RYE . This cereal, known botanically as Secale cereale, is supposed to be the cultivated
See also:form of S. montanum, a
See also:wild perennial
See also:species occurring in the more elevated districts of parts of the Mediterranean region, and W. to Central
See also:Asia . Its cultivation does not appear to have been practised at a very early date, relatively speaking . Alphonse de Can- dolle, who has col- lected the evidence on this point, draws
See also:attention to the fact that no traces of this cereal have hitherto been found in
See also:Egyptian monu- ments, or in the earlier Swiss dwell- ings, though seeds have been found in association with weapons of the
See also:period at
See also:Olmutz . The ab- sence of any
See also:special name for it in the Semitic,
See also:Chinese and
See also:languages is also adduced as an indication of its comparatively re- cent culture . On the other
See also:hand, the general occurrence of the name in the more
See also:modern lan- Rye (Secale cereale), about s nat.
See also:size. g u ages of N. t, single spikelet; 2, single flower with awned plume and palea; 3,
See also:pistil; 4,
See also:grain .
See also:Europe, under I, 2, 4, about two-thirds nat. size. various modifica- tions, points to the cultivation of the plant then, as now, in those regions . The origin of the Latin name secale, which exists in a modified form among the
See also:Basques and Bretons, is not explained . Rye is a tall-growing
See also:annual grass, with fibrous roots,
See also:flat, narrow, ribbon-like bluish-
See also:green leaves, and erect or decurved cylindrical slender spikes like those of
See also:barley . The spikelets contain two or three
See also:flowers, of which the uppermost is usually imperfect . The
See also:outer glumes are acute and glabrous, the flowering glumes
See also:lance-shaped, with a
See also:keel at the back, and the outer or
See also:lower one prolonged at the
See also:apex into a very long bristly awn . Within these are three stamens surrounding a compressed ovary, with two feathery stigmas .
When ripe, the grain is of an elongated
See also:oval form, with a few hairs at the
See also:summit . When the ovaries of the plant become affected with a
See also:peculiar fungus (Claviceps purpurea) they become blackened and distorted, constituting
See also:ergot (q.v.) . In the S. of
See also:Great Britain rye is chiefly or solely cultivated as a
See also:forage-plant for
See also:cattle and horses, being usually sown in autumn for
See also:spring use, after the
See also:crop of roots, turnips, &c.; is exhausted, and before the
See also:clover and lucerne are ready . For forage purposes it is best to cut early, before the leaves and haulms have been exhausted of their supplies to benefit thegrain . In the N. of Europe, and more especially in Scandinavia, Russia and parts of N . Germany, rye is the
See also:principal cereal; and in nutritive value, as measured by the amount of
See also:gluten it contains, it stands next to wheat, a fact which furnishes the ex-planation of its culture in N. latitudes
See also:ill-suited for the growth of wheat . Rye
See also:bread or black bread is in general use in N . Europe . The
See also:straw, which is prized on account of its length, is used for making hats and in the manufacture of paper . The
See also:bran is used for cattle-
See also:food and poultices, and the grain in the distillery .
ALBERT PINKHAM RYDER (1847– )
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