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GEORGE EDWARD BATEMAN SAINTSBURY (184...

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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 48 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GEORGE EDWARD BATEMAN SAINTSBURY (1845- ), English man of letters, was born at Southampton on the 23rd of October 1845. He was educated at King's College School, London, and at Merton College, Oxford (B.A.,1868), and spent six years in Guernsey as senior classical master of Elizabeth College. From 1874 to 1876 he was headmaster of the Elgin Educational Institute. He began his literary career in 1875 as a critic for the Academy, and for ten years was actively engaged in journalism, becoming an important member of the staff of the Saturday Review. Some of the critical essays contributed to the literary journals were afterwards collected in his Essays in English Literature, 1780-1860 (2 vols., 1890-1895), Essays on French Novelists (1891), Miscellaneous Essays (1892), Corrected Impressions (1895). His first book, A Primer of French Literature (188o), and his Short History of French Literature (1882; 6th ed., Oxford, 1901), were followed by a series of editions of French classics and of books and articles on the history of French literature, which made him the most prominent English authority on the subject. His studies in English literature were no less comprehensive, and included the valuable revision of Sir Walter Scott's edition of Dryden's Works (Edinburgh, 18 vols., 1882-1893), Dryden (1881) in the " English Men of Letters " series, History of Elizabethan Literature (1887), History of Nineteenth Century Literature (1896), A Short History of English Literature (1898, 3rd ed. 1903), an edition of the Minor Caroline Poets of the Caroline Period (2 vols., 1905-1906), a collection of rare poems of great value, and editions of English classics. He edited the series of " Periods of European Literature," contributing the volumes on The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of Allegory (1897), and The Earlier Renaissance (1901). In 1895 he became professor of rhetoric and English literature at Edinburgh university, and subsequently produced two of his most important works, A History of Criticism (3 vols., 1900-1904), with the companion volume Loci Crilici, Passages Illustrative of Critical Theory and Practice (Boston, U.S.A., and London, 1903), and A History of English Prosody from the 12th Century to the Present Day (i., 1906; ii., 19o8; iii., 1910); also The Later Nineteenth Century (1909). ST SERVAN, a town of western France, in.the department of Ille-et-Vilaine, on the right bank of the Rance, south of St Malo, from which it is separated by the Anse des Sablons, a creek r m. wide (see ST MALO). Pop. (1906) 9765. It is not enclosed by walls, and with its new houses, straight wide streets and numerous gardens forms a contrast to its neighbour. North of the town there is a wet-dock, 27 acres in extent, forming part of the harbour of St Malo. The creek on which it opens is dry at low water, but at high water is 30 to 40 ft. deep. The dock is used chiefly by coasting and fishing vessels, a fleet starting annually for the Newfoundland cod-fisheries. Two other ports on the Rance, south-west of the town at the foot of the tower of Solidor, are of small importance. This stronghold, erected towards the dose of the 14th century by John IV., duke of Brittany, for the purpose of contesting the claims to the temporal sovereignty of the town of Josselin de Rohan, bishop of St Malo, consists of three distinct towers formed into a triangle by loop-holed and machicolated curtains. To the west St Servan terminates in a peninsula on which stands the " cite," inhabited by work-people, and the " fort de la cite "; near by is a modern chapel which has replaced the cathedral of St Peter of Aleth,the seat of a bishopric from the 6th to'the 12th century. The parish church is modern (1742-1842). St Servan has a communal college. It carries on steam-sawing, boat-building, rope-making and the manufacture of ship's biscuits. The " Cite " occupies the site of the city of Aleth, which at the close of the Roman empire supplanted Corseul as the capital of the Curiosolites. Aleth was a bulwark of Druidism in those regions and was not Christianized till the 6th century, when St Malo became its first bishop. On the removal of the bishopric to St Malo Aleth declined and was almost destroyed by St Louis in 1235; the houses that remained standing became the nucleus of a new community, originating from St Malo, which placed itself under the patronage of St Servan, apostle of the Orkneys. It was not till the Revolution that St Servan became a separate commune from St Malo with a municipality and police of its own. ST SEVER, a town of south-western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Landes, 11 m. S.S.W. of Mont de Marsan on the Southern railway between that town and Bayonne. Pop. (1906) town, 2508; commune, 4644. St Sever stands on an eminence on the left bank of the Adour in the district of the Chalosse. Its streets, bordered in places by old houses, are narrow and winding. The promenade of Morlanne laid out on the