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SAINT CLAIR

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Originally appearing in Volume V23, Page 1022 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SAINT CLAIR, a borough of Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on Mill Creek, 3 M. N. of Pottsville, and about 40 M. by rail N.N.W. of Reading. Pop. (191o) 6455. Saint Clair is served by the Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia & Reading railways. It is engaged chiefly in the mining (very largely surface-stripping) and shipping of anthracite coal, and in the manufacture of miners' supplies. Saint Clair was settled in 1825 and was incorporated as a borough in 185o. ST CLAIR, a lake and river of North America, forming part of the boundary between the state of Michigan, U.S.A., and the province of Ontario, Canada. The lake is 29 M. long and 20 broad. It contains numerous islands, receives from the Canadian side several rivers, the largest of which is the Thames, and is drained into Lake Erie by the Detroit river. At its foot are the cities of Detroit (Michigan) and Windsor (Ontario). On the north it receives the St Clair river, the outlet of Lake Huron, The shores of both lake and river are flat, and their waters shallow; but, owing to the enormous traffic which passes through, they have been in great part canalized, and can accommodate the largest steamers. ST CLAUDE, a town of eastern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Jura, 42 M. S.S.E. of Lons-le-Saunier by rail. Pop. (Igoe) 9558. The town is beautifully situated 1300 ft. above sea-level at the western base of Mont Bayard, among the heights of the eastern Jura at the confluence of the Bienne and the Tacon. The latter river is crossed by a fine suspension bridge. The cathedral of St Pierre, once the abbey-church, a building of the 14th to the 18th centuries, contains fine 15th-century stalls and a reredos of the Renaissance period. The town is the seat of a bishop, suffragan of Lyons, and of a sub-prefect. St Claude has been noted since the close of the middle ages for its fancy articles in horn, tortoise-shell, hardwood, ivory, &c., and there are manufactures of briar-root pipes. Diamond-cutting and lapidary work and the manufacture of measures are also prosperous industries. The town derives its name from that of an archbishop of Besancon who died in the 7th century in the monastery founded here in the 5th century. This monastery subsequently acquired almost independent sovereignty in the locality, and held its retainers in a state of serfdom till the Revolution. Voltaire pleaded the cause of the serfs, though unsuccessfully, before the parlement of Besancon, and in memory of his services a statue was erected to him in 1887. St Claude was constituted a bishopric in 1762. The abbey-buildings and most of the town were destroyed by fire in 1799. ST CLOUD, a town of northern France, in the department of Seine-et-Oise, on the left bank of the Seine, 2 M. W. of the fortifications of Paris by road. Pop. (1906) 7316. Picturesquely built on a hill-slope, St Cloud overlooks the river, the Bois de Boulogne and Paris; and, lying amid the foliage of its magnificent park and numerous villa gardens, it is one of the favourite resorts of the Parisians. The palace of St Cloud, which had been a summer residence for Napoleon I., Louis XVIII., Charles X., Louis Philippe and Napoleon III., was burned by the Prussians in r87o along with part of the village. In spite of the damage inflicted on the park at the same period its magnificent avenues and ornamental water still make it one of the pleasantest spots in the neighbourhood of Paris. Every year in September, at the time of the pilgrimage of St Cloud, a fair lasting four weeks is held in the park. Within its precincts are situated the national Sevres porcelain manufactory and the Breteuil pavilion, the seat of the international commission on the metre. St Cloud possesses a modern church in the style of the 12th century with an elegant stone spire; and here, too, is established the higher training college for male teachers for the provincial training colleges of primary instruction. Clodoald or Cloud, grandson of Clovis, adopted the monastic life and left his name to the spot where his tomb was discovered I019 after the lapse of 1200 years, in a crypt near the present church. He had granted the domain to the bishops of Paris, who possessed it as a fief till the 18th century. At St Cloud Henry III. and the king of Navarre (Henry IV.) established their camp during the League for the siege of Paris; and there the former was assassinated by Jacques Clement. The castle was at that time a plain country house belonging to Pierre de Gondi, arch-bishop of Paris; in 