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Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V23, Page 789 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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ROXBURGHSHIRE, a Border county of Scotland, bounded W. by Berwickshire, E. and S.E. by Northumberland, S. by Cumberland, S.W. by Dumfriesshire and N.W. by the shires of Selkirk and Mid Lothian. It has an area of 426,060 acres, or 665.7 sq. m. The only low-lying ground in the shire is found in the N. and in the valleys of the larger rivers, and the whole S. is markedly hilly. Though the Cheviots, forming for a considerable distance the natural boundary with England, mostly belong to Northumberland, Catcleuch Shin (1742 ft.) and Peel Fell (1964) are Scottish peaks. The chief heights of the mountainous mass constituting the watershed between Tevietdale and Liddesdale are Cauldcleuch Head (1996), Greatmoor (1964), Pennygant (18o5), Din Fell (1735), Windburgh (1622) and Arnton Fell (1464). In the W. is Crib Law (1369), and in the N., near Melrose, occur the triple Eildons (highest peak, 1385). The county is abundantly watered. The Tweed flows through the N. of the shire for 26 out of its total run of 97 m., though for about 2 M. (near Abbotsford) it is the boundary stream with Selkirkshire, and for 10 m. lower down with Berwickshire (parishes of Earlston and Merton). On the right its affluents are the Bowden and the Teviot, and on the left the Allan and the Eden. The Teviot is the principal river lying entirely in Roxburghshire. From its source near Causeway Grain Head on the Dumfriesshire border, it follows mainly a N.E. direction for 37 M. to its confluence with the Tweed at Kelso. Its chief tributaries are, on the right, Allan Water, the Slitrig, Dean Burn, the Rule, the Jed, the Oxnam and the Kale, and, on the left, Borthwick Water and the Ale, both rising in Selkirkshire. The Liddel is the leading stream in the S. Rising near Peel Fell in the Cheviots it flows S.W. to the Esk after a course of 27 m., receiving on the right Hermitage Water, on the left Kershope Bum. The Kershope and Liddel, during part of their run, serve as boundaries with Cumberland. Excepting the Liddel, which drains to the Esk, much the greater portion of the surface is drained, by the Tweed, to the North Sea. The lakes are few the latter's projected gift of £200,000 for endowment of a trust for the improvement of the dwellings of the working classes, Rowton made himself personally familiar with the conditions of the poorest inhabitants of London; and he determined to establish " a poor man's hotel," which should offer better accommodation than the common lodging-houses, at similar prices. In the face of much discouragement and difficulty, the first Rowton House was opened at Vauxhall in December 1892, the cost (£3o,o0o) being defrayed by Lord Rowton, though he was by no means a man of great wealth. In 1894 a company, Rowton Houses (Limited), was incorporated to extend the scheme, a main characteristic of which was that the houses should not be charitable institutions but should be on a paying commercial basis. The scheme proved a gratifying success, and was imitated not only in many of the chief towns of Great Britain, but also in different countries of Europe and in America (see HousING). Lord Rowton also devoted himself to the business of the Guinness Trust, of which he was a trustee, and was interested in many philanthropic schemes. Lord Rowton was unmarried, and the title consequently became extinct at his death, which occurred in London on the 9th of November 1903.

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