ROMULUS , the legendary
See also:eponymous founder and first
See also:king (753—716?) of Rome, represented as the son of
See also:Mars by the Vestal
See also:Rhea Silvia or Ilia, daughter of Numitor, who had been dispossessed of the
See also:throne of
See also:Alba by his younger
See also:brother Amulius . Romulus and Remus, the twin sons of Silvia, were placed in a trough and
See also:cast into the
See also:Tiber by their granduncle . The trough grounded in the marshes where Rome afterwards stood, under the
See also:wild fig
See also:tree (ficus ruminalis), which was still
See also:holy in later days . The babes were suckled by a she-
See also:wolf and fed by a
See also:woodpecker, and then fostered by Acca Larentia, wife of the shepherd Faustulus . They became leaders of a warlike
See also:band of shepherds on the Palatine, and in course of
See also:time were recognized by their grandfather, whom they restored to his throne, slaying the usurper Amulius . They now proposed to found a city on the site where they had been nurtured; but a
See also:quarrel for precedence broke out and Remus was slain . Romulus strengthened his band by offering an "
See also:asylum " to outcasts and fugitives, found wives for them by capture and waged war with their kinsmen . His most formidable foe was Titus Tatius (q.v.), king of the Sabines, but after an obstinate struggle he and Romulus
See also:united their forces and reigned side by side till Tatius was slain at
See also:Lavinium in the course of a
See also:feud with Laurentum . Romulus then reigned alone till he suddenly disappeared in a
See also:storm . He was thereafter worshipped as a
See also:god under the name of
See also:Quirinus, which, however, is really a
See also:form of Mars . The
See also:story of Romulus, best preserved in the first
See also:book of
See also:Livy (see also
See also:Dion . Halic. i .
75—ii . 56;Plutarch, Romulus;
See also:Cicero, de Republica, ii . 2—1o), belongs throughout to
See also:legend . This was
See also:felt in later times by the Romans themselves, who gave a rationalistic explanation of the miraculous incidents . Thus, Mars was converted into a stranger disguised as the god of war, and the she-wolf into a woman of
See also:ill-fame (lupa); Romulus was not taken up into
See also:heaven, but put to
See also:death and carried away piecemeal by the
See also:patricians under their cloaks . The whole story, probably first given by the annalists
See also:Fabius Pictor and Cincius Alimentus, contains religious and aetiological elements . The foundation of the city by twins may be explained by the worship of the
See also:Lares, who are generally represented as a pair of
See also:brothers, especially as the
See also:mother of Romulus and Remus was connected with the worship of the
See also:hearth of the state . The introduction of the wolf may be of Greek or eastern origin; it may have a totemistic significance; or may be due to the ficus ruminalis, the fig tree near the Lupercal on the Palatine, where the twins were first exposed . This tree was sacred to a goddess Rumina (ruma, "
See also:breast," whence the suckling incident), and the resemblance between Romulus and ruminalis led to the fig tree and the founder of the city being subsequently connected by the
See also:Roman antiquarians . The wolf would then be suggested by the proximity of the Lupercal, the grotto of Faunus Lupercus, with whom the shepherd Faustulus is identical . According to
See also:Professor Ducati of Bologna, in a paper on an old
See also:stele, on which a she-wolf is represented suckling a
See also:child, the wolf legend is an importation from
See also:Etruria, the
See also:original home of which was Crete .
See also:Miletus, son of
See also:Apollo and a daughter of
See also:Minos, having been exposed by his mother, was suckled by she-wolves, being afterwards found and brought up by shepherds .
See also:escape the designs of Minos, Miletus fled to
See also:Asia Minor, and founded the city called after him, where the Etruscans first became acquainted with the legend . The opening of the " asylum " is a Greek addition (as the name itself suggests) . Down to imperial times, the Romans seem to havebeen ignorant of the Greek
See also:custom of taking sanctuary; further, the idea was entirely opposed to the exclusive spirit of the
See also:ancient Italians . The story was probably invented to give an explanation of the sacred spot named " Inter duos lucos " between the arx and the Capitol . Another Greek
See also:touch is the deification of an eponymous hero . The rape of the Sabine
See also:women is clearly aetiological, invented to account for the custom of
See also:marriage by capture .
See also:Consus, at whose festival the rape took place, was a god of the
See also:earth and crops, the giver of fruitfulness in
See also:plants and animals . It is generally agreed that the capture of the Capitol by 'Titus Tatius may contain an
See also:element, pointing to an early
See also:conquest of Rome by the Sabines, of which there are some indications . Subsequently, to efface the recollection of an event so distasteful to Roman vanity and
See also:pride, Sabine names and customs were accounted for by a supposed union of Romans and Sabines during the
See also:period, the result of a friendly
See also:league concluded between Romulus and Tatius . According to E . Pais, Romulus is merely the eponym of
See also:Roma; his
See also:life is nothing but the course of the
See also:sun, and the institutions ascribed to him are the result of long historical development . Romulus, like his
See also:double Tullus Hostilius, is regarded as the founder of the military and
See also:political (see RoME), as Numa and his counterpart Ancus Marcius of the religious institutions of Rome .
For acritical examination of the story, see
See also:Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bks. viii.–x.;
See also:George Cornewall
See also:Lewis, Credibility of early Roman
See also:chap . 11 ; W . Ihne, History of Rome, i.; Sir J . Seeley, Introduction to his edition of Livy, bk. i.; E . Pais, Storia di Roma (1898), i. pt . 1, and Ancient Legends of Roman History (Eng. trans., 1906) ; also O .
See also:Gilbert, Geschichte and Topographie der Sladt Rom
See also:im Altertum (1883—1885) .
RONCESVALLES (Fr. Roncevaux)
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.