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SAINT JOSEPH

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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 27 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SAINT JOSEPH, a city and the county-seat of Buchanan county, Missouri, U.S.A., and a port of entry, situated in the north-western corner of the state on the E. bank of the Missouri river. It is the third in size among the cities of the state. Pop. (1880) 32,431; (1890) 52,324; (1900) 102,979, of whom 8424 were foreign-born and 626o were negroes; (Ig10 census) 77,403. St Joseph is a transportation centre of great importance. It is served by six railways, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago Great Western, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Missouri Pacific, and the St Joseph & Grand Island; in addition there are two terminal railways. A steel bridge across the Missouri (built in 1872; rebuilt in 1906) connects the city with Elwood, Kansas (pop. 1910, 636), and is used by two railways. The city is laid out on hills above the bluffs of the river. The site was completely remade, however (especially in 1866—1873), and the entire business portion has been much graded down. The principal public buildings are the Federal building, the court house, an auditorium seating 7000, a Union Station and a public library. There are six city parks, of which the largest are Krug Park (30 acres) and Bartlett Park (20 acres). The State Hospital (No. 2) for the Insane(opened 1874) is immediately E. of St Joseph; in the city are the Ensworth, St Joseph and Woodson hospitals, a Memorial Home for needy old people and the Home for Little Wanderers. South St Joseph, a manufacturing suburb, has a library and so has the northern part of the city. The great stock-yards of South St Joseph are sights of great interest. In 1909 the state legislature provided for a commission form of government which took effect in April 191o; a council of five, elected by the city at large, has only legislative powers; the mayor appoints members of a utilities commission, a park commission and a board of public works, and all officers except the city auditor and treasurer; and the charter provides for the initiative, the referendum and the recall. The city maintains a workhouse (1882), also two market houses, and owns and manages an electric-lighting plant. Natural gas is also furnished to the city from oil-fields in Kansas. A private company owns the water-works, first built in 1879 and since greatly improved. The water is drawn from the Missouri, 3 M. above the city, and is pumped thence into reservoirs and settling basins. Beside the local trade of a rich surrounding farming country, the railway facilities of St Joseph have enabled it to build up a great jobbing trade (especially in dry goods), and this is still the greatest economic interest of the city. Commerce and transport were the only distinctive basis of the city's growth and wealth until after 189o, when there was a great increase in manufacturing, especially, in South St Joseph, of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry in the last three years of the decade. In 1900 the manufactured product of the city and its immediate suburbs was valued at $31,690,736, of which $19,o09,332 were credited to slaughtering and packing. In the decade of 1890-1900 the increase in the value of manufactures (165.9%) was almost five times as great in St Joseph as in any other of the largest four cities of the state, and this was due almost entirely to the growth of the slaughtering and neat-packing business, which is for the most part located outside the municipal limits. In 1905 the census reports did not include manufactures outside the actual city limits; the total value of the factory product of the city proper in 1905 was $11,573,720; besides slaughtering and packing the other manufactures in 1905 included men's factory-made clothing (valued at $1,556,655) flour and grist-mill products (valued at $683,464) ,saddlery and harness (valued at $524,918), confectionery ($437,096), malt liquors ($407,054), boots and shoes ($350,384) and farm implements. In 1826 Joseph Robidoux, a French half-breed trader, established a trading post on the site of St Joseph. Following the purchase from the Indians of the country, now known as the Platte Purchase, in 1836, a settlement grew up about this trading post, and in 1843 Robidoux laid out a town here and named it St Joseph in honour of his patron saint. St Joseph became the county-seat in .1846, and in 1851 was first chartered as a city. It early became a trading centre of importance, well known as an outfitting point for miners and other emigrants to the Rocky Mountain region and the Pacific coast. During the Civil War it was held continuously by the Unionists, but local sentiment was bitterly divided. After the war a rapid development began. In 1885 St Joseph became a city of the second class. Under the stat constitution of 1875 it has had the right, since attaining a population of soo,000, to form a charter for itself. In September 1909, at a special election, it adopted the commission charter described above. ST JUNIEN, a town of west-central France in the department of Haute-Vienne, on the right bank of the Vienne, 26 m. W. by N. of Limoges on the railway from Limoges to Angouleme. Pop. (1906) town, 8484; commune, 11,400. The 12th century collegiate church, a fine example of the Romanesque style of Limousin, contains a richly sculptured tomb