gluten) is less . Payen gives only 7% of gluten in rice as compared with 22 % in the finest wheat, 14 in oats and 12 in
See also:maize . The percentage of potash in the ash is as i8 to 23 in wheat . The fatty matter is also less in proportion than in other cereals . Rice, therefore, is chiefly a farinaceous food, and requires to be combined with fatty and nitrogenous substances, such as milk or
See also:gravy, to satisfy the requirements of the
See also:system .
- A large proportion of the rice brought to
See also:Europe is used for starch-making, and some is taken by' distillers of
See also:alcohol . Rice is also .the source of a drinking spirit in India, known as arrack, and the
See also:national beverage of apan—sake—is prepared from the grain by means of an organic ferment .
MARIE JEANNE RICCOBONI (1714-1792)
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