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SADHU

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V23, Page 993 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SADHU, a Hindu ascetic, corresponding to the Mahommedan fakir (q.v.). The Sadhus, who are known also as Sanyasis, Gosains and Bairagis, are of various sects, hold peculiar opinions, indulge in strange practices, and subject themselves in many cases to cruel hardships and fantastic disciplines. They range in moral standing front the peripatetic philosopher to the idle vagabond. Some lead the life of contemplation, which 'Hindus consider especially holy; others pose as alchemists, physicians, fortune-tellers, palmists or acrobats; while others yet again practise voluntary tortures, such as holding one arm upright until it withers, or lying continually upon a bed of spikes. Some go about almost naked, or snieared,all over with ashes; but the usual garment of an ascetic is stained an orange red with ochre. Hence was derived the colour of the Mahratta flag. Alone among Hindus their dead are buried instead of being burned, usually in a sitting posture, and often in salt. During the disturbed period of Indian history, before British rule was firmly established, armed bodies of Sanyasis or Gosains attached themselves to the Mahratta armies, and also ravaged Northern Bengal in the time. of Warren Hastings. SA' DI (c. 1184-1292). MU$LIIi-UDDIN, or more correctly MUSHARRIF-UDDIN B. MU$LIH-UDDIN, the greatest didactic poet and the most popular writer of Persia, was born' aboutr184 (A.R. 58'o) in Shiraz. After the premature death of his father he was taken under the protection of Sa'd b. Zengi, the atabeg of Fars, who sent him to pursue his studies in the famous medresseh of Baghdad, the Nizamiyya, where he remained about thirty years (1196-1224). About 1210 (A.H. 6o6) his literary fame had spread as far as Kashgar in Turkistan, which the young poet (who in honour of his patron had assumed the name of Sa'di) visited in his twenty-sixth or twenty-seventh year. After mastering all the dogmatic disciplines of the Islamitic faith he turned his attention first to practical philosophy, and later on to the more ideal tenets of Sufic pantheism, under the spiritual guidance of the famous sheikh Shihab-uddin Umar Suhrawardi (died 1234; A.H. 632). Between 1220 and 1225 he paid a visit to a friend in Isfahan, went from there to Damascus, and returned to Isfahan just at the time of the inroads of the Mongols, when the atabeg Sa'd had been deposed by the victorious Khwarizm ruler of Ghiyass-uddin (1226). Sadly grieved by the misfortune of his patron and disgusted with the miserable condition of Persia, Sa'di quitted Shiraz and entered upon the second period of his life—that of his wanderings (1226-1256). He proceeded via Balkh, Ghazni and the Punjab to Gujarat, on the western coast of which he visited the famous shrine of Siva in Somnath. After a prolonged stay in Delhi, where he learnt Hindustani, he sailed for Yemen. Overcome with grief at the loss of a beloved child (when he had married is not known), he undertook an expedition into Abyssinia and a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina. Thence he directed his steps towards Syria and lived as a renowned sheikh for a consider-able time in Damascus, which he had once already visited. There and in Baalbek he added to his literary renown that of a first-rate pulpit orator. Specimens of his spiritual addresses are preserved in the five homilies (on the fugitiveness of human life, on faith and fear of God, on love towards God, on rest in God and on the search for God). At last, weary of Damascus, he withdrew into the desert near Jerusalem and led a solitary wandering life, till one day he was taken captive by a troop of Frankish soldiers, brought to Tripoli, and condemned to forced labour in the trenches of the fortress. After enduring countless hardships, he was eventually rescued by a rich friend in Aleppo, who paid his ransom, and gave him his daughter in marriage. But Sa'di, unable to live with his quarrelsome wife, set out on fresh travels, first to North Africa and then through the length and breadth of Asia Minor and the adjoining countries. Not until he had passed his seventieth year did' he return to Shiraz (about 1256; A.H. 653). Finding the place of his birth tranquil and prosperous under the wise rule of Abubakr b. Sa'd, the son of his old patron (1226-1260; A.H. 623-658), the aged poet took up his permanent abode, interrupted only by repeated pilgrimages to Mecca, and devoted the remainder of his life to Sufic contemplation and poetical composition. He died at Shiraz in 1292 (A.H. 691) according to IJamdallah Mustaufi (who wrote only forty years later), or in December 1291 (A.H. 690), at the age of rro lunar years. The experience of the world gained during his travels, his intimate acquaintance with the various