RUNNING , the most
See also:form of athletic exercise considered as a
See also:sport . Athletic apparatus of every kind has been improved in
See also:modern times, but the spiked running-
See also:shoe may be said to represent the
See also:advantage enjoyed by the modern runner over his Olympic prototype . As an athletic sport running has been in vogue from the earliest times, and the
See also:race (3p6,uos), run straight away from starting-, point to
See also:goal, or once over the course of the stadion (a little over 200 yds.), formed an event in the Greek pentathlon, or quintuple
See also:games (see GAMES, CLASSICAL) . It was diversified with the race once over the course and return, and the &c'wXos, a long run many times (often as many as twelve, i.e. about 2; m.) up and down the stadion . There was also the hphµos 61rXCTCZV, a
See also:short race for warriors, who wore full
See also:armour and carried sword and
See also:shield, which has been imitated by the modern military race in full marching
See also:order . Except in the warriors' race the Greek runners were naked, save occasionally for a pair of
See also:light shoes . No records of the times made by the runners in the Greek races have been handed down . It may be inferred that the contests were very severe, since the
See also:ancient Olympic
See also:chronicles preserve the memory of several runners, of whom Ladas was the most conspicuous, who fell dead at the completion of the long course, and were buried in state with their brows encircled by the victor's chaplet . In ancient Italy running was practised in
See also:circus exhibitions, as described by Virgil (Aen. v . 286 seq.) . In the
See also:middle ages the best runners were oftenest found among the couriers maintained by potentates and municipalities, those of Tartary, England, Scotland, Italy and the Basque
See also:country having enjoyed the greatest reputation, while the Peichs, or Persian couriers of the
See also:Turkish sultans, oftenran from Constantinople to Adrianople and back, a distance of about 220 m., in two days and nights . Many couriers carried
See also:silver beads in their mouths to obviate thirst .
Couriers (syce) who run before the carriages of their masters are still in use in theEast . In the districts of India not traversed by
See also:railways, dak runners are still employed to carry the mails from
See also:village to village, many wearing bells about their necks to frighten away the tigers . The runners of the
See also:Indians were famous, and extraordinary tales are told of their swiftness and endurance . In all parts of
See also:Great Britain, running at short distances, as well as steeplechases and
See also:cross-country runs, has been popular for many centuries, each
See also:district and
See also:period having its champions, some of whom achieved
See also:national reputation . Durting the Puritan
See also:rule and that of
See also:Charles II. athletic sports all but died out in England, only to be revived with renewed vigour in the early
See also:part of the 19th century, when the public
See also:schools and
See also:universities began to pay more
See also:attention to them . A significant event in the
See also:history of running was the institution of the famous " Crick Run" (cross-country) at
See also:Rugby in 1837 . The
See also:establishment of the Cambridge University sports (1857), the
See also:Oxford sports (186o), and the
See also:British championship meetings (1866) placed athletics upon a formal and recognized basis . Records made thereafter received the
See also:stamp of authenticity, those made in former years being doubtful on account of lax measurements and timing . In the
See also:United States and
See also:Canada authentic records date from the institution of the American Championships in 1876 . The National Association of
See also:Amateur Athletes of
See also:America was formed in 1880 . Running at the
See also:day is divided into sprinting (distances up to one-quarter of a mile), middle-distance running (from one-quarter of a mile to l000 yds.) and long-distance running (over logo yds.) . Sprinting consists of running over short distances with a full and continuous burst of
See also:speed, the chief distances being roo yds., 220 yds. and quarter-mile .
, Distances up to and including 220 yds. are in America called dashes . The course for sprinting races, when run in the openair, is marked off in lanes for the individual runners by means of cords stretched upon short iron rods . Starting in sprints has now become very expert . The old method of dropping a handkerchief was the worst possible way to give the starting
See also:signal, since the muscles react most slowly to impressions of sight, less so to those of
See also:touch, and most quickly to those of sound, a difference of y of a second in reaction amounting to over one foot in a run of 10o yds . All modern foot-races are therefore started by the
See also:pistol; the runners wait for the signal in a crouching attitude, with the fingers of both hands resting on the ground on each side of the
See also:body, from which position they
See also:spring upwards and forwards at the sound of the pistol . The crouching start was found to be much quicker in getting off the mark than the upright attitude formerly adopted, and by 1892 had been adopted by all first-class sprinters in America, and a
See also:year or two later in Great Britain . Another advantage is that the runner is steadier on the mark, and since its adoption the prescribed
See also:penalty of being placed one yard behind the mark for starting before the pistol-shot has been very seldom enforced, and the risky experiment of " beating the pistol," i.e. letting the body' fall forward in the hope that the shot would come before the feet had to be moved, has practically disappeared . The improvement in training and the adoption of the crouching start have resulted in the continued reduction of sprinting records . " Even
See also:time," or 10 secs., is still considered a
See also:fine performance for the
See also:hundred yards, but has been repeatedly beaten both in England and America . A . F . Duffey, who, like C .