1658 it was acquired by the duke of Orleans, who was the originator of the palace which perished in 187o. Peter the Great of Russia was received there in 1717 by the regent, whose grandson sold the palace to Marie Antoinette. It was at St Cloud that Bonaparte executed the coup d'etat of 18th Brumaire (1799); after he became emperor the palace was his favourite residence, and there he celebrated his marriage with Marie Louise. In 1815 it was the scene of the signing of the capitulation of Paris; and in 183o from St Cloud Charles X. issued the orders which brought about his fall. Napoleon III. was there when he received the senatusconsult which restored the empire in his favour (1st December 1852). Seized by the Prussians at the beginning of the investment of Paris ill 187o, St Cloud was sacked during the siege. ST CLOUD, a city in Stearns, Benton and Sherburne counties, Minnesota, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Stearns county, about 65 m. N.W. of Minneapolis, on both banks of the Mississippi river, and about 970 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1900) 8663, of whom 1907 were foreign-born; (1910 U.S. census) ro,600. It is served by the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific railways. It is the seat of one of the State Normal Schools (1869), and of the Minnesota State Reformatory (1887). In the city are a Carnegie library, a Federal building, a Roman Catholic cathedral, St Raphael's Hospital (Roman Catholic), St Clotilda's Academy of Music and two business colleges. The Mississippi has a considerable fall here, and provides valuable water-power. Among the manufactures are flour, barrels, bricks, and foundry and machine-shop products--the Great Northern maintains extensive car and repair shops here. In 1905 the value of the city's factory product was $1,994,476, an increase of 27.8% since 190o. There are large lumber yards, and excellent grey and red granites (St Cloud is called " the Granite City ") from neighbouring quarries are exported. The city lies in a large grain-growing and stock-raising district. St Cloud was settled in 1852, platted in 1854, incorporated as a village in 1868, and chartered as a city in 1889. Until reached by the Great Northern railway, St Cloud was the Hudson's Bay Company's terminus for the unloading of furs from the wooden ox-carts (" Red river " carts). ST CROIX or SANTA CRUZ, the largest island in the Danish West Indies. It lies 65 m. S.E. of Puerto Rico, in 17° 40' N. and 64° 14' W., is 22 M. long, varies in breadth from 1 m. to 6 m., and has an area of 84 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 18,590. Parallel with the western coast is a range of hills, culminating in Mount Eagle (1164 ft.). The narrower western part is also hilly, but on the S. shore there are marshy tracts with lagoons of brackish water. Sugar is the staple product, and near Christiansted there is a central factory conducted by the government. The planters are mostly English, and their language predominates. The capital, Christianstad (locally known as " Bassin "), is situated at the head of an inlet on the N. coast, but its harbour is to a large extent choked with mud. It is a picturesque town, and the seat of the Danish governor during half the year. The only other town, Frederickstad, stands on an open roadstead on the W. coast. It is locally known as " West End," and part of the town, wrecked by the blacks in 1878, lies in ruins. The climate is healthy, the mean annual temperature being 74° F. and the average rainfall 45.7 in. per annum. St Croix was discovered in 1493 by Columbus, and was owned in turn by the Dutch, British and Spanish. In 1851 it was taken by France, and two years later was given to the Knights of Malta by Louis XIV. In 1733 it was purchased by Denmark. Slavery was abolished in 1848 after a violent insurrection which had broken out among the slaves. See Sir H. H. Johnston, The Negro in the New World (r9To). SAINT-CYRAN, a French Benedictine abbey in the province of Berry, now comprised in the department of the Loiret. From 1620 to 1643 it was held by the famous Jansenist reformer, DuVergier (q.v.), who is consequently often spoken of by French writers as the Abbe de Saint-Cyran. ST CYR-L'$COLE, a town of northern France in the department of Seine-et-Oise, 3 M. W. of Versailles at the end of the old park of Louis XIV. Pop. (1906) 2696. Its importance is due to the famous military school (ecole speciale militaire) in which officers for the cavalry and infantry are trained. It was established in 1808 in the convent which Madame de Maintenon founded for the education of noble young ladies in poor circumstances. Racine's Esther and Athalie were first acted here, having been written expressly for the pupils. Madame