See also:ART IV Scythica VI . Ferrata near
See also:Antioch (?) . III . Gallica X . Fretensis (Jerusalem) . II . Trajana (near Alexandria—a disorderly city) . The
See also:total of legionaries may be put at about 18o,000 men, the auxiliaries at about 200,000 . If we exclude the "
See also:house-hold " troops at Rome, the
See also:police fleets on the Mediterranean, and the
See also:local militia in some districts, we may put the
See also:regular army of the
See also:Empire at about 400,000 men . This army, as will be plain, was framed on much the same ideas as the
See also:British army of the 19th century . It was meant not to fight agiinst a first-class
See also:foreign power, but to keep the peace and guard the frontiers of dominions threatened by scattered
See also:barbarian raids and risings .
See also:Field army there was none, nor any need ..
See also:special danger threatened or some special
See also:area was to be conquered—such as
See also:southern Britain (A.D . 43) or a little
See also:land across the upper Rhine (A.D . 74)—detachments (vexillationes) were sent by legions and sometimes also by auxiliaries in adjacent provinces, and a field force was formed sufficient for the moment and the
See also:work .
See also:Change from the Third
See also:Period to the
See also:principal causes brought gradual change to the Augustan army . In the first place, the
See also:Romana brought such prosperity to many districts that they ceased to provide sufficient recruits . The Romans, like the British in India, had more and more to look to uncivilized regions and even beyond their
See also:borders . Hence comes, in the 2nd century and after, a new class of numeri or cunei or vexillationes who used (like the earlier auxiliaries) their
See also:national arms and tactics and imported into the army a more and more non-Roman
See also:element . This tendency became very marked in the 3rd century and
See also:bore serious fruit at its close . And, secondly, the old days of mere frontier defence were over . The barbarians began to
See also:beat on the walls of the Empire as early as A.D. r6o: about A.D . 250 they here and there got through, and they came henceforward in ever-growing numbers . Moreover, they came on horseback, bringing new tactics for the Roman
See also:infantry to
See also:face, and they came in huge masses .
We may doubt if any military
See also:system could have permanently stayed this astonishing torrent . But the Empire did what it could . It enlisted barbarians to fight barbarians, and added freely—too freely, perhaps, if there was any choice—to the non-Roman elements of the army . It increased its
See also:cavalry and began to
See also:form a distinct field force . Fourth Period.—The results are seen in the reforms of
See also:Diocletian and
See also:Constantine the
See also:Great (A.D . 284–circa 320) . New frontier
See also:guards, styled limitanei or riparienses, were established, and the old army was reorganized in field forces which accompanied or might accompany the emperors in war (comitatenses, palatini) . The importance of the legions dwindled; the chief soldiers were the mercenaries, mostly Germans, enlisted from among the barbarians . New titles now appear, and it becomes plain even to the casual reader that in many points the new
See also:order is not the old . The details of the system are as complicated as all the administrative machinery of that age . Here it is enought to point out that the significance of such
See also:officers and titles as the
See also:dux and the comes (duke, count) lies ahead in the
See also:history of the
See also:middle ages, and not in the past, the history of the Roman army itself . War
See also:Office, General
See also:Staff.—Under the Republic we do not find, and indeed should not expect to find, any central
See also:body which was especially entrusted with the development of the army system or military
See also:finance or military policy in
See also:wars .
Even under the Empire, however, there was no such organization . Theemperor, as
See also:commander-in-chief, and his more or less unofficial advisers doubtless decided questions of policy . But the army was so much a
See also:group of provincial armies thatmuch was
See also:left to the chief officers in each province . Here, as elsewhere in the Empire, we trace a love if not for Home
See also:Rule, at least for
See also:Devolution . There was, however, a central finance office in Rome for the special purpose of
See also:meeting the bounties (or
See also:equivalent) due to discharged soldiers . This was established by
See also:Augustus in A.D . 6 with the title aerarium militare, and had, for receipts, the yield of two taxes, a 5%
See also:duty and a 1% on sales (or perhaps only on
See also:auction-sales) . The legacy duty did not
See also:touch legacies to near relations or legacies of small amount . BmLioGRAPHY.—Liebenam, " Exercitus," in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie; Von Domaszewski, in
See also:Marquardt's Handbuch der romischen Altertumer (2nd ed.,
See also:Leipzig, 1884), vol. v, pp . 319–612; H . Delbriick, Geschichte der Kriegskunst, vol. i., 2nd ed . (Berlin, 1907) ; E .
Lammert, "Die Entwicklung der romischen Taktik," in Neue Jahrbiicher fur das klassische Altertum, ix . 100-28, 169–87 ; Cagnat's article " Legio " in Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionnaire
See also:des antiquites grecques et romaines; E . G .
See also:Hardy, Studies in Roman History (
See also:London, 1906–9) ; Th . Mommsen, " Das romische Militarwesen seit Diocletian," in Hermes,
See also:xxiv . 195–279 . (F . J .
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