site of a Roman camp called Palestrion commands a fine view of the Adour and the pine forests of the Landes. The church of St Sever, a Romanesque building of the 12th century, with seven apses, once belonged to the Benedictine abbey founded in the loth century. The public institutions of the town include the sub-prefecture, a tribunal of first instance, and a practical school of agriculture and viticulture which occupies a former Dominican convent. There is trade in the agricultural products of the Chalosse, especially geese. SAINT-SIMON, CLAUDE DE ROUVROY, Due DE (1607-1693), French courtier, was born in August 1607, being the second son of Louis de Rouvroi, seigneur du Plessis (d. 1643), who had been a warm supporter of Henry of Guise and the League. With his elder brother he entered the service of Louis XIII. as a page and found instant favour with the king. Named first equerry in March 1627 he became in less than three years captain of the chateaux of St Germain and Versailles, master of the hounds, first gentleman of the bed-chamber, royal councillor and governor of Meulan and of Blaye. On the fall of La Rochelle he received lands in the vicinity valued at 8o,000 livres. About three years later his seigniory of Saint-Simon in Vermandois was erected into a duchy, and he was created a peer of France. He was at first on good terms with Richelieu and was of service on the Day of Dupes (11th of November 163o). Having suffered disgrace for taking the part of his uncle, the baron of Saint-Leger, after the capture of Catelet (15th of August 1636), he retired to Blaye. He fought in the campaigns of 1638 and 1639, and after the death of Richelieu returned to court, where he was coldly received by the king (18th of February 1643). Thence-forth, with the exception of siding with Conde during the Fronde, he took small part in politics. He died in Paris on the 3rd of May 1693. By his first wife, Diane de Budos de Portes, a relative of Conde, whom he married in 1644 and who died in 167o, he had three daughters. By his second wife, Charlotte de 1'Aubespine, whom he married in 1672, he had a son Louis, the " author of the memoirs " (see below). SAINT-SIMON, CLAUDE HENRI DE ROUVROY, COMTE DE (1760-1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris on the 17th of October 176o. He belonged to a younger branch of the family of the duc de Saint-Simon (above). His education was directed by D'Alembert. At the age of nineteen he assisted the American colonies in their revolt against Britain. From his youth Saint-Simon felt the promptings of an eager ambition. His valet had orders to awake him every morning with the words, " Remember, monsieur le comte, that you have great things to do." Among his early schemes was one to unite the Atlantic and the Pacific by a canal, and another to construct a canal from Madrid to the sea. Although he was imprisoned in the Luxembourg during the Terror, he took no part of any importance in the Revolution, but profited by it to amass a little fortune by land speculation—not on any selfish account, however, as he said, but to facilitate his future projects. Accordingly, when he was nearly forty years of age he went through a varied course of study and experiment, in order to enlarge and clarify his view of things. One of these experiments was an unhappy marriage—undertaken merely that he might have a salon—which, after a year's duration, was dissolved by mutual consent. The result of his experiments was that he found himself completely impoverished, and lived in penury for the remainder of his life. The first of his numerous writings, Lettres d'un habitant de Geneve, appeared in 18o2; but his early writings were mostly scientific and political. In 1817 he began in a treatise entitled L'Industrie to propound his socialistic views, which he further developed in L'Organisateur (1810), a periodical on which Augustin Thierry and Auguste Comte collaborated. The first number caused a sensation, but it brought few converts. In 1821 appeared Du systeme industriel, and in 1823-1824 Catechisme des industriels. The last and most important expression of his views is the Nouveau Christianisme (1825), which he left unfinished. For many years before his death in 1825 (at Paris on the 10th of May), Saint-Simon had been reduced to the greatest straits. He was obliged to accept a laborious post, working nine hours a day for 40 a year, to live on the generosity of a former valet, and finally to solicit a small pension from his family. In 1823 he attempted suicide in despair. It was not till very late in his career that he attached to himself a few ardent disciples. As a thinker Saint-Simon was entirely deficient in system, clearness and consecutive strength. But his great influence on modern thought is undeniable, both as the historic founder of French socialism and as suggesting much of what was after-wards elaborated into Comtism. Apart from the details of his socialistic teaching, which are vague and unsystematic, we find that the ideas of Saint-Simon as to the reconstruction of society are very simple. His opinions were conditioned by the French Revolution and by the feudal and military system still prevalent in France. In opposition to the destructive