of St Junien, the hermit of the 6th century from whom the town takes its name. Another interesting building is the Gothic chapel of Notre-Dame, with three naves, rebuilt by Louis XI., standing close to a medieval bridge over the Vienne. The town, which ranks second in the department in population and industry, is noted for leather-dressing and the manufacture of gloves and straw paper. SAINT-JUST, ANTOINE LOUIS LEON DE RICHEBOURO DE (1767-1794), French revolutionary leader, was born at Decize in the Nivernais on the 25th of August 1767. At the outbreak of the Revolution, intoxicated with republican ideas, he threw himself with enthusiasm into politics, was elected an officer in the National Guard of the Aisne, and by fraud—he being yet under age—admitted as a member of the electoral assembly of his district. Early in 1789 he had published twenty cantos of licentious verse, in the fashion of the time, under the title of Organt au Vatican. Henceforward, however, he assumed a stoical demeanour, which, united to a policy tyrannical and pitilessly thorough, became the characteristic of his life. He entered into correspondence with Robespierre, who, flattered by his worship, admitted him to his friendship. Thus supported, Saint-Just became deputy of the department of Aisne to the National Convention, where he made his first speech on the condemnation of Louis XVI.—gloomy, fanatical, remorseless in tone on the 13th of November 1792. In the Convention, in the Jacobin Club, and among the populace his relations with Robespierre became known, and he was dubbed the " St John of the Messiah of the People." His appointment as a member of the Committee of Public Safety placed him at the centre of the political fever-heat. In the name of this committee he was charged with the drawing up of reports to the Convention upon the absorbing themes of the overthrow of the party of the Gironde (report of the 8th of July 1793), of the Herbertists, and finally, of that denunciation of Danton which consigned him and his followers to the guillotine. What were then called reports were rather appeals to the passions; in Saint-Just's hands they furnished the occasion for a display of fanatical daring, of gloomy eloquence, and of undoubted genius; and—with the shadow of Robespierre behind him-they served their turn. Camille Desmoulins, in jest and mockery, said of Saint-Just—the youth with the beautiful countenance and the long fair locks--" He carries his head like a Holy Sacrament." " And I," savagely replied Saint-Just, " will make him carry his like a Saint Denis." The threat was not vain: Desmoulins accompanied Danton to the scaffold. The same ferocious inflexibility animated Saint-Just with reference to the external policy of France. He proposed that the National Convention should itself, through its committees, direct all military movements and all branches of the government (report of the loth of October 1793). This was agreed to, and Saint-Just was despatched to Strassburg, in company with another deputy, to superintend the military operations. It was suspected that the enemy without was being aided by treason within. Saint-Just's remedy was direct and terrible: he followed his experience in Paris, " organized the Terror," and soon the heads of all suspects sent to Paris were falling under the guillotine. But there were no executions at Strassburg, and Saint-Just repressed the excesses of J. G. Schneider (q.v.), who as public prosecutor to the revolutionary tribunal of the Lower Rhine had ruthlessly applied the Terror in Alsace. Schneider was sent to Paris and guillotined. The conspiracy was defeated, and the armies of the Rhine and Moselle having been inspirited by success—Saint-Just himself taking a fearless part in the actual fighting—and having effected a junction, the frontier was delivered and Germany invaded. On his return Saint-Just was made president of the Convention. Later, with the army of the North, he placed before the generals the dilemma of victory over the enemies of France or trial by the dreaded revolutionary tribunal; and before .the eyes of the army itself he organized a force specially charged with the slaughter of those who should seek refuge by flight. Success again crowned his efforts, and Belgium was gained for France (May, 1794). Meanwhile affairs in Paris looked gloomier than ever, and Robespierre recalled Saint-Just to the capital. Saint-Just proposed a dictatorship as the only remedy for the convulsions of society. At last, at the famous sitting of the 9th Thermidor, he ventured to present as the report of the committees of General Security and Public Safety a document expressing his own views, a sight of which, however, had been refused to the other members of committee on the previous evening. Then the storm broke. He was vehemently interrupted, and the sitting ended with an order for Robespierre's arrest (see ROBESPIERRE). On the following day, the 28th of July 1794, twenty-two men, nearly all young, were guillotined. Saint-Just maintained his proud self-possession to the last. See Euvres de Saint-Just, precedees d'une notice historique sur sa vie (Paris, 1833-1834); E. Fleury, Etudes revolutionnaires (2 vols., 1851), with which cf. articles by Sainte Beuve (Causeries du lundi, vol. v.), Cuvillier-Fleury (Portraits politiques et revolutionnaires) ; E. Hamel, Histoire de Saint-Just (1899), which brought a fine to the publishers for outrage on public decency; F. A. Aulard, Les Orateurs de la Legislative et de la Convention (2nd ed., Paris, 