ROCKET . (I) The name (Fr. coquette,
See also:Lat. eruca, a kind of
See also:cabbage) of two
See also:species of
See also:plants . The one, Eruca saliva, is a cruciferous
See also:annual with
See also:flowers veined with
See also:purple; the leaves have a
See also:sharp flavour and are used in
See also:Europe for salads . The other is a
See also:hardy perennial herbaceous plant, of the genus Hesperis, of which Hesperis matronalis is the most
See also:familiar species (see HORTICULTURE) . (2) A cylinder of paper, pasteboard or
See also:metal, filled with an explosive mixture . This word, which appears in mary forms in various
See also:languages, is from the It. rocchetta, diminutive of rocca, a
See also:distaff, the obsolete
See also:English "
See also:rock "; the application is due to a resemblance in shape . Rockets are used in pyrotechny for purpose of display, scattering showers of stars, coloured balls, &c., on bursting (see
See also:FIREWORKS) . They are also used in signalling, and especially as a
See also:part of
See also:life-saving apparatus for wrecks (see LIFEBOAT and LIFE-SAVING SERVICE) . Large and heavy rockets, of which the
See also:head formed a projectile, had too a considerable vogue in the early part of the 19th century for war purposes . They were invented by
See also:William Congreve (q.v.) and employed by him both afloat in
See also:coast operations and in
See also:field operations . Brought to the
See also:notice of all armies by the fact that a rocket battery of the Royal
See also:Artillery served in the allied army in the
See also:campaign, war rockets were introduced in many armies, being sometimes issued as an additional portion of the equipment of ordinary field batteries, sometimes reserved for
See also:special rocket batteries . The Congreve rocket was in use in the
See also:British army as
See also:late as 186o .
There were four natures—3-pounder, 6-pounder, 12-pounder and 24-pounder . Thecase was of
See also:sheet-iron, on to which was screwed a cylindro-conoidal head forming the projectile . The head was made hollow and could be filled with a bursting
See also:charge if a
See also:shell effect was desired, a
See also:fuze being provided . The iron case contained the rocket composition, and was closed at the
See also:rear end by a metal
See also:plate with five holes or vents, and on the centre a
See also:bush into which the stick was screwed . These rockets were fired from rocket tubes on tripods, the tubes being provided with a tangent sight . Against masses of troops within easy range, the war rocket was considered an efficient engine; it was used also to set
See also:fire to buildings, but was always deficient in accuracy . Eventually the Congreve rocket was superseded by the
See also:Hale, of which two patterns were in use, the 9-pounder and the 24-pounder, for field and fortress warfare respectively . These had no sticks, and were centred by the arrangement of the vent, the gases, as they emerged from the vent, impinging upon a
See also:screw-formed tail, to which they imparted the necessary rotation . These rockets were fired from a trough . The maximum effective range of the 9-pounder Hale rocket was about 1200 yards . The use of these engines was discontinued in the British service about 1885 . On the continent of Europe they had disappeared more than twenty years before .
See also:Austria, the last power to use them, broke up her rocket batteries in 1867 .
JOHN DAVISON ROCKEFELLER (i839— )
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