liberalism of the Revolution he insisted on the necessity of a new and positive reorganization of society. So far was he from advocating fresh social revolt that he appealed to Louis XVIII. to inaugurate the new order of things. In opposition, however, to the feudal and military system, the former aspect of which had been strengthened by the restoration, he advocated an arrangement by which the industrial chiefs should control society. In place of the medieval church the spiritual direction of society should fall to the men of science. What Saint-Simon desired, therefore, was an industrialist state directed by modern science in which universal association should suppress war. In short, the men who are fitted to organize society for productive labour are entitled to bear rule in it. The social aim is to produce things useful to life. The contrast between labour and capital so much emphasized by later socialism is not present to Saint-Simon, but it is assumed that the industrial chiefs, to whom the control of production is to be committed, shall rule in the interest of society. Later on the cause of the poor receives greater attention, till in his greatest work, The New Christianity, it takes the form of a religion. It was this development of his teaching that occasioned his final quarrel with Comte. Previous to the publication of the Nouveau Christianisme, Saint-Simon had not concerned himself with theology. Here he starts from a belief in God, and his object in the treatise is to reduce Christianity to its simple and essential elements. He does this by clearing it of the dogmas and other excrescences and defects which have gathered round the Catholic and Protestant forms of it. He propounds as the comprehensive formula of the new Christianity this precept—" The whole of society ought to strive towards the amelioration of the moral and physical existence of the poorest class; society ought to organize itself in the way best adapted for attaining this end." This principle became the watchword of the entire school of Saint-Simon. During his lifetime the views of Saint-Simon had very little influence; and he left only a few devoted disciples, who continued to advocate the doctrines of their master, whom they revered as a prophet. Of these the most important were Olinde Rodrigues, the favoured disciple of Saint-Simon, and Barthelemy Prosper Enfantin (q.v.), who together had received Saint-Simon's last instructions. Their first step was to establish a journal, Le Producteur, but it was discontinued in 1826. The sect, however, had begun to grow, and before the end of 1828, had meetings not only in Paris but in many provincial towns. An important departure was made in 1828 by Amand Bazard, who gave a " complete exposition of the Saint-Simonian faith" in a long course of lectures at Paris, which were well attended. His Exposition de la doctrine de St Simon (2 vols., 1828-1830), which is by far the best account of it, won more adherents. The second volume was chiefly by Enfantin, who along with Bazard stood at the head of the society, but who was superior in meta-physical power, and was prone to push his deductions to extremities. The revolution of July (183o) brought a new freedom to the socialist reformers. A proclamation was issued demanding the community of goods, the abolition of the right of inheritance, and the enfranchisement of women. Early next year the school obtained possession of the Globe through Pierre Leroux (q.v.), who had joined the school, which now numbered some of the ablest and most promising young men of France, many of the pupils of the Ecole Polytechnique having caught its enthusiasm. The members formed themselves into an association arranged in three grades, and constituting a society or family, which lived out of a common purse in the Rue Monsigny. Before long, however, dissensions began to arise in the sect. Bazard, a man of logical and more solid temperament, could no longer work in harmony with' Enfantin, who desired to establish an arrogant and fantastic sacerdotalism with lax notions as to marriage and the relation of the sexes. After a time Bazard seceded and many of the strongest supporters of the school followed his example. A series of extravagant entertainments given by the society during the winter of 1832 reduced its financial resources and greatly discredited it in character. They finally removed to Menilmontant, to a property of Enfantin, where they lived in a communistic society, distinguished by a peculiar dress. Shortly after the chiefs were tried and condemned for proceedings prejudicial to the social order; and the sect was entirely broken up (1832). Many of its members became famous as engineers, economists, and men of business. In the school of Saint-Simon we find a great advance on the vague and confused views of the master. In the philosophy of history they recognize epochs of two kinds, the critical or negative and the organic or constructive. The former, in which philosophy is the dominating force, is characterized by war, egotism and anarchy; the latter, which is controlled by religion, is marked by the spirit of obedience, devotion, association. The two spirits of antagonism and association are the two great