1905). The Euvres completes de Saint-Just have been edited with notes by C. Vellay (Paris, 1908). ST JUST (St Just in Penwith), a market town in the St Ives parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, 72 M. by road W. of Penzance. Pop. of urban district (1901) 5646. This is the most westerly town in England, lying in a wild district 1 m. inland from Cape Cornwall, which is 4 M. N. of Land's End. The urban district has an area of 7633 acres, and includes the small industrial colonies near some of the most important mines in Cornwall. The Levant mine is the chief, the workings extending beneath the sea. Traces of ancient workings and several exhausted mines are seen. The church of St Just is Perpendicular, with portions of the fabric of earlier date. There are ruins of an oratory dedicated to St Helen on Cape Cornwall. ST KILDA, a city of Bourke county, Victoria, Australia, 31 M. by rail S. of, and suburban to, Melbourne. Pop. (1901) 20i544. It is a fashionable watering-place on Hobson's Bay, and possesses the longest pier in Australia. The esplanade and the public park are finely laid out; and portions of the sea are fenced in to protect bathers. The town hall, the public library, the assembly hall, and the great Anglican church of All Saints are the chief buildings. ST KILDA (Gaelic Hirta, " the western land "), the largest of a small group of about sixteen islets of the Outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire, Scotland. It is included in the civil parish of Harris, and is situated 40 M. W. of North Uist. It measures 3 m. from E. to W. and 2 M. from N. to S., has an area of about 3500 acres, and is 7 M. in circumference. Except at the landing-place on the south-east, the cliffs rise sheer out of deep water, and on the north-east side the highest eminence in the island, Conagher, forms a precipice 1220 ft. high. St Kilda is probably the core of a Tertiary volcano, but, besides volcanic rocks, contains hills of sandstone in which the stratification is distinct. The boldness of its scenery is softened by the richness of its verdure. The inhabitants, an industrious Gaelic-speaking community (Ito in 1851 and 77 in 1901), cultivate about 40 acres of land (potatoes, oats, barley), keep about loon sheep and a few head of cattle. They catch puffins, fulmar petrels, guillemots, razor-birds, Manx shearwaters and solan geese both for their oil and for food. Fishing is generally neglected. Coarse tweeds and blanketing are manufactured for home use from the sheep's wool which is plucked from the animal, not shorn. The houses are collected in a little village at the head of the East Bay. The island is practically inaccessible for eight months of the year, but the inhabitants communicate with the outer world by means of " sea messages," which are despatched in boxes when a strong west wind is blowing, and generally make the western islands or mainland of Scotland in a week. The island has been in the possession of the Macleods for hundreds of years. In 1779 the chief of that day sold it, but in 1871 Macleod of Macleod bought it back, it is stated, for £3000. In 1724 the population was reduced by smallpox to thirty souls. They appear to catch what is called the " boat-cold " caused by the arrival of strange boats, and at one time the children suffered severely from a form of lockjaw known as the " eight days' sickness." See works by Donald Munro, high dean of the Isles (1585), M. Martin (1698), Rev. K. Macaulay (1764), R. Connell (1887); Miss Goodrich-Freer, The Outer Isles; Richard and Cherry Kearton, With Nature and a Camera (1896). ST KITTS, or ST CHRISTOPHER, an island in the British West Indies, forming, with Nevis and Anguilla, one of the presidencies in the colony of the Leeward Islands. It is a long oval with a narrow neck of land projecting from the south-eastern end; total length 23 m., area 63 sq. m. Mountains traverse the central part from N.W. to S.E., the greatest height being Mount Misery (3771 ft.). The island is well watered, fertile and healthy, andits climate is cool and dry (temperature between 78° and 85° F.; average annual rainfall 38 in.). The circle of land formed by the skirts of the mountains, and the valley of Basseterre constitute nearly the whole of the cultivated portion. The higher slopes of the hills afford excellent pasturage, while the summits are crowned with dense woods. Sugar, molasses, rum, salt, coffee and tobacco are the chief products; horses and cattle are bred. Primary education is compulsory. The principal towns are Old Road, Sandy Point and the capital Basseterre, which lies on the S.W. coast (pop. about Io,000). One good main road, macadamized throughout, encircles the island. The local legislature consists of 6 official and 6 unofficial members nominated by the Crown. St Kitts was discovered by Columbus in 1493 and first settled by Sir Thomas Warner in 1623. Five years later it was divided between the British and the French, but at the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 it was entirely ceded to the British Crown. Population, mostly negroes, 29,782. SAINT-LAMBERT, JEAN FRANCOIS DE (1716-1803), French poet, was born at Nancy on the 26th of December 1716. He entered the army and, when Stanislaus Leszczynski was established in 1737 as duke of Lorraine, he became an official at his court at Luneville. He left the army after the Hanoverian campaign of 1756-57, and devoted himself to literature, producing a volume of descriptive verse, Les Saisons (1769), now never read, many