ROBERT (1275—1343) ,
See also:king of Naples, was the son of
See also:Charles II., duke of
See also:Anjou and king of Naples, and in his youth took
See also:part in several expeditions to
See also:Sicily with the
See also:object of wresting the
See also:island from
See also:Frederick III. of
See also:Aragon . But his efforts, like those of his
See also:father and grandfather, proved fruitless, and the Angevins were compelled at last to agree to the peace of Caltabellotta (1302) . On the
See also:death of Charles in 1309 Robert succeeded to the
See also:throne, although his
See also:nephew Caroberto (Carlo Roberto), son of his elder
See also:brother Charles Martel, who had died before his father, had a
See also:prior claim . He was crowned by
See also:Clement V. at
See also:Avignon, and on the descent into Italy of the emperor
See also:Henry VII. was appointed papal
See also:vicar in Romagna to resist the imperialists; thenceforth he became the recognized
See also:leader of the Guelphs or papal
See also:faction in Italy and took part in all the
See also:wars against the Ghibellines . On various occasions he obtained for himself or his sons the
See also:suzerainty over Rome, Florence, and other cities, and was regarded as the most powerful
See also:prince of his
See also:day . Pope
See also:John XXII. created him papal vicar in Italy against the emperor
See also:Louis the Bavarian . In X320 Robert summoned his kinsman
See also:Philip V. of France to Italy, and he waged war against Sicily once more from 1325 to 1341, but failed to drive out the Aragonese . He died in 1343, just as he was about to lead another expedition to the island . Robert was a man of learning, devoted to literature, and a generous
See also:patron of
See also:literary men: he befriended the poet
See also:Petrarch, who admired the king so greatly as to
See also:express the wish to see him
See also:lord of all Italy; while
See also:Boccaccio celebrated the virtues and charms of Robert's natural daughter Maria, under the name of Fiammetta .
See also:Dante was perhaps too severe on Robert, whom he described as a re da sermone (word king), and contemporary critics accused him of covetousness, a
See also:fault partly excused by his pressing need of
See also:money to pay the expenses of his perpetual wars . In spite of his power and influence, his position as a leader of the Guelphs was greatly shaken during the latter years of his reign, while at home he was never able completely to subjugate his rebellious barons . See G .
See also:Villani, Cronache; M .
See also:Murena, Vita di Roberto d'An ih, re di Napoli (Naples, 1770) ; and Archivio storico Siciliano (1884, viii . 511 seq.) .
ROBERT DE BEAUMONT (I104-1168)
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