social principles, and on the degree of prevalence of the two depends the character of an epoch. The spirit of association, however, tends more and more to prevail over its opponent, extending from the family to the city, from the city to the nation, and from the nation to the federation. This principleof association is to be the keynote of the social development of the future. Under the present system the industrial chief exploits the proletariat, the members of which, though nominally free," must accept his terms under pain of starvation. The only remedy for this is the abolition of the law of inheritance, and the union of all the instruments of labour in a social fund, which shall be exploited by association. Society thus becomes sole proprietor, entrusting to social groups and social functionaries the management of the various properties. The right of succession is transferred from the family to the state. The school of Saint-Simon insists strongly on the claims of merit; they advocate a social hierarchy in which each man shall be placed according to his capacity and rewarded according to his works. This is, indeed, a most special and pronounced feature of the Saint-Simon socialism, whose theory of government is a kind of spiritual or scientific autocracy, degenerating into the fantastic sacerdotalism of Enfantin. With regard to the family and the relation of the sexes the school of Saint-Simon advocated the complete emancipation of woman and her entire equality with man. The " social individual " is man and woman, who are associated in the exercise of the triple function of religion, the state and the family. In its official declarations the school maintained the sanctity of the Christian law of marriage. Connected with these doctrines was their famous theory of the rehabilitation of the flesh," deduced from the philosophic theory of the school, which was a species of Pantheism, though they repudiated the name. On this theory they rejected the dualism so much emphasized by Catholic Christianity in its penances and mortifications, and held that the body should be restored to its due place of honour. It is a vague principle, of which the ethical character depends on the interpretation; and it was variously interpreted in the school of Saint-Simon. It was certainly immoral as held by Enfantin, by whom it was developed into a kind of sensual mysticism, a system of free love with a religious sanction. An excellent edition of the works of Saint-Simon and Enfantin was published by the survivors of the sect (47 vols., Paris, 1865-'878). See, in addition to the works cited above, L. Reybaud, Etudes sur les reformateurs contemporains (7th edition, Paris, 1864); Paul Janet, Saint-Simon et le Saint-Simonisme (Paris, 1878); A. J. Booth, Saint-Simon and Saint-Simonism (London, 1871); Georges Weill, Uri Precurseur du socialisme, Saint-Simon et son oeuvre (Paris, 1894), and a history of the Ecole Saint-Simonienne, by the same author (1896) ; G. Dumas, Psychologie de deux messies positivistes St Simon et Comte (1905); E. Levasseur's Etudes sociales sous la Restauration, contains a good section on Saint-Simon. (T. K.; J. T. S.*) SAINT-SIMON, LOUIS DE ROUVROY, Duc DE (1675-1755), French soldier, diplomatist and writer of memoirs, was born at Versailles on the 16th of January 1675. The peerage granted to his father, Claude de St Simon (q.v.), is the central fact in his history. The French peerage under the old regime was a very peculiar thing, difficult to comprehend at all, but quite certain to be miscomprehended if any analogy of the English.peerage is imported into the consideration. No two things could be more different in France than ennobling a man and making him a peer. No one was made a peer who was not ennobled, but men of the noblest blood in France and representing their houses might not be, and in most cases were not, peers. Derived at least traditionally and imaginatively from the douze pairs of Charlemagne, the peers were supposed to represent the chosen of the noblesse, and gradflally, in an indefinite and constantly disputed fashion, became associated with the parlement of Paris as a quasi-legislative (or at least law-registering) and directly judicial body. But the peerage was further complicated by the fact that not persons but the holders of certain fiefs were made peers. Strictly speaking, neither Saint-Simon nor any one else in the same case was made a peer, but his estate was raised to the rank of a duche- pairie or a comte pairie as the case might be. Still the peers were in a way a standing committee representative of the entire body of nobles, and it was Saint-Simon's lifelong ideal, and at times his practical effort to convert them into a sort of great council of the nation. His mother, Charlotte de l'Aubespine, belonged to a family not of the oldest nobility but one which had been distinguished in the public service at least since the time of Francis I. Her son Louis was well educated, to a great extent by herself, and he hadehad for godfather and godmother Louis XIV. and the queen. After some tuition by the Jesuits (especially by Sanadon, the editor of Horace), he joined the mousquetaires gris in 1692. He was present at the siege of Namur, and