articles for the Encyclopedie, and some miscellaneous works. He was admitted to the Academy in 1770. His fame, however, comes chiefly from his amours. He was already high in the favour of the marquise de Boufflers, Stanislaus's mistress, whom he addressed in his verses as Doris and Themire, when Voltaire in 1748 came to Luneville with the marquise de Ch&telet. Her infatuation for him and its fatal termination are known to all readers of the life of Voltaire. His subsequent liaison with Madame d'Houdetot, Rousseau's Sophie, though hardly less disastrous to his rival, continued for the whole lives of himself and his mistress. Saint-Lambert's later years were given to philosophy. He published in 1798 the Principe des mceurs cites toutes les nations ou catechisme universel, and published his (Euvres philosophiques (1803), two years before his death on the 9th of February 1803. Madame d'Houdetot survived until the 28th of January 1813. See G. Maugras, La Cour de Luneville (1904) and La Marquise de Boufflers (19o7); also the literature dealing with Rousseau and Voltaire. ST LAWRENCE. The river St Lawrence, in North America, with the five fresh-water inland seas (see GREAT LAKES), Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario, forms one of the great river systems of the world, having a length, from the source of the river St Louis (which rises near the source of the river Mississippi and falls into the head of Lake Superior) to Cape Gaspe, where it empties into the Gulf of St Lawrence, of 2100 M. The river is here considered as rising at the foot of Lake Ontario, in 44° 10' N., 76° 30' W., where the name St Lawrence is first appliedto it. The river, to the point where it crosses 45° N. in its north-westerly course, forms the boundary line between the state of New York and the province of Ontario; thence to the sea it is wholly within Canadian territory, running through the province of Quebec. At Point des Monts, 26o m. below Quebec, it is 26 m. wide, and where it finally merges into :the Gulf of St Lawrence, 150 M. farther on, it is 90 M. wide, this stretch being broken by the large island of Anticosti, lying fairly in the mouth. The character of the river banks varies with the geological formations through which it runs. Passing over the Archaean rocks of the Laurentian from Kingston to Brockville the shores are very irregular, and the river is broken up by protrusions of glaciated summits of the granites and gneisses into a large number of picturesque islands, " The Thousand Islands," greatly frequented as a summer resort. From Brockville to Montreal the river runs through flat-bedded Cambro-silurian limestones, with rapids at several points, which are all run by light-draught passenger boats. For the up trip the rapids are avoided by canalization. From Montreal to Three Rivers the course is through an alluvial plain over-lying the limestones, the river at one point expanding into Lake St Peter, 20 m. long f to Liverpool via New York involves rail or 7-ft. canal transport by ro m. wide, with a practically uniform depth of ro ft. Below Three Rivers the banks grow gradually higher until, after passing Quebec through a cleft in slate rocks of Cambrian age, the river widens, washing the feet of the Laurentian Mountains on its north shore; while a more moderately hilly country, terminating in the Shickshock Mountains of the Gaspe Peninsula, skirts its south shore. From Kingston, at the head of the river, to Montreal, a distance of 170 m., navigation is limited to vessels of 14 ft. draught by the capacity of the canals. From Montreal to Quebec, 16o m., a ship channel has been dredged to a depth of 30 ft.; below Quebec the river is tidally rravigable by vessels of any draught. The canals on the St Lawrence above Montreal have been enlarged to the capacity of the Welland canal, the improved system having been opened to commerce in the autumn of 1899. Instead of enlarging the Beauharnois canal, on the south side of the river, a new canal, the " Soulanges," was built from Coteau Landing to Cascades Point, on the north side, the Beauharnois canal still being used for small barges. The locks of the enlarged canals are all 45 ft. wide, with an available depth of 14 ft. and a minimum length of 270 ft. The following table shows the canalized stretches in this portion of the river: In the stretch between Montreal and Quebec the ship channel, begun by the Montreal Harbour Commissioners, has been assumed by the Dominion government as a national work, and improvements, involving extensive dredging, have been undertaken with the aim of securing everywhere a minimum depth of 30 ft. with a minimum width of 450 ft. The whole river from Kingston to the sea is well supplied with aids to navigation. In the dredged portions lights are arranged in pairs of leading lights on foundations sufficiently high and solid to resist the pressure of ice movement, and there is an elaborate system of fog alarms, gas-lighted and other buoys, as well as telegraphic, wireless and telephonic communication, storm signal, weather and ice reporting stations and a life-saving service. Montreal, at the head of ocean navigation,' the largest city in Canada, is an important distributing centre for all points in western Canada, and enjoys an extensive shipping trade with the United Kingdom, the sea-going shipping exceeding 1,500,000 tons, and the inland shipping approximating 2,000,000 tons, annually. Quebec is the summer port used by the largest steamers in the Canadian trade. There are numerous