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Originally appearing in Volume V23, Page 1014 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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COMTE DE ALEXANDER CHARLES OMER ROUSSELIN DE CORBEAU SAINT ALBIN (1773-1847), French politician, was born in Paris, of a noble Dauphinois family, and was educated at the College d'Harcourt. He embraced the revolutionary ideas with enthusiasm. As civil commissioner at Troyes he was accused of terrorism by some, and by the revolutionary tribunal• of moderation. He was imprisoned for a short time in 1794. On his release the Citoyen Rousselin entered the ministry of the interior, and under the Directory he became secretary-general, and then civil commissioner of the Seine. Attached to the party of Bernadotte, he was looked on with suspicion by the imperial police, and during the later years of the empire spent his time in retirement at Provence. During the Hundred Days, however, he served under Carnot at the ministry of the interior. Under the Restoration he defended Liberal principles 'in the Constitutionnel, of which he was the founder. Although Louis Philippe had been his friend since the days of the, Revolution, he accepted no office from the monarchy of July. He retired from the Constitutionnel in 1838, and died on the 15th of June 1847. His chief works deal with the soldiers of the Revolution. They are: Vie de Lazare Hoche (2 vols., 1798); Notice historique sur le general Marbot (1800); M. de Championnel (186o); and notices of others posthumously published by his son, Hortensius de Saint Albin, as Documents relatifs a la Revolution Francaise .. . (1873). ST ALDEGONDE, PHILIPS VAN MARNIX, HEER VAN (1538-1598), Dutch writer and statesman, was born at Brussels, the son of Jacob van Marnix, baron of Pottes. He studied theology under Calvin and Beza at Geneva and, returning to the Netherlands in 156o, threw himself energetically into the cause of the Reformation, taking an active part in the compromise of the nobles in 1565 and the assembly of St Trond. He made himself conspicuous by issuing a pamphlet in justification of the iconoclasts who devastated Flanders in 1566, and on Alva's arrival next year had to fly the country. After spending some time in Friesland and in the Palatinate he was in 1570 taken into the service of William, prince of Orange, and in 1572 was sent as his representative to the first meeting of the States-general assembled at Dordrecht. In 1573 he was taken prisoner by the Spaniards at Maaslandsluys, but was exchanged in the following year. He was sent as the representative of the insurgent provinces to Paris and London, where he in vain attempted to secure the effective assistance of Queen Elizabeth. In 1578 he was at the diet of Worms, where he made an eloquent but fruitless appeal for aid to the German princes. Equally vain were his efforts in the same year to persuade the magistrates of Ghent to cease persecuting the Catholics in the city. He took a conspicuous part in arranging the Union of Utrecht, and in 1583 was chosen burgomaster of Antwerp. In 1585 he surrendered the city, after a 13 months' siege, to the Spaniards. Violently attacked by the English and by his own countrymen for this act, he retired from public affairs and, save for a mission to Paris in 1J9o, lived henceforth in Leiden or on his estate in Zeeland, where he worked at a translation of the Bible. He died at Leiden on the 15th of December 1598. St Aldegonde, or Marnix (by which name he is very commonly known), is celebrated for his share in the great development of Dutch literature which followed the classical period represented by such writers as the poet and historian Pieter Hooft. Of his works the best known is the Roman Bee-hive (De roomsche byen-korf), published in 1569 during his exile in Friesland, a bitter satire on the faith andpractices of the Roman Catholic Church. This was translated or adapted in French, German and English. As a poet, St Aldegonde is mainly known through his admirable metrical translation of the Psalms (1580), and the celebrated Wilhelmus van Nassauwe, one of the two officially recognized national anthems of Holland, is also ascribed to him. His complete works, edited by Lacroix and Quinet, were published at Brussels in 7 vols. (1855-1859), and his religious and theological writings, edited by Van Turenenbergen, at Paris, in 3 vols. (1871-1891). See E. Quinet, Marnix de St Aldegonde (Paris, 1854) ; Juste, Vie de Marnix (The Hague, 1858) ; Fredericq, Marnix en zijne nederlandsche geschriften (Ghent, 1882) ; Tjalma, Philips van Marnix, beer van Sint-Aldegonde (Amsterdam, 1896). ST ALDWYN, MICHAEL EDWARD HICKS BEACH, 1ST VISCOUNT (1837— ), English statesman, son of Sir Michael Hicks Beach, 8th Bart., whom he succeeded in 1854, was born in London in 1837, and was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated with a first class in the school of law and modern history. In 1864 he was returned to parliament as a Conservative for East Gloucestershire, the county in which his estates of Williamstrip Park were situated; and during 1868 he acted both as parliamentary secretary to the Poor Law Board and as under-secretary for the Home Department. In 1874 he was made chief secretary for Ireland, and was included in the Cabinet in 1877. From 1878 to 188o he was secretary of state for the colonies. In 1885 he was elected for West Bristol, and the Conservative party having returned to power, became chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the House of Commons. After Mr Gladstone's brief Home Rule Ministry in 1886 he entered Lord Salisbury's next Cabinet again as Irish secretary, making