the battle of Neerwinden. But it was at this very time that he chose to begin the crusade of his life by instigating, if not bringing, an action on the part of the peers of France against Luxembourg, his victorious general, on a point of precedence. He fought, how-ever, another campaign or two (not under Luxembourg), and in 1695 married Gabrielle de Durfort, daughter of the marechal de Lorges, under whom he latterly served. He seems to have regarded her with a respect and affection not very usual between husband and wife at the time; and she sometimes succeeded in modifying his aristocratic ideas. But as he did not receive the promotion he desired he flung up his commission in 1702. Louis took a dislike to him, and it was with difficulty that he was able to keep a footing at court. He was, however, intensely interested in all the transactions of Versailles, and by dint of a most heterogeneous collection of instruments, ranging from dukes to servants, he managed to obtain the extraordinary secret information which he has handed down. His own part appears to have been entirely subordinate. He was appointed ambassador to Rome in 1705, but the appointment was cancelled before he started. At last he attached himself to the duke of Orleans and, though this was hardly likely to conciliate Louis's goodwill to him, it gave him at least the status of belonging to a definite party, and it eventually placed him in the position of tried friend to the acting chief of the state. He was able,moreover, to combine attachment to the duke of Burgundy with that to the duke of Orleans. Both attachments were no doubt all the more sincere because of his undying hatred to " the bastards," that is to say, the illegitimate sons of Louis XIV. It does not appear that this hatred was founded on moral reasons or on any real fear that these bastards would be intruded into the succession. The true cause of his wrath was that they had precedence of the peers. The death of Louis seemed to give Saint-Simon a chance of realizing his hopes. The duke of Orleans was at once acknowledged regent, and Saint-Simon was of the council of regency. But no steps were taken to carry out his favourite vision of a France ruled by the nobles for its good, and he had little real influence with the regent. He was indeed gratified by the degradation of " the bastards," and in 1721 he was appointed ambassador to Spain to arrange for the marriage (not destined to take place) of Louis XV. and the infanta. His visit was splendid; he received the grandeeship, and, though he also caught the smallpox, he was quite satisfied with the business. After his return he had little to do with public affairs. His own account of the cessation of his intimacy with Orleans and Dubois, the latter of whom had never been his friend, is, like his own account of some other events of his life, obscure and rather suspicious. But there can be little doubt that he was practically ousted by the favourite. He survived for more than thirty years; but little is known of his life. His wife died in 1743, his eldest son a little later; he had other family troubles, and he was loaded with debt. When he died, at Paris on the 2nd of March 1755, he had almost entirely outlived his own generation (among whom he had been one of the youngest) and the prosperity of his house, though not its notoriety. This last was in strange fashion revived by a distant relative born five years after his own death, Claude Henri, comte de Saint-Simon (q.v.). It will have been observed that the actual events of Saint-Simon's life, long as it was and high as was his position, are neither numerous nor noteworthy. He is, however, an almost unique example of a man who has acquired great literary fame entirely by posthumous publications. He was an indefatigable writer, and he began very early to set down in black and white all the gossip he collected, all his interminable legal disputes of precedence, and a vast mass of unclassified and almost unclassifiable matter. Most of his manuscripts came into the possession of the government, and it was long before their contents were published in anything like fulness. Partly in the form of notes on Dangeau's Journal, partly in that of original and independent memoirs, partly in scattered and multifarious tracts and disquisitions, he had committed to paper an immense amount of matter. But the mere mass of these productions is their least noteworthy feature, or rather it is most remarkable as contrasting with their character and style. Saint-Simon, though careless and sometimes even ungrammatical, ranks among the most striking memoir-writers of France, the country richest in memoirs of any in the world. His pettiness, his absolute injustice to his private enemies and to those who espoused public parties with which he did not agree, the bitterness which allows him to give favourable portraits of hardly any one, his omnivorous appetite for gossip, his lack of proportion and perspective, are all lost sight of in admiration of his extraordinary genius for historical narrative and character-drawing of a certain sort. He has been compared to Tacitus, and for once the comparison is just. In the midst of his enormous mass of writing phrases