flourishing towns on both banks of the river, from Kingston, a grain transferring port, to the sea. Large quantities of lumber, principally spruce (fir) and paper pulp, are manufactured at small mills along the river, and shipped over sea directly from the place of production. The mail steamers land and embark mails at Rimouski, to or from which they are conveyed by rail along the south shore. The importance to Canada of the river St Lawrence as a national trade route cannot be over-estimated. As a natural highway between all points west of the Maritime Provinces and Europe it is unique in permitting ocean traffic to penetrate r000 m. into the heart of a country. It is, moreover, the shortest freight route from the Great Lakes to Europe. From Buffaloof 496 M. and an ocean voyage of 3034 nautical miles. Via Montreal there is a 14-ft. transport of 348 M. and river and ocean voyage of 2772 nautical miles. From Quebec to Liverpool by Cape Race is 2801 nautical miles, while the route by Belle Isle, more nearly a great circle course, usually taken between July and October, is only 2633 nautical miles. On the other hand the St Lawrence is not open throughout the year; the average time between the arrival of the first vessel at Montreal from sea and the departure of the last ocean vessel is seven months. From Kingston to Quebec the river freezes over every winter, except at points where the current is rapid. Below Quebec, although there is heavy border ice, the river never freezes over. For a few winters, while the bridge accommodation at Montreal was restricted to the old single-track Victoria bridge, railway freight trains were run across the ice bridge on temporary winter tracks. Efforts have been made to lengthen the season of navigation by using specially constructed steamers to break the ice; and it is claimed that the season of navigation could be materially lengthened, and winter floods prevented by keeping the river open to Montreal. Winter ferries are maintained at Quebec, between Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia, and between Newfoundland and Sydney, Cape Breton. In the winter of 1898–1899 an attempt was made to run a winter steamer from Paspebiac to England, but it was not successful, principally because an unsuitable vessel was used. To pass through the field of ice that is always present in the gulf, in greater or lesser quantity, specially strengthened vessels are required. The river above tide water is not subject to excessive flooding, the maxi- mum rise in the spring and early summer months, chiefly from northern tributaries from the Ottawa eastward, being to ft. The Great Lakes serve as impounding reservoirs for the gradual distribution of all overflows in the west. At Montreal, soon after the river freezes over each winter, there is a local rise of about 10 ft. in the level of the water in the harbour, caused by restriction of the channel by anchor ice; and in the spring of the year, when the volume of the water is augmented, this obstruction leads to a further rise, in 1886 reaching a height of 27 ft. above ordinary low water. To prevent flooding of the lower parts of the city a dike was in 1887 built along the river front, which prevented a serious flooding in 1899. Tides enter the Gulf of St Lawrence from the Atlantic chiefly through Cabot Strait (between Cape Breton and Newfoundland), which is 75 m. wide and 250 fathoms deep. The tide entering through Belle Isle Strait, so m. wide and 30 fathoms deep, is comparatively little felt. The tidal undulation, in passing through the gulf, expands so widely as to be almost inappreciable in places, as, for example, at the Magdalen Islands, in the middle of the gulf, where the range amounts to about 3 ft. at springs, becoming effaced at neaps. There is also little more tide than this at some points on the north shore of Prince Edward Island. The greatest range is attained in Northumberland Strait and in Chaleur Bay, where it amounts to 10 ft. At the entrance to the estuary at Anticosti it has again the oceanic range of about 6 ft., and proceeds up the estuary with an ever-increasing range, which attains its maximum of 19 ft. at the lower end of Orleans Island, 650 m. from the ocean at Cabot Strait. This must be considered the true head of the estuary. At Quebec, 30 M. farther up, the range is nearly as great; but at 40 M. above Quebec it is largely cut off by the Richelieu Rapids, and finally ceases to be felt at Three Rivers, at the lower end of Lake St Peter, 760 m. from the ocean. The St Lawrence provides ample water-power, which is being increasingly used. Its rapids have long been used for milling and factory purposes; a wing dam on the north side of Lachine Rapids furnishes electricity to Montreal; the falls of Montmorency light Quebec and run electric street cars; and from Lake Superior to the gulf there are numerous points on the tributaries to the St Lawrence where power could be used. Nearly all the rivers flowing into the St Lawrence below Quebec are stocked with salmon (Salmo salar), and are preserved and leased to anglers by the provincial government. In the salt Name. From To Length Number Fall in in Miles. of Locks. Feet. Galops Head of Galops Rapids Iroquois 71 3 151 River . 4 Rapide Plat . Head of Ogden Island Morrisburg 3 a 2 111 River . 1o1 Farran Point Head of Croil Island Farran Point 1 1 31 River . 5 Cornwall Canal . . Dickinson Landing Cornwall r r 6 48 Lake St Francis 301 Soulanges . Coteau Landing Cascades Point 14 4 821 Lake St Louis .. 