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SAINTONGE

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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 42 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SAINTONGE, one of the old provinces of France, of which Saintes (q.v.) was the capital, was bounded on the N.W. by Aunis, on the N.E. by Poitou, on the E. by Angoumois, on the S. by Guienne, and on the W. by Guienne and the Atlantic. It now forms a small portion of the department of Charente and the greater part of that of Charente Inferieure. In the time of Caesar, Saintonge was occupied by the Santones, whose capital was Mediolanum; afterwards it was part of Aquitania Secunda. The civitas Santonum, which formed the bishopric of Saintes, was divided into two pagi: Sanlonicus (whence Sanctonia, Saintonge) and Alinensis, later Alniensis (Aunis). Halved by the treaty of 1259, it was wholly ceded to the king of England in 136o, but reconquered by Du Guesclin in 1371. Up to 1789 it was in the same gouvernement with Angoumois, but from a judiciary point of view Saintonge was under the parlement of Bordeaux and Angoumois under that of Paris. See D. Massiou, Histoire politique, civile et religieuse de la Saintonge et de 1'Aunis (6 vols., 1836-1839; 2nd ed., 1846); P. D. Rainguet, Biographie saintongeaise (1852). See also the publications of the Societe des archives historiques de la Saintonge et de l'Aunis (1874 fol.). ST OUEN, an industrial town of northern France, in the department of Seine, on the right bank' of the Seiner m. N. of the fortifications of Paris. Pop. (1906) 37,673. A chateau of the early 19th century occupies the site of a chateau of the 17th century bought by Madame de Pompadour in 1745, where in 1814 Louis XVIII. signed the declaration promising a constitutional charter to France. Previously there existed a chateau built by Charles of Valois in the early years of the 14th century, where King John the Good inaugurated the short-lived order of the Knights of " Notre Dame de la noble maison," called also the " ordre de 1'etoile." The industries of St Ouen include metal founding, engineering and machine construction and the manufacture of government uniforms, pianos, chemical products, &c. It has important docks on the Seine and a race-course. ST PANCRAS, a northern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded E. by Islington, S.E. by Finsbury, S. by Holborn, and W. by St Marylebone and Hampstead, and extend-ing N. to the boundary of the county of London. Pop. (1901) 235,317. In the south it includes a residential district, containing boarding-houses and private hotels. In the centre are Camden Town and Kentish Town, and in the north, where part of Highgate is included, are numerous villas, in the vicinity of Parliament Hill, adjoining Hampstead Heath. A thorough-fare called successively Tottenham Court Road, Hampstead Road, High Street Camden Town, Kentish Town Road, and Highgate Road, runs from south to north; Euston Road crosses it in the south, and Camden Road and Chalk Farm Road branch from it at Camden Town. Besides the greater part of Parliament Hill (267 acres), purchased for the public use in 1886, the borough includes a small part of Regent's Park (mainly in the borough of St Marylebone) and Waterlow Park (29 acres) on the slope of Highgate Hill. It also contains the termini, King's Cross, St Pancras, and Euston, of the Great Northern, Midland, and London and North Western railways, with extensive goods depots of these companies. The parish church of St Pancras in the Fields, near Pancras Road, has lost its ancient character owing to reconstruction, though retaining several early monuments. The new church in Euston Road (1822) is a remarkable adaptation of classical models. Among institutions, University College, Gower Street, was founded in 1826, and provides education in all branches common to universities excepting theology. With the department of medicine is connected the University College Hospital (1833) opposite the College. There are several other hospitals; among them the Royal Free Hospital (Gray's Inn Road), the North-west London hospital, Kentish Town, and, in Euston Road, the British (Forbes Winslow memorial) hospital for mental disorders, British hospital for skin diseases, and New hospital for women, administered by female physicians. St Katherine's Hospital, a picturesque building overlooking Regent's Park, with a chapel containing some relics of antiquity, was settled' here (1825) on the formation of the St Katherine's Docks near the Tower of London, where it was founded by Queen Matilda in 1148. Its patronage has always been associated with queens, and here was established the Queen Victoria Home for Nurses of the poor, founded out of the women's gift of money to the Queen at her jubilee (1887). Other institutions are the London School of Medicine for women, the Royal Veterinary College and the Aldenham technical institute. The Passmore Edwards Settlement, taking name from its principal benefactor, was founded largely through the instrumentality of Mrs Humphry Ward. Near Regent's Park is Cumberland Market. The parliamentary borough of St Pancras has north, south, east and west divisions, each returning one member. The borough council consists of a mayor, ro aldermen and 6o councillors. Area, 2694.4 acres. St Pancras is mentioned in Domesday as belonging to the chapter of St Paul's Cathedral, in which body the lordship of the manors of Cantelows (Kentish Town) and Totenhall (Tottenham Court) was also invested. Camden Town takes name from Baron Camden (d. 1794), lord chancellor under George III. King's Cross was so called from a statue of George IV., erected in 1830, greatly ridiculed and removed in 1845, but an earlier name, Battle Bridge, is tradition-ally derived from the stand of Queen Boadicea against the Romans, or from one of Alfred's contests with the Danes. Somers Town, between King's Cross and Camden Town, was formerly inhabited by refugees from the French Revolution, many of whom were buried in St Pancras churchyard. In the locality of Somers Town there were formerly to be traced earthworks of unknown age, which William Stukeley argued had belonged to a Roman camp of Julius Caesar. Attached to the former manor-house of Totenhall was one of the famous pleasure resorts of the 17th and 18th centuries, and from c. 1760 to the middle of the 19th century the gardens at Bagnigge Wells (King's Cross Road) were greatly favoured; there were here, moreover, medicinal springs. ST PAUL, a volcanic island in the southern Indian Ocean, in 38° 42' 50" S., 770 32' 29" E., 6o m. S. of Amsterdam Island, belonging to France. The two islands belong to two separate eruptive areas characterized by quite different products; and the comparative bareness of St Paul contrasts with the dense vegetation of Amsterdam. On the north-east of St Paul, which has an area of 21 sq. m., is a land-locked bay, representing the old crater, with its rim broken down on one side by the sea. The highest ridge of the island is not more than 82o ft. above the sea. On the south-west side the coasts are inaccessible. According to Velain, the island originally rose above the ocean as a mass of rhyolitic trachyte similar to that which still forms the Nine Pin rock to the north of the entrance to the crater. Next followed a period of activity in which basic rocks were produced by submarine eruptions—lavas and scoriae of anorthitic character, palagonitic tuffs, and basaltic ashes; and finally from the crater, which must have been a vast lake of fire like those in the Sandwich Islands, poured forth quiet streams of basaltic lavas which are seen dipping from the centre of the island towards the cliffs at angles of 20° to 30°. The only remaining indications of volcanic activity are the warm springs and emanations of carbon dioxide. See C. Velain, Passage de Venus sur le soleil (g decembre 1874). Expedition francaise aux Iles St Paul et Amsterdam (Paris, 1877) ; Description geologique de la presqu'ile d'Aden ... Reunion . . . St Paul et Amsterdam (Paris, 1878) ; and an article in Annales de geographie, 1893. ST PAUL, the capital of Minnesota, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Ramsey county, situated on the Mississippi river, about 2150 M. above its mouth, at the practical head of navigation, just below the Falls of St Anthony. It is about 36o m. N. W. of Chicago, Illinois, and its W. limits directly touch the limits of Minneapolis. Pop. (1880) 41,473; (1890) 133,156; (1900) 163,632, of whom 46,819 were foreign-born (12,935 Germans, 9852 Swedes, 4892 Irish, 3557 English-Canadians, 2900 Norwegians, 2005 English, 1488 Austrians, 1343 Bohemians, 1206 Danes, and 1015 French-Canadians), 100,599 of foreign parentage (i.e. both parents foreign born), and 2263 negroes; (1910 census) 214,744. Land area (1906) 52.28 sq. m. St Paul is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago Great Western, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Northern