way for Lord Randolph Churchill as leader of the House; but troubles with his eyesight compelled him to resign in 1887, and meanwhile Mr Goschen replaced Lord Randolph as chancellor of the exchequer. From 1888 to 1892 Sir Michael Hicks Beach returned to active work as president of the Board of Trade, and in 1895—Mr Goschen being transferred to the Admiralty—he again became chancellor of the exchequer. In 1899 he lowered the fixed charge for the National Debt from twenty-five to twenty-three millions—a reduction imperatively required, apart from other reasons, by the difficulties found in redeeming Consols at their then inflated price. When compelled to find means for financing the war in South Africa, he insisted on combining the raising of loans with the imposition of fresh taxation; and besides raising the income-tax each year, up to is. 3d. in 1902, he introduced taxes on sugar and exported coal (1901), and in 1902 proposed the reimposition of the registration duty on corn and flour which had been abolished in 1869 by Mr Lowe. The sale of his Netheravon estates in Wiltshire to the War Office in 1898 occasioned some acrid criticism concerning the valuation, for which, however, Sir Michael himself was not responsible. On Lord Salisbury's retirement in 1902 Sir Michael Hicks Beach also left the government. He accepted the chairmanship of the Royal Commission on Ritualistic Practices in the Church, and he did valuable work as an arbitrator; and though when the fiscal controversy arose he became a member of the Free-food League, his parliamentary loyalty to Mr Balfour did much to prevent the Unionist free-traders from precipitating a rupture. When Mr Balfour resigned in 1905 he was raised to the peerage as Viscount St Aldwyn. ST AMAND-LES-EAUX, a town of northern France, in the department of Nord, at the junction of the Elnon with the Scarpe, 22 M. S.E. of Lille by rail. Pop. (1906), town, 10,195; commune, 14,454. The town has a communal college and a school of drawing, and carries on iron-founding and the manufacture of porcelain, hosiery, chains and nails, but is better known for its mineral waters and mud baths. There are five springs; the water (67° to 77° F.) contains sulphate of lime and sulphur, and deposits white gelatinous threads without smell or taste. The mud baths are of benefit to patients suffering from rheumatism, gout and certain affections of liver and skin. Though from the discovery of statues and coins in the mud it is evident that these must have been frequented during the Roman period, it was only at the close of the 17th century that they again became of more than local celebrity. Of the abbey there remain an entrance pavilion serving as town hall and the richly decorated facade of the church, both dating from the 17th century. St Amand owes its name to St Amand, bishop of Tongres, who founded a monastery here in the 7th century. The abbey was laid waste by the Normans in 882 and by the count of Hainaut in 1340. The town was captured by Mary of Burgundy in 1477, by the count of Ligne, Charles V.'s lieutenant, in 1521, and finally in 1667 by the French. In 1793 St Amand was the headquarters of General Dumouriez in revolt against the Republican government. ST-AMAND-MONT-ROND, a town of central France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Cher, 39 M. S. by E. of Bourges on the railway to Montlucon. Pop. (1906), 7711. The town stands at the foot of the hill of Mont-Rond on the right bank of the Cher, at its confluence with the Marmande and on the canal of Berry. A church of the period of transition from the Romanesque to Gothic style and several old houses are the more interesting buildings. The beautiful chateau of Meillant, built from 1500 to 1510 by the admiral Charles of Amboise, is 52 m. from St Amand; and the abbey of Noirlac, a fine type of Cistercian abbey with a 12th-century church, is 22 M. from the town. The town grew up round a monastery founded by St Amand, a follower of St Columban, in the 7th century. Its ruined stronghold, on the hill of Mont-Rond, was of importance in the middle ages, and during the Fronde, when it belonged to the great Conde, was a centre of resistance to the royal troops, by whom it was taken after a siege of eleven months in 1652. It was for a time the property of Sully, who retired to it under the regency of Marie de' Medici. SAINT-AMANT, MARC ANTOINE DE GERARD, SIEUR DE (1594-1661), French poet, was born near Rouen in the year 1594. His father was a merchant who had, according to his son's account, been a sailor and had commanded for 22 years une escadre de la reine Elizabeth—a vague statement that lacks confirmation. The son obtained a patent of nobility, and attached himself to different great noblemen—the duc de Retz and the comte d'Harcourt among others. He saw military service and sojourned at different times in Italy, in England-a sojourn which provoked from him a violent poetical attack on the country, Albion (1643)—in Poland, where he held a court appointment for two years, and elsewhere. Saint-Amant's later years were spent in France; and he died at Paris on the 29th of Decemoe.1661. Saint-Ainant has left a not inconsiderable body of poetry. His Albion and Rome ridicule set the fashion of the burlesque poem, a form in which he was excelled by his follower Paul Scarron. In his later years he devoted himself to serious subjects and produced an epic, Molise sauve (1653). His best work consists of Bacchanalian songs, his Debauche being one of the most remarkable convivial poems of its kind. The standard edition is that in the Bibliotheque Elzevirienne, by M. C. L. Livet (2 vols. Paris, 1855).

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