14 Lachine Lachine Montreal 81 5 45 109z 21 206 water of the gulf and lower river, mackerel, cod, herring, smelt, sea-trout, striped bass and other fish are caught for market. The St Lawrence is spanned by the following railway bridges: (I) A truss bridge built near Cornwall in 1900 by the New York & Ottawa railroad, now operated by the New York Central railroad. (2) A truss bridge with a swing, built in 1890 by the Canada Atlantic railway at Coteau Landing. (3) A cantilever bridge built in 1887 by the Canadian Pacific railway at Caughnawaga. (4) The Victoria Jubilee bridge, built as a tubular bridge by the Grand Trunk railway in 186o, and transformed into a truss bridge in 1897-1898. The new bridge rests on the piers of the old one, enlarged to receive it, is 6592 ft. long by 67 ft. wide, has 25 spans, double railway and trolley tracks, driveways and sidewalks, and was erected without interruption of traffic. (5) A very large cantilever bridge, having a central span of 'Soo ft., crosses the river at a point 7 M. above Quebec. The southern half of the superstructure, while in course of erection in August 1907, fell, killing 78 men, and necessitating a serious delay in the completion of the work. The river St Lawrence was discovered by Jacques Cartier, commissioned by the king of France to explore and trade on the American coast. Cartier entered the strait of Belle Isle in 1534; but Breton fishermen had previously resorted there in summer and penetrated as far as Brest, eleven leagues west of Blanc Sablon, the dividing line between Quebec and Labrador. Cartier circled the whole gulf, but missed the entrance to the river. On his second voyage in 1536 he named a bay on the north shore of the gulf, which he entered on the loth of August, the feast of St Lawrence, Baye Sainct Laurens, and the name gradually extended over the whole river, though Cartier himself always wrote of the River of Canada. Early in September, he reached " Canada," now Quebec, and on the 2nd of October reached Hochelaga, now Montreal. No permanent settlement was then made. The first, Tadousac, at the mouth of the Saguenay, was established by Champlain in 1603, and Quebec was settled by him in 16o8. Between that time and 1616 Champlain explored the whole river system as far west as Lake Huron, reaching it by way of the Ottawa river, and taking possession of the country in the name of the king of France. It became British by the treaty of Paris, in 1763. See S. E. Dawson, The St Lawrence, its Basin and Border Lands (New York, 1905) (historical) ; Si Lawrence Pilot (7th ed., Hydro-graphic Office, Admiralty, London, 1906); Sailing Directions for the St Lawrence River to Montreal (United States Hydrographic Office publication, No. Io8 D, Washington, 1907) : Annual Reports of the Canadian Departments of Marine and Fisheries, Public Works, and Railways and Canals, Ottawa); Transactions (Royal Society, Canada, 1898–1899), vol. iv. sec. iii.; T. C. Keefer on ' Ice Floods and Winter Navigation of the St Lawrence," Transactions (Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, Presidential Address of W. P. Anderson, on improvements to navigation on St Lawrence, 1904). (W. P. A.) ST LEGER, SIR ANTHONY (c. 1496-1559), lord deputy of Ireland, eldest son of Ralph St Leger, a gentleman of Kent, was educated abroad and at Cambridge. He quickly gained the favour of Henry VIII., and was appointed in 1537 president of a commission for inquiring into the condition of Ireland. This work he carried out with ability and obtained much useful knowledge of the country. In 1540 he was appointed lord deputy of Ireland. His first task was to repress disorder, and he at once proceeded with severity against the Kavanaghs, permitting them, however, to retain their lands, on their accepting feudal tenure on the English model. By a similar policy he exacted obedience from the O'Mores, the O'Tooles and the O'Conors in Leix and Offaly; and having conciliated the O'Briens in the west and the earl of Desmond in the south, the lord deputy carried an act in the Irish parliament in Dublin conferring the title of king of Ireland on Henry VIII. and his heirs. Conn O'Neill, who in the north had remained sullenly hostile, was brought to submission by vigorous measures. For the most part, however, St Leger's policy was one of moderation and conciliation—rather more so, indeed, than Henry VIII. approved. He recommended The O'Brien, when he gave token of a sub-missive disposition, for the title of earl of Thomond; O'Neillwas created earl of Tyrone; and administrative council was instituted in the province of Munster; and in 1544 a levy of Irish soldiers was raised for service in Henry VIII.'s wars. St Leger's personal influence was proved by an outbreak of disturbance when he visited England in 1544, and the prompt restoration of order on his return some months later. St Leger retained his office under Edward VI., and again effectually quelled attempts at rebellion by the O'Conors and O'Byrnes. From 1548 to 1550 he was in England. He returned charged with the duty of introducing the reformed liturgy into Ireland. His conciliatory methods brought upon him the accusation that he lacked zeal in the cause, and led to his recall in the summer of 1551. After the accession of Mary he was again appointed lord deputy in October 1553, but in consequence of a charge against him of keeping false accounts he was recalled for the third time in 1556. While the accusation was still under investigation, he died on the 16th of March 1559• By his wife