de Maintenon's tomb is still preserved in the chapel. The convent was suppressed at the Revolution, and the gardens are now partly transformed into parade-grounds. ST DAVIDS (Tyddewi), a cathedral town of Pembrokeshire, Wales, situated near the sea to the S.E. of St David's Head, the most westerly promontory of South Wales. Pop. (1901) 1710. St Davids is Io m. distant from the station of Letterston on the Great Western railway, and about 16 m. from Fishguard to the N.E., and 16 m. from Haverfordwest to the E. The little town, locally known as " the city," stands in a lofty position east of the Cathedral Close, and consists of five streets, which converge on an open space called the Cross Keys, formerly used as a market-place and distinguished by its High Cross, a single shaft erect on a square base of six steps, restored in 1873. From the cross a lane leads westward to the Tower Gate, flanked by two ancient towers in a ruinous condition. From this point is obtained a superb view of the close with the cathedral and ruined palace in the valley of the Alun below, to which the rocky outline of Carn Llidi forms an imposing background. The cathedral church of SS. Andrew and David, in spite of centuries of neglect and ill-advised alterations, remains the largest and most interesting pile of ecclesiastical buildings in the Principality. It is largely built of a beautiful purple-hued sandstone, which is quarried locally. Its proportions are: length (exclusive of the Trinity and Lady chapels), 2543 ft.; breadth of nave and aisles, 513 ft.; breadth of transepts including tower, 116 ft.; and height of central tower, 116 ft. In spite of the antiquity of its foundation, the earliest and main portion of the existing fabric was erected under Bishop Peter de Leia (1176-1198) in the transitional Norman-English style. Bisi:op David Martyn (129o-1328) built the Lady Chapel; Bishop Henry de Gower (1328-1347), one of the greatest of ecclesiastical builders in Wales, made many additions in the Decorated style, including the stone rood-screen and southern porch; and Bishop Edward Vaughan (15o9-1522) erected the Trinity Chapel between the choir and Lady Chapel. Under the last-named prelate the magnificence of St Davids reached its height, but owing to the changes during the Reformation and the unscrupulous rapacity of Bishop William Barlow (1536-1548) the fabric suffered severely; nor was it spared later during the Civil Wars, when the Lady Chapel, the aisles of the presbytery, and even the transepts were unroofed and partially dismantled. In 1793 the cathedral was repaired by Thomas Nash, who rebuilt the western front in a debased Perpendicular style. The work of much-needed restoration was carried out throughout the latter half of the 19th century, especially between 1862 and 1869, when Sir Gilbert Scott strengthened the building at a cost of over £43,000. In 1873 Nash's incongruous work was replaced by a new facade intended to harmonize with the original design of Bishop de Leia, and at the be-ginning of the 20th century the Lady Chapel and Bishop Vaughan's chapel were restored in memory of Bishop Basil Jones (d. 1897) and of Deans Allen and Phillips. The interior of the nave, separated by six wide bays from the aisles, is singularly imposing with its triforium and clerestory windows. It possesses an elaborate roof of Irish oak, the gift of Treasurer Owen Pole (c. 1500). The nave is divided from the choir by Bishop Gower's fine stone screen, whilst the choir itself contains the richly carved stalls erected by Bishop Tully (1460-1481), the episcopal throne, and an elegant oaken screen that serves to separate choir and presbytery. The painted roof (freely restored) exhibits the coats-of-arms of Bishops Tully and Richard Martin, Treasurer Owen Pole and other benefactors. The eastern wall of the choir has been greatly altered by the addition of modern Venetian mosaic designs in the original lower triplet of lights, and by the insertion of lancet windows in place of a large Perpendicular window of the 15th century. Bishop Vaughan's chapel contains fine Tudor fan vaulting, and the Lady Chapel good decorated sedilia. The cathedral, before the Reformation, was remarkably rich in sculptured tombs and monuments, but manyof these have perished and all the brasses have disappeared. In the presbytery stands prominent the altar tomb with modern brasses inserted of Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond (d. 1456), father of King Henry VII. Among the other surviving monuments, all more or less injured and defaced, are the tombs of Bishop Gower and of several bishops of St Davids; the canopied effigies popularly but erroneously attributed to Prince Rhys (d. 1196) and his son Rhys; the stone base of the destroyed