Pacific, the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie, the Chicago & North-western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Great Northern, and the Minneapolis & St Louis railways. Five bridges span the Mississippi, the largest of which, known as High Bridge, is 2770 ft. long and 200 ft. high. Four interurban lines connect with Minneapolis. St Paul is attractively situated 670-88o ft. above sea-level, on a series of lofty limestone terraces or bluffs, formerly heavily wooded. It lies on both sides of the river, but the principal part is on the east bank. In its park system the numerous lakes within and near the city have been utilized. Of the parks, Como Park (425 acres; including Lake Como and a fine Japanese garden and a lily pond), and Phalen Park (600 acres, more than 400 of which are water area), are the largest. There are also 47 smaller squares and " neighbourhood parks " aggregating 56o acres. In Indian Park (135 acres), at the crest of the bluffs (Dayton's Bluffs), in the east central part of the city, are burial-mounds of the Sioux. Summit Avenue Boulevard, 200 ft. wide and extending for 22 M. along the heights, is a fine residential street. Boulevards along the bluffs on either side of the river connect with the Minneapolis park system. Harriet Island, in the Mississippi river opposite the business centre of the city, is attractively parked, and on it are public paths. Adjoining the city .on the south-west, at the junction of the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers, is the Fort Snelling U.S. Government Military Reservation, with a round stone fort, built in 1820. The principal public building is the State Capitol, completed in 1905. It was designed by Cass Gilbert (b. 1859), is of Minnesota granite and white Georgia marble with a massive central white dome, and has sculptural decorations by D. C. French and interior decorations by John La Farge, E. H. Blashfield, Elmer E. Garnsey (b. 1862), and Edward Simmons (b. 1852). Other prominent buildings are the City Hall and Court House, a Gothic greystone structure; the Federal building, of greystone, opposite Rice Park; a Young Men's Christian Association building; the Metropolitan Opera House; the Auditorium, which was built by public subscription; the St Paul armoury (1905), with a drill hall; the Chamber of Commerce; and the Union railway station. Among the principal churches are the Roman Catholic Cathedral, and the People's, the Central Presbyterian, the Park Congre-gational, and the First Baptist churches. The wholesale district is in the lower part of the city near the Union railway station; the retail shops are mostly in an area bounded by Wabasha, Seventh, Fourth and Roberts streets. St Paul has an excellent public school system, which include) in 1909 three high schools, a teachers' training school, a manua training high school, forty-eight grade schools, and a parenta school. Among other educational institutions are the Freemai School; St Paul Academy; Barnard School for Boys; St Paul College of Law (rgoo); the College of St Thomas (Romar. Catholic, 1885); St Paul Seminary (Roman Catholic, 1894), founded by James J. Hill as the provincial seminary of the ecclesiastical province of St Paul with an endowment of $500,000, 40 acres of land, and a library of xo,000 volumes; Luther Theological Seminary (1885); Hamline University (co-educational; Methodist Episcopal), chartered in 1854, with a medical school in Minneapolis (chartered 1883; part of Hamline since 1895), and having in the college and preparatory school, in 1908-1909, 17 instructors and 384 students; Macalester College (Presbyterian; co-educational), founded as Baldwin Institute in 1853, reorganized and renamed in 1874 in honour of a benefactor, Charles Macalester (1798-1873) of Philadelphia; and the School of Agriculture (1888) and the Agricultural Experiment Station (1887) of the University of Minnesota, in St Anthony Park, west of Como Park and south of the fair grounds. Among the libraries are the City Public Library, the State Law Library and the Minnesota Historical Society Library. The Minnesota Historical Society, organized in 1849, has an archaeological collection in the east wing of the Capitol. In the private residence of James J. Hill is a notable art gallery, containing one of the largest and best collections of the Barbizon School in existence. The principal newspapers are the Dispatch (Independent, 1878) and the Pioneer-Press, the latter established by James M. Goodhue (1800-1852) in 1849. Among the hospitals and charitable institutions are the City and County, St Joseph's and St Luke's hospitals, all having nurses' training schools; the Swedish Hospital, the Scandinavian Orphan Asylum, the Home. for the Friendless, the Magdalen Home and the Women's Christian Home. Within the city limits (east of Indian Mounds Park) is the Willowbrook (state) Fish Hatchery, second to none in the United States in completeness of equipment; and adjoining the city on the north-west are the extensive grounds (200 acres) and buildings of the State Agricultural Society, where fairs are held annually. Although as a manufacturing city St Paul, not possessing the wonderful water-power of its sister city, does not equal Minneapolis, yet as a commercial and wholesale distributing centre it is in some respects superior, and it is the principal jobbing market of the North-west. Situated at the natural head of navigation on the Mississippi, it has several competing lines of river steamboats in addition to the shipping facilities provided by its railways and the lines of the Minnesota Transfer Co., a belt line with 62 m. of track encircling St Paul and Minneapolis. St Paul is the port of entry for the Minnesota Customs District, and imports from Canada and from the Orient via the Pacific railways constitute an important factor in its commercial life, its imports and exports were valued at $6,I54,289 and $9,909,940 respectively in 1909. Coal and wood, grain, farm produce and dairy products are important exports. St Paul is the principal market in the United States for the furs of the North-west, and there are extensive stock-yards and slaughtering and packing houses in the neighbouring city of South St Paul (pop. in 1910, 4510), St Paul ranks second to Minneapolis among the cities of the state as a manufacturing centre. The total value of its factory products in 1905 was $38,318,704, an increase of 27.5% since 1900. The following were among the largest items: fur goods; printing and publishing—book (especially law-book) and job, newspapers and periodicals; malt liquors; steam-railway car building and repairing; boots and shoes; foundry and machine-shop products; lumber and planing-mill products; men's clothing; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes; and saddlery and harness. St Paul is governed under a charter of 'goo, which may be amended by popular vote on proposals made by a permanent charter commission. The mayor, comptroller and ; ity treasurer are elected for two years. The mayor has the veto power and appoints the members of boards of police, parks, library, fire, water-supply and education. The legislature is bicameral, consisting of an assembly of nine members elected on a general city ticket and a board of aldermen chosen one from each of the twelve wards. The water-supply is pumped through 275 M. of water mains from a group of lakes north of the city, and the system has a capacity of 40,000,000 gallons per day. History.—The earliest recorded visit of a European to the site of St Paul was that of the Jesuit Louis Hennepin in 1680. The traders Pierre Le Sueur and Nicholas Perrot visited the region between 1690 and 1700, and apparently established a destroyed the building, and rendered what was left unsafe and temporary trading post somewhere in the neighbourhood. The first man of English descent to record his visit was Jonathan Carver, who, according to his journal, spent some time in the vicinity in 1767-1768. In 1805 Lieut. Zebulon M. Pike concluded a treaty with the Sioux. The first steamboat made its way up the river in 1823. The site of St Paul was opened to settlement by the treaty of Prairie du Chien, negotiated by Governor Henry Dodge of Wisconsin with the Chippewas in 1837. Two years later (1839) the first permanent settlement was made by Swiss and Canadian refugees from Lord Selkirk's Red River colony. In 184, Father Lucien Gaultier erected a log mission chapel, which he named St Paul's; from this the settlement was named St Paul's Landing and finally St Paul. On the erection of Minnesota Territory in 1849, St Paul was incorporated as a village and became the Territorial capital. Its population in 185o was only 1112. It was chartered as a city in 18J4, and continued as the capital of the new state after its admission (1858). The first railway connecting St Paul and Minneapolis was completed in 1862, at which time St Paul's population exceeded 10,000 and in 1869 through railway connexion with Chicago was effected. The city of West St