ROULETTE, a gambling game, of French origin. It is one
of the two games played in the gamblingrooms at Monte Carlo,
and the description here given, and the maximum and minimum
stakes mentioned, are to be understood as applying to the game
as it is there conducted. It is solely a game of chance, though
socalled " systems " are innumerable, and some of them for
a short period often appear to give the player an advantage.
There is no possible system, however, which will assure success
in the longrun, and it is herein that the ingenuity of the game
consists. Every systematic method of play must depend upon
increased stakes to retrieve past losses; and though a player
with an unlimited capital might be practically certain to
achieve his end in the course of time, the circumstance that
there is always a maximum renders the bank invincible. The
roulette table, covered with a green cloth, is made up of precisely
corresponding halves with a circular space let into the middle
holding the wheel, on either side of which the cloth is divided into
spaces marked passe, pair,
manque, impair, and the
black and red diamonds. The
wheel is divided into thirty
seven compartments, col
oured alternately black and
red, numbered from one to
thirtysix, the thirtyseventh
being zero. Pair indicates
even numbers, impair odd
numbers, manque includes the
numbers from 1 to 18; passe,
from r9 to 36. The methods
of staking are innumerable.
The minimum stake is five
francs, which must be placed on the table in the form of a
fivefranc piece, and not in smaller change. Rouge, noir,
ROUND 771
pair, impair, manque and passe are even chances; i.e. a stake put upon any of them is paid in corresponding coin should the player win, the exception being when the little half which is spun round the wheel falls into zero, in which case the even money chances are put "in prison "â€”that is to say., laid aside until another spin, when if the bank wins they are lost, if the player wins he is allowed to retrieve his money,. The maximum in the case of these chances is 6000 francs, Any one who desires to play en plein puts his stake on one of the thirtyseven numbers. If the ball falls into the corresponding number on the wheel, the stake is paid thirtyfive times; and as there are thirtyseven numbers on the board, with the advantage already described of imprisoning the evenmoney chances when zero comes up, it will be seen that there is a steady percentage in favour of the tables and consequently against the player. This percentage is of course greatly increased when, as is often the case, a second zero, called doublezero, is used. In some gamblinghouses there is even a third one, called Eagle Bird. The maximum stake allowed en plein is 18o francs. The next most daring selection is d cheval, when the stake is placed on the line separating any two numbers, and if either of them wins the player is paid seventeen times, the highest stake permissible being 36o francs. Transversale pleine covers any three numbers in a line, the coin or note being placed on the line dividing any one of the numbers from the neighbourâ€˘ ing evenmoney chance, as, for instance, between 4 and passe, or 6 and manque. A transversale simple covers six numbers, as, for example, where the line between 4 and 7 joins passe, or between 6 and 9 joins manque; and if any one of these numbers wins, five times the value of the stake is paid, the maximum here being 1200 francs. En carve includes four numbers, the coin being placed, for instance, on the cross between 1, 2, 4, 5, or 28, 29, 31, 32; eight times the value of the stake is paid, and the maximum is 76o francs. The dozens and the columns are also indicated on the board, the first dozen of course including r to 12. In each of the columns are twelve numbers in different order. A stake placed on either a dozen or a column is paid twice its value, the maximum here being 3000 francs. A stake constantly played is called the qualre premiers, which includes zero, 1, 2 and 3, the stake being placed on the line where zero and i join passe, or where zero and 3 join manque. If any one of these four numbers, including zero, wins, the stake is paid eight times; and four times eight being thirtytwo, there is a greater advantage to the table than when it loses en plein or on certain other chances. Zero can also be played in combination with any one or two of its neighbours; if with one of them the stake is paid seventeen times, if with two of them eleven times. A croupier sits on either side of the wheel; there is also one at each end of the table, their business being to assist the players in staking and recovering their winnings. Behind each of the former pair an official on a high chair supervises the table. The croupier whose duty it is to spin the wheel waits for a time till stakes have been made, and then, exclaiming, " Messieurs, faites votre jeu! " sets the cylinder in motion, throwing the ball in the direction contrary to that in which the wheel revolves. When it is seen that the ball will soon fall at rest in one of the compartments of the cylinder the croupier gives the notice, " Rien ne va plus," after which no stakes can be placed. When the ball finally rests in the compartment, the croupier announces the number and the evenmoney chances that win, as for instance rouge, impair and manque. He and his fellows then gather in with a rake all the money that has been lost, after which the winnings are paid and the game proceeds. At the beginning of play each table is supplied with a certain large sum. When the bank loses this and is forced to send for another supply it is said to be " broken."
End of Article: ROULETTE 

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