scarcely inferior to the Roman's occur frequently, and here and there are passages of sustained description equal, for intense concentration of light and life, to those of Tacitus or of any other historian. As may be expected from the vast extent of his work, it is in the highest degree unequal. But he is at the same time not a writer who can be " sampled " easily, inasmuch' as his most characteristic phrases sometimes occur in the midst of long stretches of quite uninteresting matter. A few critical studies of him, especially those of Sainte-Beuve, are the basis of much, if not most, that has been written about him. Yet no one is so little to be taken at secondhand. Even his most famous passages, such as the account of the death of the dauphin or of the Bed of Justice where his enemy the duke of Maine was degraded, will not give a fair idea of his talent. These are his gallery pieces, his great " machines," as French art slang calls them. Much more noteworthy as well as more frequent are the sudden touches which he gives. The bishops are " cuistres violets "; M. de Caumartin " porte sous son manteau toute la fatuite que M. de Villeroy kale sur son baudrier "; another politician has a " mine de chat facile." In short, the interest of the Memoirs, independent of the large addition of positive knowledge which they make, is one of constant surprise at the novel and adroit use of word and phrase. Some of Macaulay's most brilliant portraits and sketches of incident are adapted and sometimes almost literally translated from Saint-Simon. The first edition of Saint-Simon (some scattered pieces may have been printed before) appeared in 1788. It was a mere selection in three volumes and was much cut down before it was allowed to appear. Next year four more volumes made their appearance, and in 1791 a new edition, still further increased. The whole, or rather not the whole, was printed in 1829–1830 and reprinted some ten years later. The real creator of Saint-Simon, as far as a full and exact text is concerned, was M. Cheruel, whose edition in 20 volumes dates from 1856, and was reissued again revised in 1872. So immense, however, is the mass of Saint-Simon's MSS. that still another recension was given by M. de Boislisle in 1882, with M. Cheruel's assistance, while a newer edition, yet once more revised from the MS., was begun in 1904. It must, however, be admitted that the matter other than the Memoirs is of altogether inferior interest and may be pretty safely neglected by any one but professed antiquarian and historical students. For criticism on Saint-Simon there is nothing better than Sainte-Beuve's two sketches in the 3rd and 15th volumes of the Causeries du lundi. The latter was written to accompany M. Cheruel's first edition. In English by far the most accurate treatment is in a Lothian prize essay by E. Cannan (Oxford and London, 1885). (G. SA.) ST THOMAS, an incorporated city and port of entry of Ontario, Canada, capital of Elgin county, on Kettle creek, 13 M. S. of London and 8 m. N. of Lake Erie. Pop. (1901) 11,485. It is an important station on the Grand Trunk, Michigan Central, Lake Erie & Detroit River, and Canadian Pacific railways. It has numerous schools, a collegiate institute, and Alma ladies' college. The Michigan Central railway shops, car-wheel foundry, flour, flax and planing mills are the principal industries. ST THOMAS (SAO THOME), a volcanic island in the Gulf of Guinea immediately north of the equator (o° 23' N.) and in 6° 40' E. With the island of Principe (Prince's Island), it forms the Portuguese province of St Thomas. From the Gabun, the nearest point of the mainland of Africa, St Thomas is distant 166 m., and from Cameroon 297 M. The extreme length of the island is 32 M. the breadth W. to E. 21 m.; the area is about 400 sq. m. From the coast the land rises towards lofty verdant mountains (St Thomas over 7000 ft.). At least a hundred streams, great and small, descend the mountain-sides through deep-cut ravines, many of them forming beautiful waterfalls, such as those of Blu-blu on the Agua Grande. The island during its occupation by the Netherlands acquired the name of " The Dutchman's Churchyard," and the death-rate is still very high. Malaria is common in the lower regions, but the unhealthiness of the island is largely due to the absence of hygienic precautions. During the dry season (June to September) the temperature ranges in the lower parts between 66.2° and 80•6° F., and in the higher parts between 57.2° and 68°; in the rainy season it ranges between 69.8° and 89.6° in the lower parts, and between 64.4° and 80.6° in the higher parts. On Coffee Mount (2265 ft.) the mean of ten years was 68.9° the maximum 90•5° and the minimum 47.3°. The heat is tempered by the equatorial ocean current. The rainfall is very heavy save on the north coast. The soil is exceedingly fertile and a considerable area is densely forested. Among the products are oranges, lemons, figs, mangoes, and in the lower districts the vine, pineapple, guava and banana. The first object of European cultivation was sugar, and to this the island owed its prosperity in the 16th century;. sugar has been displaced by coffee and, principally, cocoa, introduced in 1795 