RUWENZORI , more correctly Runsoro, said to be known also as Kokora, a
See also:mountain range in Central Africa, lying just
See also:north of the equator, and intersected near its eastern edge by 300 E . It has a length of about 65 m., with a maximum breadth of about 30 m., and its highest peaks rise above the limits of perpetual
See also:snow.' The range as a whole, the major
See also:axis of which runs a little east of north, falls steeply on the west to the Central
See also:African rift-valley traversed by the Semliki, the western
See also:head-stream of the Nile, while on the east the fall is somewhat more gradual towards the
See also:highlands of western
See also:Uganda . The upper parts are separated by fairly low passes into six groups of snowy summits, lying a little to the west of the central
See also:line, rising in each case more than 15,000 ft. above the
See also:sea and reaching, in the culminating point of the western
See also:group (
See also:Stanley), about 16,800 ft . The origin of the range seems connected with that .of the rift-valley on the west, both being due to vertical displacements of the
See also:earth's crust . Ruwenzori has been formed by an upheaval en masse of a portion of the archaean
See also:floor of the continent, bounded east and west by lines of fracture, but resulting in a general dip from west to east . A further upheaval seems to have produced an ellipsoidal anticline, causing the strata to dip outwards at a generally high
See also:angle . Traces of volcanic
See also:action are almost non-existent . Composed in its
See also:outer parts of gneisses and
See also:schists offering no
See also:great resistance to denudation, in its centre the range consists of much more refractory rocks (amphibolites, diorites, diabases, &c.), to which fact, coupled with the existence of vertical fractures, the persistence and separation of the higher summits is probably due . The snow-clad
See also:area does not now extend more than ten
See also:miles in any direction, though there is abundant evidence that the glaciers were formerly far more extensive . The upper region is almost entirely enveloped by
See also:day in thick
See also:cloud, which descends on the east to about 9000 ft., and
See also:lower still on the west . It sometimes lifts towards evening, giving a sight of the snowy peaks, but by 9 a.m. these have The later Viscounts
See also:Galway are descended from
See also:John Monckton (1695-1751), who was created
See also:viscount in 1727 . His first wife's
See also:mother, wife of the and duke of
See also:Rutland, was a daughter of
See also:Russell, and thus a connexion of the Ruvignys .
once more been hidden . As a result, the
See also:climate is very humid, the rainfall being probably at least too in. annually, and the slopes are furrowed by numberless streams, the most important fed by the glaciers of the upper region, and afterwards flowing in deeply cut valleys between the outer spurs . From the innermost recesses between Mounts Stanley, Speke and
See also:Baker, the
See also:main branches of the Mobuku descend to the east, while the four
See also:principal streams on the west unite to
See also:form the Butagu, the drainage on both sides ultimately finding its way to the Semliki, either directly or through Lake Dweru and the
See also:Edward Nyanza . As in other ranges of Central Africa the vegetation displays well-marked zones, varying with the altitude; but owing to the lower level to which the cloud descends on the west (probably an outcome of the general
See also:climatic regime of Central Africa, as the range lies between the east African
See also:plateau and the relatively low-lying
See also:basin of the
See also:Congo), the limits of the several zones reach a lower level on the west than on the east . They have been defined as follows by Mr R . B . Woosnam of the
See also:British Museum scientific expedition of 1906—7: Zones . Upper Limits (East Side) . Grass . 6,5oo ft .
See also:Forest . 8,500 „ Bamboos .
See also:Tree heaths . . 12,500 „ Lobelias and Senecios . 14,500 „ above which is the
See also:summit region of snow and
See also:rock . The boundaries between the zones are not of course hard and fast lines, but merely indicate the levels between which the respective forms are specially characteristic, though they occur also in higher or lower zones . The forest zone is perhaps the best marked, being visible from a distance as a dark
See also:ring . On the west it merges in
See also:part with the low-lying forest of the Semliki valley . Owing to the abundance of moisture, mosses, hepaticae and
See also:lichens are prevalent in several of the zones, and bogs, with Vaccinium and other low-growing
See also:plants, are
See also:common above the forest zone . Helichrysums are abundant in the zone immediately below the snow, where they form large bushes . The larger mammals are found chiefly on the lower slopes, but
See also:bushbuck, pigs, leopards, monkeys, a hyrax and a
See also:serval cat occur at higher altitudes . The birds include kites, buzzards, ravens,
See also:sun-birds, touracos, a large swift, and various warblers and other small kinds . The upper limit of human settlement, with cultivation of colocasia and beans, has been placed at 67oo ft . Attempts have been made to identify the range with the " Mountains of the
See also:Moon " of
See also:Ptolemy and other
See also:ancient writers, the snows of which were thought to feed the Nile lakes .
But in view of the extreme vagueness of the statements and the
See also:absence of all detailed knowledge of the geography, it is far more likely that the rumours of snowy mountains really referred to Mounts
See also:Kenya and
See also:Kilimanjaro, especially as they seem to have been obtained rather from the east
See also:coast than from the direction of the Nile . In
See also:modern times the existence of a snowy range in this part of Africa was first made known by
See also:Henry Stanley during the Emin
See also:relief expedition of 1887–89, though hints of high mountains had been obtained by Stanley himself and by Romolo Gessi in 1876 and by others from the neighbourhood of the Albert Nyanza . Stanley named the main mass Ruwenzori, and outlying eastern peaks he called Mt .
See also:Bennett, Mt . Lawson, Mt . Edwin
See also:Arnold, &c.—the last named lying N.E. of Lake Dweru . Subsequently Stanley's own name was given to the chief summit . One of Stanley's
See also:officers, Lieut . Stairs, ascended the western slopes to over Io,000 ft. in 1889, and partial ascents were after-wards made by Dr Stuhlmann, Mr
See also:Scott Elliot, Mr J . E .
See also:Moore, Sir Harry
See also:Johnston, Mr
See also:Douglas Freshfield, and others . Early in 1906 some of the secondary ridges above the snow-line were scaled by Messrs Grauer, Tegart and Maddox, and by Dr Wollaston and other members of the British Museum expedition, while later in the
See also:year the duke of the Abruzzi led a well-equipped expedition, including various scientists, tothe upper parts of the range, and with the help of trained Alpine guides ascended not only the culminating twin summits (which he named Margharita and.Alexandra after the queens of Italy and England), but all the principal snow-clad peaks .
The expedition produced for the first
See also:time a detailed map of the upper region, and threw much
See also:light on the geology and natural
See also:history of the range . ; F . Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pasha ins Herz von Afrika (Berlin; 1894 i G . F . Scott-Elliot, A Naturalist in
See also:Mid-Africa (
See also:London, 1896) ; J . E . S . Moore, "Tanganyika," &c., Geog . Jnl . (
See also:January 1901); To the Mountains of the Moon (London, 1901) ; Sir H . H . Johnston, The Uganda
See also:Protectorate (London, 1902); The Duke of the Abruzzi, in Geog .
Jnl . (
See also:February 19o7); R . B . Woosnam, ibid . (
See also:December 19o7) ; F. de Filippi, Ruwenzori (London, 1908), the general account of the Abruzzi expedition, and Il Ruwenzori, Parte Scientiftca (2 vols., Milan, 1909) ; A . R . F . Wollaston, From Ruwenzori to the Congo (London, 19o8) ; R . G . T . Bright, " The Uganda-Congo Bounda , Geog . Jnl .
1909) . (E . HE.) .
RUYSBROEK (or RUYSBROECK), JAN VAN (1293-1381)
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