countries he had visited; his insight into human character, together with an inborn loftiness of thought and the purest moral standard, made it easy for Sa'di to compose in the short space of three years his two master-pieces, which have immortalized his name, the Bustan or " Fruit-garden " (1257) and the Gulistan or " Rose-garden" (1258), both dedicated to the reigning atabeg Abu Bekr. The former, also called Sa'dinama, is a kind of didactic epopee in ten chapters and double-rhymed verses, which passes in review the highest philosophical and religious questions, not seldom in the very spirit of Christianity, and abounds with sound ethical maxims and matchless gems of transcendental speculation. The latter is a prose work of a similar tendency in eight chapters, interspersedwith numerous verses and illustrated, like the Bust¢n, by a rich store of clever tales and charming anecdotes; it discusses more or less the same topics as the larger work, but has acquired a much greater popularity in both the East and the West, owing to its easier and more varied style, its 'attractive lessons of practical wisdom, and its numerous bons mots. But Sa'di's Diwan, or collection of lyrical poetry, far surpasses the Bustin and Gulistan, at any rate in quantity, whether in quality also is a matter of taste. Other minor works are the Arabic gaszdas, the hrst of which laments the destruction of the Arabian cahphate by the Mongols in 1258 (A.11. 656); the Persian gacidas, partly panegyrical, partly didactical; the marathi, or elegies, beginning with one on the death of Abu Bekr and ending with one on the defeat and demise of the last caliph, Mosta'sim; the mulamma'dt, or poems with alternate Persian and Arabic verses, of a rather artificial character; the tarjti at, or refrain-poems; the ghazals, or odes; the Shibiyyah and mutatta'at, or moral aphorisms and epigrams; the ruba'iyydt, or quatrains; and the mu/midi, or distichs. Sa'di's lyrical poems possess neither the easy grace and melodious charm of IJafiz's songs nor the overpowering grandeur of Jelalud-din Rumi's divine hymns, but they are nevertheless full of deep pathos and show such a fearless love of truth as is seldom met with in Eastern poetry. Even his panegyrics, although addressed in turn to almost all the rulers who in those days of continually changing dynasties presided over the fate of Persia, are free from that cringing servility so common in the effusions of Oriental encomiasts. The first who collected and arranged his works was 'Ali b. Ahmad b. Bisutun (1326–1334; A.H 726–734). The most exact information about Sa'di's life and works is found in the introduction to Dr W. Bacher's Sa'di's Aphorismen and Sinngedichte (Sahibiyyah) (Strassburg, 1879; a complete metrical translation of the epigrammatic poems), and in the same author's " Sa'di Studien," in Zeitschrift der morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, xxx. pp. 81-1o6; see also H. Ethe in W 'Geiger s Grundriss der iranischen Philologie, ii. pp. 292-296, with Lull bibliography; and E, G. Browne, Literary History of Persia, p 525.539. Sa'di's Kulhyyat or complete works have been edited Ey Harrington (Calcutta, 1791-1795) (with an English translation of some of the prose treatises and of Daulat Shah's notice on the poet, o1 which a German version is found in Graf's Rosengarten (Leipzig, 1846 p. 229 sq.) ; for the numerous lithographed editions, see Rieu's Pers. Cat. of the Brit. Mus. ii. p. 596. The Bustan has been printed in Calcutta (1810 and 1828), as well as in Lahore, Cawnpore, Tabriz, &c., a critical edition with Persian commentary was published by K. H. Graf at Vienna in 185o (German metrical translations by the same, Jena 185o, and by Schlechta-Wssehrd,Vienna, 1852) ; English prose translations by H. W. Clarke (Lo,idon, 1879) ; and Ziauddin Gulam Moheiddin (Bombay, 1889); verse by G. S. Davie (1882); French translation by Barbier de Meynard (Paris, 188o). The best editions of the Gulislan are by A. Sprenger (Calcutta, 1851) and by Platts (London, 1874); the best translations into English by Eastwick (1852) and by Platts (1873), the first four bobs in prose and verse by Sir Edwin Arnold (1899); into French by Deft-emery (1858); into German by Graf (1846); see also S. Robinson's Persian Poetry for English Readers (1883), pp. 245-366. The Pa.ndnamah, or book of wisdom (ot doubtful genuineness) has been translated by A. N. Wollaston (1908), with Persian text. Select qasidas, ghazals, elegies, quatrains and distichs have been edited, with a German .netrical translation, by Graf, in the Z.D.M.G. ix. p. 92 sq., xii. p. 82 sq., xiii. p. 445 sq., xv. p. 541 sq. and xvini. p. 570 sq. On the Sufic character of Sa'di in contrast to Mani and Rumi, comp. Effie, " Der Sufismus and seine drei ;'1auptvertreter," in Morgenldndis..he Studien (Leipzig, 1870), pp. 95-124. (H. E.)
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