ROGER (d. 1139) ,
See also:bishop of
See also:Salisbury, was originally
See also:priest of a small
See also:chapel near
See also:Caen . The future
See also:Henry I., who happened to hear mass there one
See also:day, was impressed by the
See also:speed with which Roger read the service, and enrolled him in his own service . Roger, though uneducated, showed
See also:talent for business, and Henry, on coming to the
See also:throne, almost immediately made him chancellor (riot) . Soon after Roger received the bishopric of Salisbury . In the Investitures controversy he skilfully managed to keep the favour of both the king and Anselm . Roger devoted himself to administrative business, and remodelled it completely . He created the
See also:system, which was managed by him and his
See also:family for more than a century, and he used his position to heap up power and riches . He became the first man in England after the king, and was in
See also:office, if not in title, justiciar . He ruled England while Henry was in
See also:Normandy, and succeeded in obtaining the see of Canterbury for his nominee,
See also:William of Corbeil . Duke Robert seems to have been put into his custody after Tinchebrai . Though Roger had sworn
See also:allegiance to Matilda, he disliked the Angevin connexion, and went over to
See also:Stephen, carrying with him the royal treasure and administrative system (1135) . Stephen placed great reliance on him, on his nephews, the bishops of Ely and Lincoln, and on his son Roger, who was treasurer .
The king declared that if Roger demanded
See also:half of the
See also:kingdom he should have it, but chafed against the overwhelming influence of the official clique whom Roger represented . Roger himself had built at
See also:Devizes the most splendid
See also:castle in Christendom . He and his nephewsseem to have secured a number of castles outside their own dioceses, and the old bishop behaved as if he were an equal of the king . At a council held in
See also:June 1139, Stephen found a pretext for demanding a surrender of their castles, and on their refusal they were arrested . After a
See also:short struggle all Roger's great castles were sequestrated . But Henry of Winchester demanded the restoration of the bishop . The king was considered to have committed an almost unpardonable
See also:crime in offering violence to members of the
See also:church, in
See also:defiance of the scriptural command, "
See also:Touch not mine anointed." Stephen took up a defiant attitude, and the question remained unsettled . This
See also:quarrel with the church, which immediately preceded the landing of the empress, had a serious effect on Stephen's fortunes . The moment that the
See also:fortune of war declared against him, the
See also:clergy acknowledged Matilda . Bishop Roger, however, did not live to see himself avenged . He died at Salisbury in
See also:December 1139 . He was a great bureaucrat, and a builder whose taste was in advance of his age .
But his contemporaries were probably justified in regarding him as the type of the bishop immersed in worldly affairs, ambitious, avaricious, unfettered by any highstandard of
See also:personal morality . Roger's
See also:Alexander (d . 1148), who became bishop of Lincoln in 1123, was a typical secular ecclesiastic of the
See also:middle ages, wealthy, proud, ambitious and ostentatious . He founded monasteries, built castles at Newark,
See also:Sleaford and
See also:Banbury, and restored his
See also:cathedral at Lincoln after the
See also:fire of 1145 . He followed the policy of Roger, whose imprisonment he shared, and died after a visit to
See also:Eugenius III. at
See also:Auxerre, early in 1148 . See
See also:Sir J .
See also:Foundations of England, vol. ii., and J . H .
See also:Round's Geoffrey de Mandeville .
ROGATION DAYS (Lat. rogatio, from rogare, to beseec...
ROGER (d. 1181)
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