Paul was annexed in 1894. The growth of the city had been comparatively slow until 1870, in which year the population was 20,030; but the rapid railway construction and the settlement and clearing of the Western farm lands increased its commercial and industrial importance as it did that of its sister city, Minneapolis. In 1884 the cityllimits were.extended to the Minneapolis line. See F. C. Bliss, St Paul, its Past and Present (St Paul, 1888) ; C. C. Andrews, History of St Paul, Minnesota (Syracuse, N.Y., 1890) ; Warner and Foote, History of Ramsey County and the City of St Paul (Minneapolis, 1881) ; C. D. Elfelt, " Early Trade and Traders in St Paul," and A. L. Larpenteur, " Recollections of the City and People of St Paul," both in the Minnesota Historical Society's Collections, vol. ix. (1901). ST PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, the cathedral church of the diocese of London, England, standing in the heart of the City, at the head of Ludgate Hill. (For plan, &c., see ARCHITECTURE: Renaissance in England.) The name of a bishop of London, Restitutus, is recorded in 314, but his individuality and even his existence are somewhat doubtful, and nothing is known of the existence of a church until Bede's notice that early in the 7th century one was built here by IEthelberht of Kent at the instance of the missionary Mellitus, who became bishop. Tradition placed upon the site a Roman temple of Diana. The church was dedicated to St Paul, and, after passing through many vicissitudes, was removed in 1083, when Bishop Maurice, with the countenance of William the Conqueror, undertook the erection of a new cathedral. The building was not pressed forward with vigour, and in 1135 much of it was damaged by fire. The tower was completed in 1221; an Early English choir followed shortly after, and was enlarged after 1255 when Bishop Fulk brought great energy to bear upon the repair and elaboration of the building. At the close of the century the cathedral was regarded as finished; but a new spire was built early in the 14th century. Much of the Norman work, particularly in the nave, had been left untouched by the Early English builders (who in other parts merely encased it), and the cathedral was a magnificent monument of these styles, and of the early Decorated. Perpendicular additions were not extensive, and the cathedral remained with little alteration until 1561, when lightning struck the spire and fired the church. The spire was never rebuilt. In the time of James I. the fabric had so far decayed that the king was prevailed upon to make a personal examination of it, and Inigo Jones was entrusted with the work of restoration. In accordance with the architectural tendencies of his time he added a classical portico to the west front, and made similar alterations to the transepts. Again, however, in 1666 the bad state of the fabric necessitated extensive repair, and Dr (afterwards Sir) Christopher Wren furnished a scheme including a central dome. All his plans were complete in August of that year, but in September the great fire of London almost beyond restoration. Estimates of the dimensions of the old cathedral differ, Stow making the extreme length 690 ft., but modern investigations give 596 ft. The internal height of the choir was 101 ft., and that of the nave, which was of twelve bays, 93 ft., and the extreme breadth of the building was 104 ft. The summit of the wonderful spire was 489 ft. above the ground. The present building is wider than the old, and its orientation is more northerly, but its northern, eastern and southern extremities approximately correspond with those of old St Paul's, the west front of which, however, with its flanking towers, lay nearly loo ft. west of Wren's front. It should be noticed that the eastern part of the old cathedral incorporated the original parish church of St Faith after 1255, when part of the new crypt was allotted to the parish in return. Moreover, the ancient church of St Gregory by St Paul actually adjoined the cathedral on the south-west. In the angle west of the south transept lay a cloister, in the midst of which was the octagonal chapter house, dating from 1332. To the north-east of the cathedral stood Paul's Cross, in an open space devoted to public meetings; it included a pulpit, and here religious disputations were held and papal bulls promulgated. In 1643 it was removed, but a new cross, erected under the will of H. C. Richards, K.C., M.P., was unveiled in 1910. The formal provision for the rebuilding of the cathedral was made in 1668, and the foundation stone was laid in 1675. The first service was held in it in 1697, and the last stone was set in place in 1710. The cost is curiously estimated, but was probably about £850,000, the greater part of which was defrayed by a duty on sea-borne coal. The material is Portland stone. Wren had to face many difficulties. He naturally insisted on the style of the Renaissance, and his first design was for a building in the form of a Greek cross, but the general desire was that at least the ground-plan of the old English cathedrals should be followed, and the form of a Latin cross was forced upon him. He offered various further designs, and one was accepted, but Wren set the broadest construction upon the permission granted him to alter its ornamental details, and luckily so. The extreme length of the building is 513 ft., the breadth across the transepts 248 ft., of the nave 122 ft., of the west front 179 ft. The length of the nave is 223 ft., and of the choir 168 ft., leaving 122 ft. beneath the dome at the crossing. The cross at the top of the lantern above the dome is 363 ft. above the ground. The cathedral is approached on the west from an open pavement, on which stands a statue of Queen Anne. There is also an inscription marking the spot on which Queen Victoria returned thanks on the occasion of her Diamond Jubilee (1897). A broad flight of steps leads up to the west front, of two orders, flanked by towers. In the north tower is a chime of bells; in the south the clock, with the old great bell (1716), tolled on the death of certain high personages, and the new great bell, placed in 1882, weighing about 17 tons. The nave is of four bays, with aisles, and chapels of one bay width immediately east of the western towers. The transepts are of two bays, and are entered by north and south porches approached by circular flights of steps. On the pediment of the south porch is sculptured a phoenix with the inscription Resurgam (I shall rise again), in allusion to a famous episode. Wren, planning his site and desiring to mark in the ground the point of the centre of his dome, bade a workman bring a piece of stone for the purpose. He picked up at hazard a fragment of an ancient tombstone bearing this single word, which Wren adopted as a motto. The choir of four bays terminates in an apse, but the rich and lofty modern reredos stands forward, and the apse is thus divided off from the body of the church and forms the Jesus chapel. The choir stalls are a fine example of the work of Grinling Gibbons. The dome is supported by the four vast piers in the angles of the cross, within which are small chambers, and by eight inner piers. The spandrels between the arches which stand upon these piers are ornamented with mosaics, from the designs of G. F. Watts and others, executed by Salviati. Wren had looked forward to a comprehensive scheme of decoration in mosaic. The later extension of this work was entrusted to Sir W. B. Richmond. Above the arches is a circular gallery known as the Whispering Gallery from the fact that a whisper can be easily heard from one side to the other. Above this there are pilasters, with square-headed windows, in three out of every four intervening spaces; and above again, the domed ceiling, ornamented in mono-chrome by Sir James Thornhill immediately after its completion; but the paintings have suffered from the action of the atmosphere and are hardly to be distinguished from below. The inner wall of the dome begins to slope inward from the level of the Whispering Gallery, but this is masked outside by a colonnade, extending up to a point a little above the top of the internal pilasters. From this point upward the dome is of triple construction, consisting of (1) the inner dome of brick, pierced at the top to render the lantern visible from below; (2) a brick cone, the principal member of the structure, bearing the lantern; (3) the dome visible from without, of lead on a wooden frame. The golden gallery at the base of the lantern (top of the outer dome) is about 65 ft. above the top of the inner dome. The monuments in St Paul's are numerous, though not to be compared with those in Westminster Abbey. The most notable is that in the nave to the duke of Wellington (d. 1852) by Alfred Stevens. In the crypt, which extends beneath the entire building, are many tombs and memorials—that of Nelson in the centre beneath the dome, those of many famous artists in the so-called Painters' Corner, and in the south