A .Bradley and J . W .
See also:Morton, won the
See also:ship in four successive years, shares with D . J .
See also:Kelly the record, 94 secs., for 10o yds.; and J . W . Morton, a
See also:Scot, as well as J . H . Hempton and W . T . Macpherson of New Zealand, are credited with' q secs .
The excellence of American runners in the sprints is probably accounted for partly by temperament influenced by
See also:climate; but the American practice of running short races of from 50 to 75 yds. during the numerous indoor meetings held in winter-time offers excellent training in starting and getting rapidly into full stride . The best time for the eighth mile (220 yds.), a distance often run in America, is 211 secs., made in 1896 on a straightaway track by B . J . Wefers . The quarter-mile (440 yds.) is almost always run on a curved track, and hence a
See also:quick start is important, for should the runner who has the advantage of the inside position allow himself to be outrun in the distance to the first turn, one of his opponents is likely to cut in and deprive him of it, while on the other
See also:hand a runner on the outside must actually outrun the inside man in order to be on even terms after the turn . The
See also:element of
See also:strategy, unknown in straight sprints, thus enters into the quarter . Speed is, of course, the chief requisite for a quarter-miler, but a certain amount of staying power is also necessary . The standard time for the quarter is 50 secs., which means an
See also:average speed of 11.3 secs. for each too yds.
See also:round the course . That of M.W . Long of
See also:Columbia University, who made the record, 47 secs., in 1900, was on that occasion 1o•68 secs. for each hundred yards . The
See also:system of " relay races,” usually run by four men each going a quarter of the distance, is a popular variety . The favourite distance is a mile, each man running a quarter at top speed .
This method of racing was introduced in the United States about the year 1890 on the
See also:model of the Massachusetts firemen's "bean-pot" races, and has since become very popular there . The old method was for the men running the second quarter of the course to wait on the mark for the first relay men to arrive, and then, snatching small flags from their hands, to continue the race, handing over the flags to the third relay upon completing their quarter . The flags, being cumbersome, were afterwards abandoned, and the new runners are now required only to touch the persons of the preceding contestants . The r m. record, 3
See also:min . 211 secs., was made in 1898 by B . J . Wefers, M . W . Long, T . E . Burke and H . S .
See also:Lyons of the New
See also:York Athletic
See also:Club . Middle-Distance Running.—The chief middle distances are 600 yds., 66o yds., 88o yds . (
See also:half-mile) and r000 yds., but of these the half-mile is the only one commonly recognized in championship sports . Endurance is more important at these distances, though speed is essential, and the element of strategy increases . An element unknown to sprinting enters into middle-and long-distance runs, namely that of
See also:pace-making; even when the real race is between two individuals at least one other runner on each side takes part in the contest, in order to " make the pace " for his
See also:principal . Emilio Lunghi (U.S.A.) holds the half-mile
See also:world's record of r min . 523 secs., made in 1909 . J . F . K . Cross of Oxford University ran the half-mile at Oxford in 1888 in I min . 54s secs .
The record for 1000 yds., 2 min . 13 secs., was made by L . E .Myers (U.S.A.) . The distance of three-quarters of a mile is seldom run now at large meetings . Long-Distance Running.—This includes all
See also:flat races of r m. or more, as well as steeplechasing, hare-and-hounds, and other forms of cross-country running . Great Britain has always been the home of long-distance running, different forms of cross-country racing having been popular all over the
See also:kingdom for centuries . In England at the championship
See also:meeting the distance events on the flat are the r m.; 4 M. and ro m. races, and in the inter-university sports the 1 m. and 3 M . ; in America the distances are I m., 2 M. and 5 m.; but any and all of these distances are often included in important British and American programmes . Hard daily training is necessary for a distance runner .