and 1822 respectively. In 1907 the export of cocoa (including that from Principe) was over 24,000 tons, about a sixth of the world's supply. The cocoa zone lies between 65o and 2000 ft. above the sea. Vanilla and cinchona bark both succeed well, the latter at altitudes of from 1800 to 3300 ft. Rubber, quinine, cinnamon, camphor and the kola-nut are also produced, but since 189o—when the production was under 3000 tons—cocoa has been almost exclusively grown. About 175 sq. m. were in 1910 under cultivation. The value of the imports was £175,000 in 1896 and £708,000 in 1908; that of the exports was £398,000 in 1896 and £1,760,000 in 1908. The shipping trade (190 vessels of 490,000 tons in 1908) is chiefly in the hands of the Portuguese. The revenue (1909-1910) was about £195,000, the expenditure £162,000. At the census of 1900 the inhabitants were returned at 37,776, of whom 1012 were whites (mainly Portuguese). The town of St Thomas, capital and chief port of the province, residence of the governor and of the Curador (the legal guardian of the servircaes, i.e. labourers), is situated on Chaves Bay on the N.E. coast. It is the starting-point of a railway 9 M. long, which connects with the 1)ecauville railways on the cocoa estates. The inhabitants, apart from the Europeans, consist (1) of descendants of the original settlers, who were convicts from Portugal, slaves and others from Brazil and negroes from the Gabun and other parts of the Guinea coast. They number about Woo, are a brown-skinned, indolent race, and occupyrather than cultivate about one-eighth of the island. They are known as " natives " and use a Negro-Portuguese " lingua de S Thorne." (2) On the south-west coast are Angolares—some 3000 in number—descendants of two hundred Angola slaves wrecked at Sete Pedras in 1544. They retain their Banda speech and customs, and are expert fishermen and canoemen. (3) Contract labourers from Cape Verde, Kabinda, &c., and Angola. These form the bulk of the population. In 1891, before the great development of the cocoa industry, the population was only 22,000.1 St Thomas was discovered on the 21st of December 1470 by the Portuguese navigators Joao de Santarem and Pero de Escobar, who in the beginning of the following year discovered Annobom (" Good Year "). They found St Thomas uninhabited. The first attempts at colonization were Joao de Paiva's in 1485; but nothing permanent was accomplished till 1493, when a body of criminals and of young Jews taken from their parents to be baptized were sent to the island, and the present capital was founded by Alvaro de Carminha. In the middle of the 16th century there were over 8o sugar mills on the island, which then had a population of 50,000; but in 1567 the settlement was attacked by the French, and in 1574 the Angolares began raids which only ended with their subjugation in 1693. In 1595 tfiere was a slave revolt; and from 1641 to 1644 the Dutch, who had plundered the capital in 1600, held possession of the island. The French did great damage in 1709; the sugar trade had passed to Brazil and internal anarchy reduced St Thomas to a deplorable state. It was not until the later hall of the 19th century that prosperity began to return. The greatly increased demand for cocoa which arose in the last decade of the century led to the establishment of many additional plantations, and a very profitable industry was developed. Planters, however, were handicapped by the scarcity of labour, for though a number of Cape Verde islanders, Krumen and Kabindas sought employment on short-term agreements, the " natives " would not work. The difficulty was met by the recruitment of indentured natives from Angola, as many as 6000 being brought over in one year. The mortality among these labourers was great, but they were very well treated on the plantations. No provision was, however, made for their repatriation, while the great majority were brought by force from remote parts of Central Africa and had no idea of the character of the agreement into which they were compelled to enter. From time to time governors of Angola endeavoured to remedy the abuses of the system, which both in Portugal and Great Britain was denounced as indistinguishable from slavery, not-withstanding that slavery had been legally abolished in the Portuguese dominions in 1878. In March 1909 certain firms, British and German, as the result of investigations made in Angola and St Thomas, refused any longer to import cocoa from St Thomas or Principe Islands unless the recruitment of labourers for the plantations was made voluntary. Representations to Portugal were made by the British government, and the Lisbon authorities stopped recruitment entirely from July 1909 to February 1910, when it was resumed under new regulations. British consular agents were stationed in Angola and St Thomas to watch the working of these regulations. (See statement by Sir E. Grey reported in The Times, July 2nd, 1910). As one means of obviating the difficulties encountered in Angola the recruitment of labourers from Mozambique was begun in 1908, the men going out on a yearly contract.
End of Article: GEORGE EDWARD BATEMAN SAINTSBURY (1845- )
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