Agnes, daughter of Hugh Warham, a niece of Archbishop Warham, he had three sons, William, Warham and Anthony. William died in his father's lifetime leaving a son, Sir Warham St Leger (d. 1600), who was father of Sir William St Leger (d. 1642), president of Munster. Sir William took part in " the flight of the earls " (see O'NEILL) in 1607, and spent several years abroad. Having received a pardon from James I. and extensive grants of land in Ireland, he was appointed president of Munster by Charles I. in 1627. He warmly supported the arbitrary government of Strafford, actively assisting in raising and drilling the Irish levies destined for the service of the king against the Parliament. In the great rebellion of 1641 he bore the chief responsibility for dealing with the insurgents in Munster; but the forces and supplies placed at his disposal were utterly inadequate. He executed martial law in his province with the greatest severity, hanging large numbers of rebels, often without much proof of guilt. He was still struggling with the insurrection when he died at Cork on the 2nd of July 1642. Sir William's daughter Margaret married Murrough O'Brien, 1st earl of Inchiquin; his son John was father of Arthur St Leger, created Viscount Doneraile in 1703. A biography of Sir Anthony St Leger will be found in Athenae Cantabrigienses, by C. H. Cooper and T. Cooper (Cambridge, 1858) ; see also Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Hen. VIII.-Eliz. ; Calendar of Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII. ; Calendar of State Papers (Domestic Series), Edward VI. James I.; Calendar of Carew MSS. ; J. O'Donovan's edition of Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters (7 vols., Dublin, 1851) ; Richard Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudors (3 Vols., London, 1885–189o) ; J. A. Froude, History of England (12 vols., London, 1856–187o). For Sir William St Leger, see Strafford's Letters and Despatches (2 vols., London, 1739) ; Thomas Carte, History of the Life of James, Duke of Ormonde (6 vols., Oxford, 1851) ; History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland, edited by Sir J. T. Gilbert (Dublin, 1882-1891). (R. J. M.) ST LEONARDS, EDWARD BURTENSHAW SUGDEN, 1ST BARON (1781-1875), lord chancellor of Great Britain, was the son of a hairdresser of Duke Street, Westminster, and was born on the 12th of February 1781. After practising for some years as a conveyancer, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1807, having already published his well-known treatise on the Law of Vendors and Purchasers (14th ed., 1862). In 1822 he was made king's counsel and chosen a bencher of Lincoln's Inn. He was returned at different times for various boroughs to the House of Commons, where he made himself prominent by his opposition to the Reform Bill of 1832. He was appointed solicitor-general in 1829, was named lord chancellor of Ireland in 1834, and again filled the same office from 1841 to 1846. Under Lord Derby's first administration in 1852 he became lord chancellor and was raised to the peerage as Lord St Leonards. In this position he devoted himseif with energy and vigour to the reform of the law; Lord Derby on his return to power in 1858 again offered him the same office, which from considerations of health he declined. He continued, however, to take an active interest especially in the legal matters that came before the House of Lords, and bestowed his particular attention on the reform of the law of property. He died at Boyle Farm, Thames Ditton, on the 29th of January I87 s. After his death his will was missing, but his daughter, Miss Charlotte Sugden, was able to recollect the contents of a most intricate document, and in the action of Sugden v. Lord St Leonards (L.R. 1 P.D. 154) the court accepted her evidence and granted probate of a paper propounded as containing the provisions of the lost will. This decision established the pro-position that the contents of a lost will may be proved by secondary evidence, even of a single witness. Lord St Leonards was the author of various important legal publications, many of which have passed through several editions. Besides the treatise on purchasers already mentioned, they include Powers, Cases decided by the House of Lords, Gilbert on Uses, New Real Property Laws and Handybook of Property Law, Misrepresentations in Campbell's Lives of Lyndhurst and Brougham, corrected by St Leonards. See The Times (30th of January 1875) ; E. Manson, Builders of our Law (19o4); J. R. Atlay, Lives of the Victorian Chancellors, vol. ii. ST LIZIER-DE-COUSERANS, a village of south-western France in the department of Ariege on the right bank of the Salat, 1 m. N.N.W. of St Girons. Pop. (1906) 615; commune 1295. St Lizier, in ancient times one of the twelve cities of Novempopulania under the name of Lugdunum Consoranorum, was later capital of the Couserans and seat of a bishopric (sup-pressed at the Revolution) to the holders of which the town belonged. It has a cathedral of the 1 zth and 14th centuries with a fine Romanesque cloister and preserves remarkable remains of Roman ramparts. The old episcopal palace (17th century) and the adjoining church (14th and 17th centuries), once the cathedral with its fine chapter-hall (12th century), form part of a lunatic asylum. The Salat is crossed by a bridge of the 12th or 13th century. The town owes its name to its bishop Lycerius, who is said to have saved it from the Vandals in the 7th century. The chief event in its history was its