choir aisle that of Wren himself, whose grave is marked only by a plain slab, with the well-known inscription ending Si monumentum requiris, circumspice (" If thou seekest a monument, look about thee "). Above the south-west chapel in the nave is the chapter library, with many interesting printed books, MSS. and drawings relating to the cathedral. For St Paul's School, established by John Colet, dean, and formerly adjacent to the cathedral, see the article on HAMMERSMITH, whither it was subsequently removed. completed by his son Christopher, now published by his Grandson, Stephen Wren (London, 1758); Sir William Dugdale, History of St Paul's (1818) ; Dean Milman, Annals of St Paul's (1868) ; William Longman, The Three Cathedrals dedicated to St Paul (1873); Documents illustrating the History of St Paul's (Camden Society, 188o) ; Rev. W. Sparrow-Simpson, Chapters in the History of Old St Paul's (1881) ; Gleanings from Old St Paul's (1889) ; and St Paul's and Old City Life (1894) ; Rev. A. Dimock, St Paul's (in Bell's " Cathedral " series, 1901); Rev. Canon Benham, Old St Paul's (1902). In this last work and elsewhere are shown the valuable drawings of Wenceslaus Hollar, showing the old cathedral immediately before the great fire. ST PAUL'S ROCKS, a number of islets in the Atlantic, nearly 1° N. of the equator and 540 M. from South America, in 29° 15' W. The whole space occupied does not exceed 1400 ft. in length by about half as much in breadth. Besides sea-fowl the only land creatures are insects and spiders. Fish are abundant, seven species (one, Holocentrum sancti Pauli, peculiar to the locality) being collected by the " Challenger " during a brief stay. Dar-win (On Volcanic Islands) decided that St Paul's Rocks were not of volcanic origin; later investigators maintain that they probably are eruptive. See Reports of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger: Narrative of the Cruise, vol. i. ST PETER, a city and the county-seat of Nicollet county, Minnesota, U.S.A., on the Minnesota river, about 75 M. S.W. of Minneapolis. Pop. (1905, state census) 4514 (875 foreign-born); (1910) 4176. It is served by the Chicago & North-Western railway and by steamboat lines on the Minnesota river, which is navigable for light draft steamboats to this point. The neighbouring lakes with their excellent fishing attract many summer visitors. The city has a Carnegie library, and is the seat of the Minnesota Hospital for the Insane (1866), and of Gustavus Adolphus College (Swedish Evangelical Lutheran; co-educational), which was founded in 1862 and has a college, an Academy and School of Pedagogy, a School of Commerce and a School of Music. St Peter is an important market for lumber and grain; it has stone quarries and various manufactures. Settled about 1852, St Peter was incorporated as a village in 1865, and was chartered as a city in 1891. In 1857 the legislature, a short time before its adjournment for the session, passed a bill to remove the capital of Minnesota to St Peter, but the bill was not presented to the governor for his signature within the prescribed time, and when the legislature re-convened a similar bill could not be passed. ST PETER PORT, the chief town of Guernsey, one of the Channel Islands. Pop. (1901) 18,264. It lies picturesquely on a steep slope above its harbour on the east coast of the island. The harbour is enclosed by breakwaters, the southern of which connects with the shore and continues beyond a rocky islet on which stands Castle Cornet. It dates from the 12th century and retains portions of that period. Along the sea-front of the town there extends a broad sea-wall, which continues north-ward nearly as far as the small port of St Sampson's, connected with St Peter Port by an electric tramway. To the south of the town Fort George, with its barracks, stands high above the sea. On the quay there is a bronze statue of Albert, Prince Consort (1862), copied from that on the south side of the Albert Hall, London. St Peter Port was formerly walled, and the sites of the five gates are marked by stones. St Peter's, or the town church, standing low by the side of the quay, was consecrated in 1312, but includes little of the building of that date. It has, however, fine details of the 14th and 15th centuries, and is, as a whole, the most neteworthy ecclesiastical building in the islands. The other principal buildings are the court house, used for the meetings of the royal court and the states, the Elizabeth College for boys, founded by Queen Elizabeth, but occupying a house of the year 1825, and the Victoria Tower, commemorating a visit of Queen Victoria in 1846. Hauteville House, the residence of Victor Hugo from 1856 to 187o, is preserved as he left it, and is open to the public. The harbour is the chief in the island, and a large export trade is carried on especially in vegetables, fruit and flowers. The construction of the harbour was ordered by King Edward I. in 1275. ST PETERSBURG, a government of north-western Russia, at the head of the Gulf of Finland, stretching for 130 M. along its south-east shore and the southern shore of Lake Ladoga, and bordering on Finland, with an area of 17,221 sq. m. It is hilly on the Finland border, but flat and marshy elsewhere, with the exception of a small plateau in the south (Duderhof Hills), 300 to 550 ft. high. It has a damp and cold climate, the average temperatures being: at St Petersburg, for the year 390 F., for January 15°, for July 64°; yearly rainfall, 18.7 in.; at Sermaks, at the mouth of the Svir on the E. side of Lake Ladoga (6o° 28' N.), for the year 37°, for January 13°, for July 62°; yearly rainfall, 20.8 in. Numerous parallel ridges of glacier origin intersect the government towards Lake Peipus and north of the Neva. Silurian and Devonian rocks appear in the south, the whole covered by a thick glacial deposit with boulders (bottom moraine) and by thick alluvial deposits in the valley of the Neva. The bays of Kronstadt, Koporya, Luga and Narva afford good anchorage, but the coast is for the most part fringed with reefs and sandbanks. The chief river is the Neva. The feeders of Lake Ladoga—the Volkhov, the Syas, and the Svir, the last two forming part of the system of canals connecting the Neva with the Volga—are important channels of commerce, as also is the Narova. Marshes and forests cover about 45 % of the area (70% at the end of the 18th century). The population, which was 635,780 in 1882, numbered 873,043 in 1897, without the capital and its suburbs; including the latter it was 2,103,965. Of this latter number 466:750 were women and 160,499 lived in towns. The estimated pop. in 1906 was 2,510,100. The average density was 121 per sq. m. The population is chiefly Russian, with a small admixture of Finns and Germans, and according to religion it is distributed as follows: Greek Orthodox, 78%; Nonconformists, 1-6%; Lutherans, 17%; and Roman Catholics, 2.4%. A remarkable feature is the very slow natural increase of the population. During the 25 years 1867 to 1891 the natural increase was only 867. The government is divided into eight districts, the administrative headquarters of which, with their populations in 1897, are: St Petersburg (q.v.), Gdov (2254 inhabitants), Luga (5687), Novaya Ladoga (4144), Peterhof (11,300), Schliisselburg (5285), Tsarskoye Selo (22,353) and Yamburg (4166). Most of the towns are summer resorts for the population of the capital. Till the latter part of the 19th century education stood at a very low level, but progress has since been made, and now three-quarters of all who enter the army from this government are able to read. The zemstvo (provincial council) has organized village libraries and lectures on a wide scale. Many improvements have been made, especially since 1897, in sanitary organization. Generally speaking, agriculture is at a low ebb. The principal crops are cereals (rye, oats and barley), potatoes and green crops, the total area under cultivation being only 13%. These crops, which are often ruined by heavy rains in the late summer, are insufficient for the population. Flax is cultivated to some extent. Nearly 21% of the area consists of meadows and pasture. Dairy-farming is developing. Timber, shipping, stone-quarrying and fishing are important industries; the chief factories are cotton, tobacco, machinery, sugar, rubber and paper mills, chemical works, distilleries, breweries and printing works. ST PETERSBURG, the capital of the Russian empire, situated at the head of the Gulf of Finland, at the mouth of the Neva, in 590 56' N., and 3o° 20' E., 400 M. from Moscow, 696 m. from Warsaw, 1400 M. from Odessa (via Moscow), and 1390 M. from Astrakhan (also via Moscow). The Neva, before entering the Gulf of Finland, forms a peninsula, on which the main part of St Petersburg stands, and itself subdivides into several branches. The islands so formed are only 10 or 11 ft. above the average level of the water. Their areas are rapidly increasing, while the banks which continue them seaward are gradually