shrine of St David; a priest's effigy formerly believed to be that of the celebrated Giraldus Cambrensis; and the large Jacobean monument of Treasurer Thomas Lloyd (d. 1612). To the north of the cathedral is to be seen.the ruined shell of the beautiful chapel with an adjoining tower, forming part of the college of St Mary, founded by John of Gaunt and Bishop Adam Houghton in 1397. On the west bank of the Alun stands the splendid and indeed unique ruin of the episcopal palace erected, by Bishop Gower (c. 1342). Built for the purpose of culture and entertainment rather than for defence, Bishop Gower's ecclesiastical mansion is " essentially a palace and not a castle; and it is hardly too much to affirm that it is altogether unsurpassed by any existing English edifice of its kind." Built upon vaulted cellars, the palace occupies three sides of a quadrangle 120 ft. square, and though roofless and deserted for nearly three hundred years it retains most of its principal features. The great hall, 96 ft. by 33 ft., possesses a traceried wheel-window; the chief portal is still imposing; and the chapel retains its curious bell-turret; while the peculiar but singularly graceful arcaded parapet of the roof extends intact throughout the whole length of the building. Partially dismantled by Bishop Barlow (c. 154o) the half-ruined palace was occasionally occupied by succeeding bishops prior to the Civil Wars, and in 1633 a chapter was held within its walls under Bishop Field. The Close, 18 acres in extent and extra-parochial, contains the deanery and other residences of the cathedral clergy, mostly occupying the sites of ancient buildings. It formerly owned four gateways, of which the South or Tower Gate alone remains. The whole of the wild and bleak but picturesque neighbourhood of St Davids teems with legendary and historical associations, and cromlechs and ruined chapels are numerous, amongst the latter the chapels of St Justinian (Capel Stinan) and St Non being the most remarkable. History.—At some unknown period in the 6th century the celebrated patron saint of Wales, Dewi or David, removed the chief seat of South Welsh ecclesiastical life to Menevia or Menapia (Mynyw), which is traditionally reported to have been the saint's birthplace. The site chosen for this new foundation was the marshy valley of the Alun—the Vallis Rosina of medieval historians—and this spot became known henceforth as Tyddewi or St Davids. The dread of an imminent Anglo-Saxon invasion of Gwent, the determination to remove his monastic clergy from court influence, and the desire of opening closer communication with the sister Churches of Ireland, are among the various reasons suggested for David's remarkable policy, which made St Davids the leading religious centre in South Wales for nearly a thousand years. From the 7th to the rrth centuries the successors of St David occasionally ventured to exercise metropolitan rights over South Wales, and even over all land west of the Severn, and the character and extent of these ancient claims have frequently been made the subject of speculation or controversy among historians, some of whom have not hesitated to designate the early Celtic holders of the see by the title of " archbishop." These ill-defined claims were destroyed by St Anselme's forcible appointment of the Norman monk Bernard to the bishopric in 1115, from which date to the present time°St Davids has ranked as a suffragan see of Canterbury; nor has its ancient independence ever been seriously asserted, save by the intrepid Gerald de Barri (Giraldus Cambrensis), who vainly strove from 1199 to 1203 to induce Pope Innocent III. to acknowledge the power of the cathedral chapter to elect its own bishops without reference to English king or primate. St Davids early became popular as a place of pilgrimage, and amongst the many suppliants who visited St David's shrine were William the Conqueror, Henry II. and Edward I. with Queen Eleanor. Probably with a view to conciliate the native clergy for Anselme's unpopular policy in Wales, Henry I. obtained from Pope Calixtus II. the canonization of St David about 1120, and in local esteem two pilgrimages to St Davids were vulgarly supposed to be equivalent to one journey to Rome itself: a sentiment preserved in the curious monkish hexameter: " Roma semel quantum bis dat Menevia tantum." From 1115 to the Reformation the see was held by prelates (many of them natives of Wales) who did much to enrich' and beautify the vast group of ecclesiastical buildings in the Close: But with the partial destruction of the palace and the removal of the episcopal residence to Abergwili, it was not long before St Davids sank into a mere monument of its former splendour and importance. In 1539 Bishop Barlow even petitioned