Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V08, Page 354 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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RIVER CLYDE. breakwaters, furnish the necessary commercial requirements for sea-going vessels, as for example at Marseilles (fig. 5), Genoa, Naples and Trieste. These open basins, however, are precisely the same as closed docks, except for the absence of dock gates; and the accommodation for shipping at the quays round basins in river ports is so frequently supplemented by river quays, that closed docks, open basins and river quays are all naturally included in the general consideration of dock works. required for forming the docks, and enables the excavated materials to be utilized in raising the ground at the sues for sides for quays; and the river furnishes a sheltered pocks. approach channel. Notable instances of these are the docks of the ports of London, Liver- pool, South Wales, Southampton, Hull, Belfast, St Nazaire, Rotter- dam, Antwerp and Hamburg. Some- times docks are partially ' formed on foreshores reclaimed from estuaries, as at Hull, Grimsby, Cardiff; Liver- pool, Leith and Havre; whilst at Bristol, a curved portion of the river Avon was appropriated for a 'dock, and a straight cut made for the river. By carrying docks across sharp bends of tidal rivers, upper and lower en- 4dnL• trances can be provided, thereby con- veniently separating the inland and sea-going traffic; ' and of this the London, Surrey Commercial, West India, and Victoria and Albert docks are examples on the Thames and Chatham dockyard on the Medway. Occasionally, when a small tidal river has a shallow entrance; or an estuary exhibits signs of silting up, docks alongside, formed on foreshores adjoining the sea-coast, are provided with a sheltered entrance direct from the sea,
End of Article: RIVER CLYDE

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