disappearing. The mainland is not much higher than the islands. As the river level rises several feet during westerly gales, extensive portions of the islands and of the mainland are flooded every winter. In 1777, when the Neva rose 10.7 ft., and in 1824, when it rose 13.8 ft., nearly the whole of the city was inundated, and the lower parts were again under water in 189o, 1897 and 1898, when the floods rose 8 ft. A ship canal, completed in 1875–1888 at a cost of £2,0J7,000, has made the capital a seaport. Be-ginning at Kronstadt, it terminates at Gutuyev Island in a harbour capable of accommodating fifty sea-going ships. It is 23 ft. deep and 171 M. long. The Neva is crossed by three permanent bridges—the Nicholas, the Troitsky or Trinity (1897–1903), and the Alexander or Liteinyi; all three fine specimens of architecture. One other bridge—the Palace—across the Great Neva connects the left bank of the mainland with Vasiiyevskiy or Basil Island; but, being built on boats, it is removed during the autumn and spring. Several wooden or floating bridges connect the islands, while a number of stone bridges span the smaller channels. In winter, when the Neva is covered with ice 2 to 3 ft. thick, temporary roadways for carriages and pedestrians are made across the ice and artificially lighted. In winter, too, thousands of peasants come in from the villages with their small Finnish horses and sledges to ply for hire. The Neva continues frozen for an average of 147 days in the year (25th November to 21st April). It is unnavigable, however, for some time longer on account of the ice from Lake Ladoga, which is sometimes driven by easterly winds into the river at the end of April and beginning of May. The climate of St Petersburg is changeable and unhealthy. Frosts are made much more trying by the wind which accompanies them; and westerly gales in winter bring oceanic moisture and warmth, and melt the snow before and after hard frosts. The summer is hot, but short, lasting barely more than five or six weeks; a hot day, how-ever, is often followed by cold weather: changes of temperature amounting to 350 Fahr. within twenty-four hours are not uncommon. In autumn a chilly dampness lasts for several weeks, and in spring cold and wet weather alternates with a few warm days. January. July. The Year. Mean temperature, Fahr. . 15°.0 64°.o 38°•6 Rainfall, inches 0.9 2.6 18.8 Prevailing winds . . . . S.W. W. W. Average daily range of tempera- 2°•2 100.2 70.7 ture, Fahr Topography.—The greater part of St Petersburg is situated on the mainland, on the left bank of the Neva, including the best streets, the largest shops, the bazaars and markets, the palaces,cathedrals and theatres, as well as all the railway stations, except that of the Finland railway. From the Liteinyi bridge to that of Nicholas a granite embankment, bordered by palaces and large private houses, lines the left bank of the Neva. About midway, behind a range of fine houses, stands the Admiralty, the very centre of the capital. Formerly a wharf, on which Peter the Great caused his first Baltic ship to be built in 1706, it is now the seat of the ministry of the navy and of the hydrographical department, the new Admiralty building standing farther down the Neva on the same bank. A broad square, partly laid out as a garden (Alexander Garden), surrounds the Admiralty on the west, south and east. To the west, opposite the senate, stands the fine memorial to Peter the Great, erected in 1782, and now backed by the cathedral of St Isaac. A bronze statue, a master-piece by the French sculptor Falconet, represents the founder of the city on horseback, at full gallop, ascending a rock and pointing to the Neva. South of the Admiralty is the ministry of war and to the east the imperial winter palace, the work of Rastrelli (1764), a fine building of mixed style; but its admirable proportions mask its huge dimensions. It communicates by a gallery with the Hermitage Fine Arts Gallery. A broad semi-circular square, adorned by the Alexander I. column (1834), separates the palace from the buildings of the general staff and the foreign ministry. The range of palaces and private houses facing the embankment above the Admiralty is interrupted by the macadamized " Field of Mars," formerly a marsh, but transformed at incredible expense into a parade-ground, and the Lyetniy Sad (summer-garden) of Peter the Great. The Neva embankment is continued to a little below the Nicholas bridge under the name of " English embankment," and farther down by the new Admiralty buildings. - The topography of St Petersburg is very simple. Three long streets, the main arteries of the capital, radiate from the Admiralty —the Prospekt Nevskiy(Neva Prospect), the Gorokhovaya, and the Prospekt Voznesenskiy (Ascension Prospect). Three girdles of canals, roughly speaking concentric, intersect these three streets—the Moika, the Catherine and the Fontanka; to these a number of streets run parallel. The Prospekt Nevskiy is a very broad street, running straight east-south-east for 3200 yds. from the Admiralty to the Moscow railway station, and thence 165o yds. farther, bending a little to the south, until it again reaches the Neva at Kalashnikov Harbour, near the vast complex of the Alexander Nevski monastery (1713), the seat of the metropolitan of St Petersburg. The part of the street first mentioned owes its picturesque aspect to its width, its atrractive shops, and still more its animation. But the buildings which border it are architecturally poor. Neither the cathedral of the Virgin of Kazan (an ugly imitation on a small scale of St Peter's in Rome), nor the still uglier Gostiniy Dvor (a two-storied quadrilateral building divided into second-rate shops), nor the Anichkov Palace (which resembles immense barracks), nor even the Roman Catholic and Dutch churches do anything to embellish it. About midway between the public library and the Anichkov Palace an elegant square hides the old-fashioned Alexandra theatre; nor does a profusely adorned memorial (1873) to Catherine II. beautify it much. The Gorokhovaya is narrow and badly paved, and is shut in between gloomy houses occupied mostly by artizans. The Voznesenskiy Prospekt, on. the contrary, though as narrow as the last, has better houses. On the north, it passes into a series of large squares connected with that in which the monument of Peter the Great stands. One of them is occupied by the cathedral of St Isaac (of Dalmatia), and another by the memorial (1859) to Nicholas I., the gorgeousness and bad taste of which contrast strangely with the simplicity and significance of that of Peter the Great. The general aspect of the cathedral is imposing both without and within; but on the whole this architectural monument, built between 1819 and 1858 according to a plan of Montferrant, under the personal direction of Nicholas I., does not correspond either with its costliness (£2,431,300) or with the efforts put forth for its decoration by the best Russian artists. The eastern extremity of Vasilyevskiy Island is the centre of commercial activity; the stock exchange is situated there as well as the quays and storehouses. The remainder of the island is occupied chiefly by scientific and educational institutions—the academy of science, with a small observatory, the university, the philological institute, the academy of the first corps of cadets, the academy of arts, the marine academy, the mining institute and the central physical observatory, all facing the Neva. Petersburg Island contains the fortress of St Peter and St Paul (1703-1740), opposite the Winter Palace; but the fortress is now a state prison. A cathedral which stands within its walls is the burial-place of the emperors and the imperial family. The mint and an artillery museum are also situated within the fortress. The remainder of the island is meanly built, and is the refuge of the poorer officials (chinovniks) and of the intellectual proletariat. Its northern part, separated from the main island by a narrow channel, bears the name of Apothecaries' Island, and is occupied by a botanical garden of great scientific value and several fine private gardens and parks. Krestovskiy, Elagin and Kamennyi Islands, as also the opposite (right) bank of the Great Nevka (one of the branches of the Neva) are occupied by public gardens, parks and summer residences. The mainland on the right bank of the Neva above its delta is known as the Viborg Side, and is connected with the main city by the Liteinyi bridge, closely adjoining which are the buildings of the military academy of medicine and spacious hospitals. The small streets (many of them unpaved), with numerous wooden houses, are inhabited by students and workmen; farther north are great textile and iron factories. Vast orchards and the yards of the artillery laboratory stretch north-eastwards, while the railway and the high road to Finland, running north, lead to the park of the Forestry Institute. The two villages of Okhta, on the right bank, are suburbs; higher up, on the left bank, are several factories (Alexandrovsk) which formerly belonged to the crown. The true boundary of St Petersburg on the south is the Obvodnyi Canal, running parallel to the three canals already mentioned and forming a sort of base to the Neva peninsula; but numerous orchards, cemeteries and factories, and even unoccupied spaces, are included within the city boundaries in that direction, though they are being rapidly covered with buildings. Except in a few principal streets, which are paved with wood or asphalt, the pavement is usually of granite setts. There are two government dockyards, the most important of which is the new admiralty yard in the centre of the city. At this yard there are three building slips and a large experimental basin, some 400 ft. in length, for trials with models of vessels. The Galerny Island yard is a little lower down the river, and is devoted entirely to construction. There are two building slips for large vessels, besides numerous workshops, storehouses and so forth. The Baltic Yard is near the mouth of the Neva, and was taken over by the ministry of marine in 1894. Since that time the establishment has been enlarged, and a new stone building slip, 520 ft. in length, completely housed in, has been finished. Population.