Thomas Cromwell for permission to remove the see itself to Carmarthen, a request which tradition declares Henry VIII. refused to grant solely out of respect for the memory of his grandfather Edmund Tudor, whose tomb had recently been taken from the suppressed priory of Grey Friars at Carmarthen and set up before the high altar of the cathedral. During the 17th and 18th centuries all the ancient buildings of the Close, except the cathedral (which served also as a parish church for the village of St Davids), were allowed to fall into hopeless ruin. Amongst the 119 bishops who have held the see since its foundation by St David may be mentioned Asser, the friend of King Alfred (d. go6); Samson (loth century), honoured by the Welsh chroniclers with the proud title of " Archbishop of the Isle of Britain "; Rhyddmarch (d. 1og6), the first biographer of St David; Henry de Gower (d. 1347), the munificent patron of art; Robert Ferrar, burned at Carmarthen in 1555 under Queen Mary; Richard Davies (d. 1581), patriot and translator of the Welsh Book of Common Prayer; Archbishop William Laud, bishop of the see between 1621 and 1627; George Bull, divine (d. 1710); and Connop Thirlwall, scholar and historian (d. 1875). The official title of the bishops of St Davids is Episcopus Menevensis. (H.M.V.) ST DENIS, an industrial town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Seine, 5 M. N. of Paris. Pop. (1906) 62,323. St Denis, an important junction on the northern railway, stands in a plain on the right bank of the Seine, which is here joined by the canal of St Denis. It has numerous metallurgical works, where railway material, naval engines and the like are constructed, distilleries of spirits, glass-works, potteries and manufactories of drugs, chemical products, oils, nickel plate and pianos. The name and fame of the town are derived from the abbey founded by Dagobert I. on the spot where St Denis, the apostle of Paris, was interred. The abbey buildings, occupied by a school for daughters of members of the Legion of Honour, founded by Napoleon I., date from the 18th century. The church exhibits the transition from the Romanesque to the Gothic style. The west front was built between 1137 and 1140. The right-hand tower is almost pure Romanesque; that on the left was Gothic, and its spire was carried to a height of 28o ft., but it was struck by lightning in 1837 and reconstructed in so clumsy a manner that it had to be reduced to the level of the roof of the nave. The rose window, now occupied by a clock face, dates from the 13th century. Under one of the three rows of arches above the main entrance runs an inscription recording the erection of the church by Abbot Suger (q.v.), minister of Louis VI., with abbatial funds and its consecration in 1140. The porch formed by the first three bays of the church contains some remains of the basilica of Pippin the Short and Charlemagne, by whom the church was rebuilt. The nave proper (235 ft. long and 57 wide) has seven bays, and dates, as well as most of the choir and transepts, from the reign of St Louis. The secondary apse (rondpoint) and its semicircular chapels (consecrated in 1144) are considered as the first perfected attempt at Gothic. The transepts have fine facades, the north of the 12th, the south of the 13th century, each with two unfinished towers; if the plan had been fully carried out there would have been six towers besides a central spire in lead. The church contains a series of tombs of the kings and princes of the royal houses of France. The most remarkable are those of Louis XII. and Anne of Brittany, executed from 1516 to 1532; of Henry II. and Catherine de' Medici, a masterpiece by Germain Pilon (1564-1583) ; of Louis of Orleans and Valentine of Milan, from the old church of the Celestines at Paris (1502-1515) ; of Francis I. and Claude of France, one of the most splendid tombs of the Renaissance, executed under the direction of Philibert Delorme(1550-1560); and that of Dagobert, which, though considerably dilapidated, ranks as one of the most curious of medieval (13th-century) works of art. In the apse some stained glass of the time of Suger remains. The crypt dates partly from the loth or 11th century. In the centre is the vault where the coffin of the king used to lie until, to make room for that of his successor, it was removed to its final resting-place. It is at present occupied by the coffin of Louis XVIII., the last sovereign whose body was borne to St Denis. Besides fine statues, the crypt contains the Bourbon vault, in which among other coffins are de-posited the remains of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette. St Denis, the ancient Catulliacum, was a town of no pretensions till the foundation of its abbey, which