See also:battle is frequently called by the date on which it took place—the 12th of
See also:April 1782 . The French know it as the battle of
See also:Dominica, near the
See also:coast of which it was fought . The
See also:Saints are small rocky islets in the channel between the islands of Dominica and Guadaloupe in the West Indies . The battle is of exceptional importance in
See also:history; it was by far the most considerable fought at
See also:sea in the
See also:American War of Independence, and was to
See also:Great Britain of the nature of a deliverance, since it not only saved
See also:Jamaica from a formidable attack, but after the disasters in
See also:America went far to restore
See also:prestige . The comte de Grasse,with 33
See also:sail of the
See also:line, was at Fort Royal in
See also:Martinique . His aim was to effect a combination with a
See also:Spanish force from
See also:Cuba, and invade Jamaica . A British
See also:fleet (36 sail of the line), commanded by
See also:George, afterwards
See also:Lord Rodney (q.v.), was anchored in Gros Islet
See also:Lucia . On the 8th of April the British lookout frigates reported that the French were at sea, and Rodney immediately sailed in pursuit .
See also:Light and variable sea or
See also:land breezes made the movements of both fleets uncertain . Some of the
See also:ships of each might have a
See also:wind, while others were becalmed . On the 9th of April eight ships of the British
See also:van, at some distance from the bulk of 'their fleet, and nearly opposite the
See also:mountain called the Morne au Diable in Dominica, were attacked by fifteen of the French .
The comte de Grasse, whose own ships were much scattered and partly becalmed, and who moreover was hampered by the transports carrying soldiers and stores, did not
See also:press the attack home . His chief wish was to carry his fleet through the channel between Dominica and Guadaloupe, while Rodney was anxious to force a battle . During the
See also:night of the 11th-12th the greater
See also:part of the French had cleared the channel, but a collision took place between two of their ships by which one was severely damaged, The crippled vessel was seen and pursued by four ships of the British van . The comte de Grasse recalled all his vessels, and
See also:bore down towards the British . Rodney ordered the last of his ships to lead into
See also:action, the others following her in succession, and the detached ships falling in behind as they returned from the pursuit . The two fleets in line of battle passed one another, the French steering in a southerly, the British in a northerly direction . Both were going very slowly .
See also:Fire was opened about 8 o'
See also:clock, and by ro o'clock the leading British
See also:ship had passed the last of the French . While the action was in progress, one of the variable winds of the coast began to
See also:blow from the south, while the
See also:northern extremities of the fleets were in an easterly
See also:breeze . Confusion was produced in both forces, and a great
See also:gap was created in the French line just ahead of the " Formidable" (roo), Rodney's
See also:flagship . The captain of the fleet, Sir
See also:Douglas, called his
See also:attention to the opening, and urged him to
See also:steer through it . The fighting instructions then in force made it incumbent on an
See also:admiral to preserve the
See also:order in which he began the action unchanged .
Rodney hesitated to depart from the traditional order, but after a few moments of doubt accepted the
See also:suggestion . The " Formidable" was steered through the opening, followed by six of those immediately behind her . The ships towards the
See also:rear passed through the disordered French in the
See also:smoke, which was very thick, without knowing what they had done till they were beyond the enemy . About r o'clock the British had all either gone beyond the French or were to the east of them . The French were broken into three bodies, and were completely disordered . The comte de Grasse, in his flagship the " Ville de
See also:Paris," with five other vessels, was isolated from his van and rear . Rodney directed his attack on these six vessels, which were taken after a very gallant resistance . It was the general belief of the fleet that many more would have been captured if Rodney had pursued more vigorously, but he was content with the prizes he had taken . Two more of the French were captured by Sir
See also:Hood, afterwards Lord Hood, in the
See also:Mona Passage on the 19th of April . See Beatson, Naval and Military
See also:Memoirs (
See also:London, 1804), vol . 5 ; and a careful analysis from the French side by Chevalier, Histoire de la marine francaise pendant la guerre de t'independance americaine (Paris, 1877) . (D .
See also:SAINT-SAENS, 'CHARLES CAMILLE (1835- ), French composer, was
See also:born in Paris on the 3rd of
See also:October 1835 . After having as a
See also:child taken lessons on the piano, and learned the elements of composition, he entered the Paris
See also:Conservatoire in the
See also:organ class, then presided over by
See also:Eugene Benoist, obtaining the second prize in 1849, and the first two years later . For a
See also:time he studied composition under Halevy, and in 1852, and again in 1864, competed without success for the
See also:Grand Prix de Rome . Notwithstanding these unaccountable failures, Saint-Saens worked indefatigably . In 1853, when only eighteen, he was appointed organist at the
See also:Church of St Merry, and from 1861 to 1877 was organist at the Madeleine, in succession to Lefebure-Wely . An
See also:overture entitled "
See also:Spartacus," which has remained unpublished, was crowned at a competition instituted in x863 by the Societe Sainte Cecile of
See also:Bordeaux . The greatest
See also:triumph of his early career was, however, attained in 1867, when the prize was unanimously awarded to him for his cantata "
See also:Les Noces de Promethee " in the competition organized during the
See also:Exhibition of that year—a prize competed for by over two
See also:hundred musicians . Though he had acquired a great name as a pianist, and had made successful concert
See also:tours through
See also:Europe, he had not succeeded in reaching the ears of the larger public by the production of an
See also:opera, which in France
See also:counts for more than anything else . After the tragic events of 1870, when Saint-Satins did his
See also:duty as a patriot by serving in the
See also:National Guard, the opportunity at last offered itself, and a one-
See also:act opera from his
See also:pen, La Princesse jaune, with words by
See also:Louis Gallet, was produced at the Opera Comique with moderate success on the 12th of
See also:June 1872 . Le Timbre d'argent, a four-act opera performed at the Theatre Lyrique in 1877, was scarcely more successful . In the meanwhile his " symphonic poems" " Le Rouet d'Omphale," " Danse
See also:Macabre," " Phaeton " and " La Jeunesse d'Hercule "obtained for him a
See also:world-wide celebrity . These admirable examples of "
See also:music " count among his best known
See also:works .