—The population of St Petersburg proper at the censuses specified was as follows: Year. Total. Men. Women. Proportion of Men to every 100 Women. 1869 667,207 377,380 289,827 130 1881 861,303 473,229 388,074 122 1890 954,400 512,718 441,682 116 1897 1,132,677 616,855 515,822 119 A further increase was revealed by the municipal census of 190o, when the population of the city was 1,248,739, having thus increased 30.9% in ten years. In 1905 the total population was estimated to number 1,429,000. The population of the suburbs was 134,710 in 1897, and 190,635 in 1900. Including its suburbs, St Petersburg is the fifth city of Europe in point of size, coming after London, Paris, Berlin and Vienna. The large proportion of men in its population is due to the fact that great numbers come from other parts of Russia to work during the winter in the textile factories, and during the summer at un- loading the boats. Russians numbered 828,354 in 1897, or 73.1 % of the population; Germans 43,798, or 3'9%; Poles 22,307, or 1.9%; Finns, 16,731, or 1.5%; and Jews 10,353, or 0.9%. The various religions are represented by 84.9% Orthodox Greeks, 9.9 Protestants_ and 3.3 Roman Catholics. The pro-portion of illegitimate children is ten times higher than in the rest of Russia, namely 250 to 286 per thousand births. It is thus nearly the same as in Paris, but lower than in Moscow (292 per thousand) and Vienna (349 per thousand). The mortality varies very much in different parts of the city—from 12 per thousand in the best situated, the admiralty quarter, to 16 in other central parts, and 25 and 27 in the outlying quarters. The mortality has, however, notably decreased, as it averaged 36 per thousand in the years 187o to 1874, and only 27 from 1886 to 1895, and 24 in 1897. Infectious diseases, i.e. turberculosis, diphtheria, inflammation of the lungs, typhoid, scarlet fever and measles, are the cause of 37 to 38% of all deaths. The high mortality in certain quarters is largely due to overcrowding and bad water. An interesting feature of the Russian capital is the very high proportion of people living on their own earnings or income (" independent ") as compared with those who live on the earnings or income of some one else (" dependent "). Only a few industrial establishments employ more than twenty workmen, the average being less than ten and the figure seldom falling below five. The large factories are beyond the limits of St Petersburg. Although 36% of the population above six years old are unable to read, the workmen are amongst the most intelligent classes in Russia. Education, Science and Art.—Notwithstanding the hardships and prosecutions to which it is periodically subjected, the university (nearly 4000 students) exercises a pronounced influence en the life of St Petersburg. The medical faculty forms a separate academy, under military jurisdiction, with about 1500 students. There are, moreover, a philological institute, a technological institute, a forestry academy, an engineering academy, two theological academies (Orthodox Greek and Roman Catholic), an academy of arts, five military academies and a high school of law. Higher instruction for women is provided by a medical academy, a free university, four other institutions for higher education, and a school of agriculture. The scientific institutions include an academy of sciences, opened in 1726, which has rendered immense service in the exploration of Russia. The oft-repeated reproach that it keeps its doors shut to Russian savants, while opening them too widely to German ones, is not without foundation. The Pulkovo astronomical observatory, the chief physical (meteorological) observatory (with branches throughout Russia and Siberia), the astronomical observatory at Vilna, the astronomical and magnetical observatory at Peking, and the botanical garden, are all attached to the academy of sciences. The Society of Naturalists and the Physical and Chemical Society have issued most valuable publications. The geological committee is ably pushing forward the geological survey of the country; the Mineralogical Society was founded in 1817. The Geographical Society, with branch societies for West and East Siberia, Caucasus, Orenburg, the north-western and south-western provinces of European Russia, is well 'known for its valuable work, as is also the Entomological Society. There are four medical societies, and an archaeological society (since 1846), an historical society, an economical society, gardening, forestry, technical and navigation societies. The conservatory of music, with a new building (1891-1896), gives superior musical instruction. The Musical Society is worthy of notice. Art, on the other hand, has not freed itself from the old scholastic methods at the academy. Several independent artistic societies seek to remedy this drawback, and are the true cradle of the Russian genre painters. The imperial public library contains valuable collections of books (i,000,000) and MSS. The library of the academy of sciences contains more than 500,000 volumes, 13,000 MSS., rich collections of works on oriental languages, and valuable collections of periodical publications from scientific societies throughout the world. The museums of the Russian capital occupy a prominent place among those of Europe. That of the Academy of Sciences, of the Navy, of Industrial Art (1896), of the Mineralogical Society, of the Academy of Arts, the Asiatic museum, the Suvorov museum (1901), with pictures by Vereshchagin, the Zoological museum and several others are of great scientific value. The Hermitage Art Gallery contains a first-rate collection of the Flemish school, some pictures of the Russian school, good specimens of the Italian, Spanish and old French schools, invaluable treasures of Greek and Scythian antiquities, and a good collection of 200,000 engravings. Old Christian and old Russian arts are well represented in the museums of the Academy of Arts. The New Michael Palace was in 1895--1898 converted into a museum of Russian art—the Russian museum; it is one of the handsomest buildings in the city. In the development of the Russian drama St Petersburg has played a far less important part than Moscow, and the stage there has never reached the same standard of excellence as that of the older capital. On the other hand, St Petersburg is the cradle of Russian opera and Russian music. There are in the city only four theatres of importance—all imperial—two for the opera and ballet, one for the native drama, and one for the French and German drama. Industries and Trade.