became one of the most powerful in France. The rebuilding of the church, begun in the 12th century by Suger, was completed in the 13th century. Among the many domains of the abbey was the French Vexin. It was held during the later middle ages by the French kings and vassals of the abbey, and to this fact is due their adoption of the oriflamme or red banner of St Denis as the royal standard. St Louis caused mausoleums to be erected with figures of the princes already buried in the abbey; and from his time to that of Henry II. every monarch in succession had his monument. Louis XIV. reduced the abbey to the rank of a priory; and at the Revolution it was suppressed, the tombs being violated and the church sacked (1793). Two years later all the remains that could be recovered were placed in the museum of the Petits Augustins at Paris; but the bronze tombs had been melted down, the stained-glass windows shattered, and large numbers of interesting objects stolen or lost. Louis XVIII. caused all the articles belonging to St Denis to be brought back to their original site, and added numerous other monuments from the suppressed abbeys. But it was not till after 1848 that, under the direction of Viollet le Duc, the basilica recovered its original appearance. St Denis, which was the key of Paris on the north, was more than once pillaged in the Hundred Years' War, suffering especially in 1358 and 1406. A sanguinary battle, in which the Catholic leader Constable Anne de Montmorency found victory and death, was fought between Huguenots and Catholics in the neighbourhood on the loth of November 1567. See F. de Guilhermy, Monographie de l'e'glise royale de St Denis (Paris, 1848). ST DIE, a town of eastern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Vosges, 38 in. N.E. of Epinal by rail. Pop. (1go6) town, 16,783; commune, 22,136. St Die is situated on the Meurthe in a basin surrounded by well-wooded hills. The town, part of which was laid out in a uniform style after the fire of 1757, is built largely of red sandstone. Its cathedral has a Romanesque nave (12th century) and a Gothic choir; the portal of red stone dates from the 18th century. A fine cloister (13th century), containing a stone pulpit, communicates with the Petite-fglise or Notre-Dame, a well-preserved specimen of Romanesque architecture (12th century). The hotel-de-ville contains a theatre, a library with some valuable manuscripts, and a museum of antiquities. There is a monument by Mercie to Jules Ferry, born in the town in 1832. St Die is the seat of a bishop and of a sub-prefect. The town benefited from the immigration of Alsatians after the Franco-German War of 1870-71, and its industries include the spinning and weaving of cotton, bleaching, wire-drawing, metal-founding, and the manufacture of hosiery, woodwork of various kinds, machinery, iron goods and wire-gauze. St Die (Deodatum, Theodata, S. Deodati Fanum) grew up round a monastery founded in the 7th century by St Deodatus of Nevers, who gave up his episcopal functions to retire to this place. In the loth century the community became a chapter of canons; among those who subsequently held the rank of provost or dean were Giovanni de' Medici, afterwards Pope Leo X., and several princes of the house of Lorraine. Among the extensive privileges enjoyed by them was that of coining money. Though they co-operated in building. the town walls, the canons and the dukes of Lorraine soon became rivals for the authority over St Die. Towards the end of the 15th century one of the earliest printing-presses of Lorraine was founded at St Die. The institution of a town council in 1628, and the establishment in 1777 of a bishopric which appropriated part of their spiritual jurisdiction, contributed greatly to diminish the influence' of the canons; and with the Revolution they were completely swept away. During the wars of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries the town was repeatedly sacked. It was also partially destroyed by fire in 1065, 1155, 1554 and 1757. Funds for the rebuilding of the portion of the town destroyed by the last fire were supplied by Stanislas, last duke of Lorraine. ST DIZIER, a town of north-eastern France, in the department of Haute-Marne, 45 M. N.N.W. of Chaumont by rail, on the Marne and the Haute-Marne canal. Pop. (1906) town, 10,316; commune, 14,661. The town is a very important centre of the iron trade, with foundries, forges and engineering works, and has trade in grain and timber. It dates from the 3rd century, when the relics of Bishop St Didier (whence the name of the town) were brought thither after the destruction of Langres by the Germans. It sustained a memorable siege against Charles V. in 1544•
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