At last, through theinfluence of
See also:Liszt, his Biblical opera Samson et Dalila was brought out at
See also:Weimar in 1877 . This
See also:work, generally accepted as his operatic masterpiece, had been begun as far back as 1869, and an act had been heard at one of Colonne'r concerts in 1875 . Notwithstanding its great success at Weimar, its first performance on French
See also:soil took place at
See also:Rouen in 1890 . The following
See also:year it was given in Paris at the Eden Theatre, and finally in 1892 was produced at the Grand Opera, where it has remained one of the most attractive works of the repertoire . Its Biblical subject stood in the way of its being performed on the London stage until 1909, when it was given at Covent
See also:Garden with great success . None of his works is better calculated to exemplify the dual tendencies of his
See also:style . The first act, with its somewhat formal choruses, suggests the influence of Bach and
See also:Handel, and is treated rather in the manner of an
See also:oratorio . The more dramatic portions of the opera are not uninfluenced by
See also:Meyerbeer, while in the mellifluous strains allotted to the temptress there are occasional suggestions of Gounod . Of Wagner there is but little trace, save in the fact that the composer has divided his work into scenes, thus avoiding the old-fashioned denominations of " air," " duet," " trio," &c .. The score, however, is not devoid of individuality . The influences mentioned above, possibly excepting that of Bach in the earlier scenes, are rather of a superficial nature, for Saint-Satins has undoubtedly a style of his own . It is a composite style, certainly, and all the materials that go towards forming it may not be absolutely his; that is, the
See also:eclecticism of his mind may lead him at one moment to adopt an archaic
See also:form of expression, at another to employ the
See also:currant musical language of his
See also:day, and sometimes to blend the two .
It is perhaps in the lattercase that he shows most individuality; for although his works may denote the varied influences of such totally dissimilar masters as Bach,
See also:Beethoven, Liszt and Gounod, he ever contrives to put in some-thing of his own . After the production of Samson et Dalila Saint-Satins stood at the parting of the ways—looked at askance by the reactionary section of the French musicians, and suspected of harbouring subversive Wagnerian ideas, but ready to be welcomed by the progressive party . Both sides were doomed to disappointment, for in his subsequent operas Saint-Satins attempted to effect a compromise between the older and the newer forms of opera . He had already entertained the idea of utilizing the history of France for operatic purposes . The first and only result of this project has been Etienne
See also:Marcel, an opera produced at
See also:Lyons in 1879 . Although of unequal merit, owing partly to its want of unity of style, this work contains much music of an attractive kind, and scarcely deserves the neglect into which it has fallen . Forsaking the history of France he now composed his opera
See also:Henry VIII., produced at the Paris Grand Opera in 1883 . The librettists had concocted a piece that was sufficiently well knit and abounded in dramatic contrasts . While adhering to his
See also:system of compromise by retaining certain conventional operatic features, Saint-Satins had in this instance advanced somewhat by employing leit motivs in a more rigorous fashion than hitherto, although he had not gone so far as to discard airs cut after the old
See also:pattern, duets and quartets . Henry VIII., which was given at Covent Garden in 1898, occupies an honourable place among the composer's works .
See also:pine, a lyrical drama produced at the Paris Opera Comique in 1887, achieved a succes d'estime and no more . A not much better
See also:fate befell Ascanio, an opera founded on Paul
See also:Meurice's drama Benvenuto
See also:Cellini, and brought out at the Grand Opera in r8go .
See also:Phryne, however, a two-act trifle of a light description, produced at the Opera Comique in 1893, met with success . In 1895 Fredegonde, an opera begun by Ernest
See also:Guiraud and completed by Saint-Saens, was produced in Paris . The " lyrical drama " Les Barbares, given at the Grand Opera in Igor, was received with marked favour . Saint-Saens worked successfully in every
See also:field of his
See also:art . Besides the operas above alluded to, he composed the following oratorios and cantatas: " Oratorio de Noel," " Les Noces de Promethee,'" Psalm " Coeli enarrant," " Le Deluge," " La
See also:Lyre et la harpe "; three symphonies; four symphonic poems (" Le Rouet d'Omphale," " Phaeton," " Danse Macabre," ' La Jeunesse d' Hercule ") ; five pianoforte concertos; three
See also:violin concertos; two suites,
See also:marches, and other works for orchestra; the
See also:ballet Zavotte; music to the drama Dejanire, given at the open-air theatre of
See also:Beziers; a quintet for piano and strings, a quartet for piano and strings, two tnos for piano and strings, a
See also:string quartet, a septet, violoncello
See also:sonata, two violin sonatas; a Mass, a
See also:Requiem, besides a quantity of piano and organ music, and many songs, duets and choruses . He also published three books, entitled Harmonie et melodie, Portraits et souvenirs, and Problemes et mystbres, besides a
See also:volume of poems, Rimes familieres . The honorary degree of
See also:Doctor of Music was conferred upon him by Cambridge University in 1893 .
GEORGE EDWARD BATEMAN SAINTSBURY (1845- )
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