—St Petersburg is much less of a manufacturing city than Moscow or Berlin. The period 188o to 1890 was very critical in the history of the northern capital. With the development of the railway system the southern and south-western provinces of Russia began to prosper more rapidly than the upper Volga provinces; St Petersburg began to lose its relative importance in favour of the Baltic ports of Riga and Libau, and its rapid growth since the Crimean War seemed in danger of being arrested. The danger, however, passed away, and in the last decade of the 19th century the city continued its advance with renewed vigour. A great influx of functionaries of all sorts, consequent upon the state taking into its hands the administration of the railways, spirits, &c., resulted in the rapid growth of the population, while the introduction of a cheap railway tariff, and the subsidizing and encouraging in other ways of the great industries, attracted to St Petersburg a considerable number of workers, and favoured the growth of its larger industrial establishments. St Petersburg is now one of the foremost industrial provinces in Russia, its yearly returns placing it immediately after Moscow and before Piotrkow, in Poland. The chief factories are cottons and other textiles, metal and machinery works, tobacco, paper, soap and candle factories, breweries, distilleries, sugar refineries, neries, ship-building yards, printing works, potteries, carriage works, pastry and confectionery and chemicals. The export trade of St Petersburg is chiefly in grain (especially rye and oats), flour and bran, oil seeds, oil cakes, naphtha, eggs, flax and timber. It shows very great fluctuations, varying in accordance with the claps, the range being from £8,000,000 to £10,000,000. The exports are almost entirely to western Europe by sea (from L5,500,000 to £6,500,000), and to Finland (£1,5oo,000 to £3,000,000). The imports consist chiefly of coal, metals, building materials, herrings, coffee and tea, better-class timber, raw cotton, wood pulp and cellulose, and manufactured goods, and amount to about £14,000,000 annually. Six railways meet at St Petersburg. Two run westwards along both shores o' the Gulf of Finland to Hangoudd and to Port Baltic respectively; two short lines connect Oranienbaum, opposite Kronstadt and Tsarskoye Selo (with Pavlovsk) with the capital; and three great trunk lines run—south-west to Warsaw (with branches to Riga and Smolensk), south-east to Moscow (with branches to Novgorod and Rybinsk), and east to Vologda, Vyatka and Perm. The Neva is the principal channel for the trade of St Petersburg with the rest of Russia, by means of the Volga and its tributaries. Administration.—The municipal affairs of the city are in the hands of a municipality, elected by three categories of electors, and is practically a department of the chief of the police. The city is under a separate governor-general, whose authority, like that of the chief of police, is unlimited. Environs.—St Petersburg is surrounded by several fine residences, mostly imperial palaces with large and beautiful parks. Tsarskoye Selo, 15 m. to the south-east, and Peterhof, on the Gulf of Finland, are summer residences of the emperor. Pavlovsk, 17 m. S. of the city, has a fine palace and parks, where summer concerts attract thousands of people. There is another imperial palace at Gatchina, 29 m. S. Oranienbaum, 25 M. W. on the south shore of the Gulf of Finland, is a rather neglected place. Pulkovo, on a hill 9 M. S. from St Petersburg, is well known for its observatory; while several villages north of the capital, such as Pargolovo and Murino, are visited in summer by the less wealthy inhabitants. History.—The region between Lake Ladoga and the Gulf of Finland was inhabited in the 9th century by Finns and some Slays. Novgorod and Pskov made efforts to secure and maintain dominion over this region, so important for their trade, and in the 13th and 14th centuries they built the forts of Koporya (in the present district of Peterhof), Yam (now Yamburg), and Oryeshek (now Schlusselburg) at the point where the Neva issues from Lake Ladoga. They found, however, powerful opponents in the Swedes, who erected the fort of Landskrona at the junction of the Okhta and the Neva, and in the Livonians, who had their fortress at Narva. Novgorod and Moscow successively were able by continuous fighting to maintain their supremacy over the region south of the Neva throughout the 16th century; but early in the 17th century Moscow was compelled to cede it to Sweden, which erected a fortress on the Neva at the mouth of the Okhta. In 1700 Peter the Great began his wars with Sweden. Oryeshek was taken in 1702, and in thefollowing year the Swedish fortress on the Neva. Two months later (29th June 1703) Peter laid the foundations of a cathedral to St Peter and St Paul, and of a fort which received his own name (in its Dutch transcription, "Piterburgh" ). Next year the fort of Kronslott was erected on the island of Kotlin, as also the Admiralty on the Neva, opposite the fortress. The emperor took most severe and almost barbarous measures for increasing his newly founded city, which was built on marshy ground, the buildings resting on piles. Thousands of people from all parts of Russia were removed thither and died in erecting the fortress and building the houses. Under Elizabeth fresh compulsory measures raised the population to 150,000, and this figure was nearly doubled during the reign of Catherine II. (1762-1796). The chief embellishments of St Petersburg were effected during the reigns of Alexander I. (1801-1825) and Nicholas I. (1825-1855). From the earliest years of Russian history trade had taken this northern direction. Novgorod owed its wealth to this fact; and as far back as the 12th century the Russians had their forts on Lake Ladoga and the Neva. In the 14th and 15th centuries they exchanged their wares with the Danzig merchants at Nu or Nu—now Vasilyevskiy Island. By founding St Petersburg Peter the Great only restored the trade to its old channels. The system of canals for connecting the upper Volga and the Dnieper with the great lakes of the north completed the work; the commercial mouth- of the Volga was thus transferred to the Gulf of Finland, and St Petersburg became the export harbour for more than half Russia. Foreigners hastened thither to take possession of the growing export trade, and to this the Russian capital is indebted for its cosmopolitan character. The development of the railway system and the colonization of southern Russia now operate, however, adversely to St Petersburg, while the rapid increase of population in the Black Sea region is tending to shift the Russian centre of gravity; new centres of commercial, industrial, and intellectual life are being developed at Odessa and Rostov. The revival of Little Russia is another influence operating in the same direction. Since the abolition of serfdom and in consequence of the impulse given to Russian thought by this reform, the provinces are coming more and more to dispute the right of St Petersburg to guide the political life of the country. It has been often said that St Petersburg is the head of Russia and Moscow its heart. The first part at least of this saying is true. In the development of thought and in naturalizing in Russia the results of west European culture and philosophy St Petersburg has played a prominent part. It has helped greatly to familiarize the public with the teachings of west European science and thinking, and to give to Russian literature its liberality of mind and freedom from the trammels of tradition. St Petersburg has no traditions, no history beyond that of the palace conspiracies, and there is nothing in its past to attract the writer or the thinker. But, as new centres of intellectual life and new currents of thought develop again at Moscow and Kiev, or arise anew at Odessa and in the eastern provinces, these places claim the right to their own share in the further development of intellectual life in Russia. (P. A. K., J. T. BE.) SAINT-PIERRE, CHARLES IRENItE CASTEL, (ABBE DE (1658-1743), French writer, was born at the chateau de Saint-Pierre-l'Eglise near Cherbourg on the 18th of February 1658. His father was bailli of the Cotentin, and Saint-Pierre was educated by the Jesuits. In Paris he frequented the salons of Madame de la Fayette and of the marquise de Lambert. He was presented to the abbacy of Tiron, and was elected to the Academy in 1695. In the same year he gained a footing at court as almoner to Madame. But in 1718, in consequence of the political offence given by his Discours sur la polysynodie, he was expelled from the Academy. He afterwards founded the club of the Entre soli an independent society suppressed in 1731. He died in Paris on the 29th of April 1743. Saint-Pierre's works are almost entirely occupied with an acute though generally visionary criticism of politics, law and social institutions. They had a great influence on Rousseau; who left elaborate examinations of some of them, and reproduced not a few of their ideas in his own work. His Projet de paix perpetuelle, which was destined to exercise considerable influence on the development of the various schemes for securing universal peace which culminated in the Holy Alliance, was published in 1713 at Utrecht, where he was acting as secretary to the French plenipotentiary, the Abbe de Polignac, and his Polysynodie contained severe strictures on the government of Louis XIV., with projects for the administration of France by a system of councils for each department of government. His works include a number of memorials and projects for stopping duelling, equalizing taxation, treating mendicancy, reforming education and spelling, &c. It was not, however, for his suggestions for the reform of the constitution that he was disgraced, but because in the Polysynodie he had refused to Louis XIV. the title of le Grand. Unlike the later reforming abbes of the philosophe period, Saint-Pierre was a man of very unworldly character and ' quite destitute of the Frondeur spirit. His works were published at Amsterdam in 1738–1740 and his Annales politiques in London in 1757. A discussion of his principles, with