See also:Good pace-making and strategy in general are of great importance . The runner must learn to " run to the
See also:watch,” i.e. to cover the different portions of the distance in a certain time, in order to be placed most advantageously for the finish .
The mile race requires speed as well as stamina . Most champion milers are capable of doing the half under 2 min . The record for the mile, made in 1886 at Lillie
See also:Bridge by W . G .
See also:George, as a professional, is 4 min., 121 secs.; the amateur record is 4 min.153 secs., made by T . P . Conneff in America, J . Binks, holding the British amateur record with 4 min . 163 secs., made at Stamford Bridge in 1902 . The longer-distance races require more stamina than speed, and a careful husbanding of strength . The following table gives the records (up to 1908) for the distance runs on the flat, longer than r m.: Distance . Name .
Time . Date .Place . 2
See also:miles A . Shrubb h. m. s . 1904
See also:Glasgow 9 9€ 3 „ A . Shrubb 14 17 I 1903 Stamford Bridge 4 A . Shrubb 19 231 1904 Glasgow 5 „ A . Shrubb 24 33f 1904 Stamford Bridge 10 „ A . Shrubb 50 401 1904 Glasgow 15 „ F .
See also:Appleby 120 4g 1902 Stamford Bridge 20 „ G . Crossland 151 54 1894 Stamford Bridge 30 „ J .
A . Squires 3 17 361 1885 Balham 4o „ J . E .
See also:Dixon 4 46 54 1884
See also:Birmingham 5o „ J . E . Dixon 6 r8 261 1885 Balham . In addition to the records for the above-mentioned distances, Shrubb held in 1908 the records for 6, 7, 8, 9 and r r m., and also for the greatest distance covered in 1 h., namely, II m . 1316 yds . He won the 4 M. and the 10 m . British championship 19o1–4 inclusive, and the I m. championship 1903 and 1904; also the French I m. and 3 M. championship 1902–4 inclusive . Shrubb was moreover a first-
See also:rate cross-country runner also; he won the British 10 m. cross-country championship 1901–4 inclusive, and the
See also:international 8 m. cross-country championship 1902–4 . In 1863 a full-blooded
See also:Indian, L .
Bennet, known as " Deerfoot,” ran 12 M. in I h . 2 M . 21 secs . Real cross-country running is a fast jog over
See also:hill and dale . It may take the form of a race from the gymnasium or club-
See also:house across the
See also:fields to a given spot and back again, passing certain
See also:objects or buildings; of a practice run behind the
See also:coach preparatory to a long-distance race on the track; or of a paper-
See also:chase, or hare-and-hounds, the "
See also:hares,” two or three in number, starting a few minutes before the " hounds,” and leaving a trail of scraps of paper dropped from bags, which must be followed by the " hounds.” In Great Britain the standard distance is I0 m., but in America it is somewhat less, the distance for the intercollegiate championship race being 64 m . Steeplechasing was originally only a cross-country run over a course plentifully provided with natural obstacles, such as brooks, ditches, fences and hedges; but at the present day the
See also:steeplechase takes place in the inner enclosure of an athletic
See also:field and the obstacles are artificial . They are placed about 70 or 8o yds. apart, and consist of hurdles, a
See also:wall about 3 ft. high and 2 or 3 ft. broad, and a
See also:water-jump, a ditch about 6 ft. broad filled with water and guarded by a wall or fence 'covered with thick
See also:furze or other thick shrubbery .
See also:Steeple-chase courses differ widely, but the usual distance both in Great Britain and America is 2 M . The time necessary to cover this distance varies according to the difficulties of the course, but a few seconds under r r min. is considered very fast time . Team-racing is a favourite form of distance running, each team consisting of 10 men and the distance usually 4 m., the standard of the modern Olympic Games . Different systems of scoring are in vogue, but the usual one allows the winner ten points, the second to arrive nine, and so on, the tenth arrival scoring one . The team aggregating the highest number of points wins .
Among modern distance events the
See also:Marathon Run of about 40 kilometres (24 M . 1500 yds.) is the most important . It was introduced in the first revived Olympic Games at Athens in 1896 (see ATHLETIC SPORTS) in memory of the famous Greek runner who was said to have brought the
See also:news of the
See also:battle of Marathon in Athens, dropping dead when his task was finished .
RUNNIMEDE, or RUNNYMEDE
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