a view to securing a just estimation of the high value of his political and economic ideas, 1s given by S. Siegler Pascal in Un Contemporain igare on X VIII° siecle. Les Projets de 1'abbe de Saint-Pierre, 1658–1943 (Paris, 1900). SAINT-PIERRE, JACQUES HENRI BERNARDIN DE (1737-'814), French man of letters, was born at Havre on the 19th of January 1737. He was educated at Caen and at Rouen, and became an engineer. According to his own account he served in the army, taking part in the Hesse campaign of '76o, but was dismissed for insubordination, and, after quarrelling with his family, was in some difficulty. He appears at Malta, St Petersburg, Warsaw, Dresden, Berlin, holding brief commissions as an engineer and rejoicing in romantic adventures. But he came back to Paris in 1765 poorer than he set out. He came into possession of a small sum at his father's death, and in '768 he set out for the Isle of France (Mauritius) with a government commission, and remained there three years, returning home in 1971. These wanderings supplied Bernardin with the whole of his stock-in-trade, for he never again quitted France. On his return from Mauritius he was introduced to D'Alembert and his friends, but he took no great pleasure in the company of any literary man except J. J. Rousseau, of whom in his last years he saw much, and on whom he formed both his character and his style. His Voyage a l'lle de France (2 vols., 1773) gained him a reputation as a champion of innocence and religion, and in consequence, through the exertions of the bishop of Aix, a pension of loon livres a year. It is soberest and therefore the least characteristic of his books. The Etudes de la nature (3 vols., 1784) was an attempt to prove the existence of God from the wonders of nature; he set up a philosophy of sentiment to oppose the materializing tendencies of the Encyclopaedists. His masterpiece, Paul et Virginie, appeared in 1789 in a supplementary volume of the Etudes, and his second great success, much less sentimental and showing not a little humour, the Chaumiere indienne, not till 1790. In 1792 he married a very young girl, Felicite Didot, who brought him a considerable dowry. For a short time in 1792 he was superintendent of the Jardin des Plantes, and on the suppression of the office received a pension of 3000 livres. In 1795 he became a member of the Institute. After his first wife's death he married in r800, when he was sixty-three, another young girl, Desiree Pelleport, and is said to have been very happy with her. On the 21st of January 1814 he died at his house at Eragny, near Pontoise. Paul et Virginie has been pronounced gaudy in style and unhealthy in tone. Perhaps Bernardin is not fairly to be judged by this famous story, in which the exuberant sensibility of the time finds equally exuberant expression. His merit lies in his breaking away from the arid vocabulary which more than a century of classical writing has brought upon France, in his genuine preference for the beauties of nature, and in his attempt to describe them faithfully. After Rousseau, and even more than Rousseau, Bernardin was in French literature the apostle of the return to nature, though both in him and his immediate follower Chateaubriand there is still much mannerism and unreality. Aime Martin, disciple of Bernardin and the second husband of his second wife, published a complete edition of his works in 18 volumes(Paris, '818–182o), afterwards increased by seven volumes of correspondence and memoirs (1826). Paul et Virginie, the Chaumiere indienne, &c. have often been separately reprinted. See also Arvede Barin's Bernardin de Saint Pierre (1891). ST PIERRE and MIQUELON, two islands 'o m. off the south coast of Newfoundland, united area about 91 sq. m. Both are rugged masses of granite, with a few small streams and lakes, a thin covering of soil and scanty vegetation. Miquelon, the larger of the two, consists of Great Miquelon and Little Miquelon, or Langlade; previous to 1783 these were separated by a' navigable channel, but they have since become connected by a dangerous mudbank. St Pierre has a sheltered harbour with about 14 ft. of water, and a good roadstead for large vessels. Their importance is due to their proximity to the great Banks, which makes them the centre of the French Atlantic fisheries. These are kept up by an elaborate system of bounties by the French government, which considers them of great importance as training sailors for the navy. Fishing lasts from May till October, and is carried on by nearly five hundred vessels, of which about two-thirds are fitted out from St Pierre, the remainder coming from St Maio, Cancale and other French coast towns. The resident population, which centres in the town of St Pierre, is about 6500, swelled to overio,000 for a time each year by extra fishing hands from France, but is steadily declining owing to emigration into Canada. Owing to the low rates of duty, vast quantities of goods, especially French wines and liquors, are imported, and smuggled to Newfoundland, the United States and Canada, though of late years this has been checked by a gradual rise in the scale of duties, and by the presence since 1904 of a British consul. St Pierre is connected with Halifax (N.S.) and St Johns (Newfoundland) by a regular packet service, and is a station of the Anglo American Cable Co. and the Compagnie francaise des cables telegraphiques. Excellent facilities for primary and secondary education are given, but the attraction of the fisheries prevents their being fully used. The islands were occupied by the French in 166o, and fortified in 1700. In 1702 they were captured by the British, and held till 1763, when they were given back to France as a fishing station. They are thus the sole remnant of the French colonies in North America. Destroyed by the English in 1778, restored to France in '783, again captured and depopulated by the English in 1793, recovered by France in 1802 and lost in 1803, the islands have remained in undisputed French possession since 1814 (Treaty of Paris). See Henrique, Les Colonies francaises, t. ii. (Paris, 1889) ; Levasseur, La France, t. ii. (Paris, 1893)) ; L'Annee coloniale, yearly since 1899, contains statistics and a complete bibliography; P. T. McGrath In The New England Magazine (May 1903) describes the daily life of the people. (W. L. G.) ST POL, COUNTS OF. The countship of St Pol-sur-Ternoise in France (department of Pas-de-Calais), belohged in the nth and ' 2th centuries to a family surnamed Candavene. Elizabeth, heiress of this house, carried the countship to her husband, Gaucher de Chatillon, in 1205. By the marriage of Mahaut de Chatillon with Guy VI. of Luxemburg, St Pol passed to the house of Luxemburg. It was in possession of Louis of Luxemburg, constable of France, who was beheaded in 1475. The constable's property was confiscated by Louis XI., but was subsequently restored in 1488 to his granddaughters, Marie and Francoise of Luxemburg. Marie (d. 1542) was countess of St Pol, and married Francois de Bourbon, count of Vendome. Their son, Francois de Bourbon, count of St Pol (1491–1545), was one of the most devoted and courageous generals of Francis I. Marie, daughter of the last-mentioned count, brought the countship of St Pol to the house of Orleans-Longueville. In 1705 Marie of Orleans sold it to Elizabeth of Lorraine-Lillebonne, widow of Louis de Melun, prince of Epinoy, and their daughter married the prince of Rohan-Soubise, who thus became count of St Pol. (M. P.*) ST POL-DE-LEON, a town of north-western France, in the department of Finistere, about 1 m. from the shore of the English Channel, and '31 m. N. of Morlaix by the railway to Roscoff. Pop. (1906), town, 3353; commune, 814o. St Pol-de-Leon is a quaint town with several old houses. The cathedral is largely in the Norman Gothic style of the 13th and early 14th centuries. The west front has a projecting portico and two towers 18o ft. high with granite spires. Within the church there are beautifully carved stalls of the 16th century and other works of art. On the right of the high altar is a wooden shrine containing the bell of St Pol de Leon, which was said to cure headache and diseases of the ear, and at the side of the main entrance is a huge baptismal font, popularly regarded as the stone coffin of Conan Meriadec, king of the Bretons. Notre Dame de Kreizker, dating mainly from the second half of the 14th century, has a celebrated spire, 252 ft. high, which crowns the central tower. The north porch is a fine specimen of the flamboyant style. In the cemetery, which has a chapel of the 15th century, there are ossuaries of the year 1500.. In the 6th century a Welsh monk, Paul, became bishop of the small town of Leon, and lord of the domain in its vicinity, which passed to his successors and was increased by them. In 1793 the town was the centre of a serious but unsuccessful rising provoked by the recruiting measures of the Convention.
End of Article: SAINTONGE
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