devastation in 1130 by Bernard III., count of Comminges, a disaster from which it never completely recovered. ST LO, a town of north-western France, capital of the department of Manche, 472 M. W. by S. of Caen by rail. Pop. (1906) town 9379; commune, iz,181. St L6 is situated on a rocky hill on the right bank of the Vire. Its chief building is the Gothic church of Notre-Dame, dating mainly from the 16th century. The facade, flanked by two lofty towers and richly decorated, is impressive, despite its lack of harmony. There is a Gothic pulpit outside the choir. In the hotel-de-ville is the " Torigni marble," the pedestal of an ancient statue, the inscriptions on which relate chiefly to the annual assemblies of the Gallic deputies held at Lyons under the Romans. The modern church of Sainte-Croix preserves a Romanesque portal which belonged to the church of an ancient Benedictine abbey. St L6 is the seat of a prefect and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a training college for masters, a school of drawing, a branch of the Bank of France, a chamber of arts and manufactures, and a government stud. The town has trade in grain, fat stock, troop-horses and farm produce, and carries on tanning, wool-spinning and bleaching and the manufacture .of woollen and other fabrics. St Lo, called Briovera in the Gallo-Roman period, owes its present name to St L8 (Laudus), bishop of Coutances (d. 568). In the middle ages St Lo became an important fortress as well as a centre for the weaving industry. It sustained numerous sieges, the last in 1574, when the town, which had embraced Calvinism, was stormed by the Catholics and many of its inhabitants massacred. In 1800 the town was made capital of its department in place of Coutances. ST LOUIS, the chief city and a port of entry of Missouri, and the fourth in population among the cities of the United States, situated on the W. bank of the Mississippi river, about 20 M. below its confluence with the Missouri, 200 M. above the influx of the Ohio, and 1270 M. above the Gulf of Mexico, occupying a land area of 61.37 sq. m. in a commanding central position in the great drainage basin of the Mississippi system, the richest portion of the continent. Pop. (188o) 350,518, (189o) 451,770, (1900) 575,238, (1910) 687,029. The central site is marked by an abrupt terraced rise from the river to an easily sloping tableland, 4 or 5 M. long and somewhat less than 1 m. broad, behind which are rolling hills. The length of the river-front is about 19 M. The average elevation of thecity is more than 425 ft.; and the recorded extremes of low and high water on the river are 379 and 428 ft. (both established in 1844). The higher portions of the city lie about zoo ft. above the river level, and in general the site is so elevated that there can be no serious interruption of business except by extraordinary floods. The natural drainage is excellent, and the sewerage system, long very imperfect, has been made adequate. The street plan is approximately rectilinear. The stone-paved wharf or river-front, known as the Levee or Front Street, is 3.7 M. long. Market Street, running E. and W., is regarded as the central thoroughfare; and the numbering of the streets is systematized with reference to this line and the river. Broadway (or Fifth Street, from the river) and Olive Street are the chief shopping centres; Washington Avenue, First (or Main) and Second Streets are devoted to wholesale trade; and Fourth Street is the financial centre. The most. important public buildings are the Federal building, built of Maine granite; the county court house (1839-1862, $1,199,872),—a semi-classic, plain, massive stone structure, the Four Courts (1871, $755,000), built of cream-coloured Joliet stone, and a rather effective city hall (1890-1904, $2,000,000), in Victorian Gothic style in brick and stone. The chief slave-market before the Civil War was in front of the Court House. The City Art Museum, a handsome semi-classic structure of original design, and the Tudor-Gothic building of the Washington University, are perhaps the most satisfying structures in the city architecturally. Among other noteworthy buildings are the Public Library, the Mercantile Library, the Mercantile, the Mississippi Valley, the Missouri-Lincoln, and the St Louis Union Trust Company buildings; the German-Renaissance home of the Mercantile Club; the florid building of the St Louis Club; the Merchants' Exchange; the Missouri School for the Blind; the Coliseum, built in 1897 for conventions, horse shows, &c., torn down in 1907 and rebuilt in Jefferson Avenue, and the Union Station, used by all the railways entering the city. This last was opened in 1894, and cost, including the site, $6,500,000; has a train-shed with thirty-two tracks, covers some eleven acres, and is one of the largest and finest railway stations in the world. The city owns a number of markets. In 1907 a special architectural commission, appointed to supervise the construction of new municipal buildings, purchased a site adjacent to the City Hall, for new city courts and jail, which were begun soon afterwards. The valley of Mill Creek (once a lake bed, " Chouteau Pond," and afterwards the central sewer) traverses the city from W. to E. and gives entry to railways coming from the W. into the Union Station. The terminal system for connecting Missouri with Illinois includes, in addition to the central passenger station, vast centralized freight warehouses and depots; an elevated railway along the levee; passenger and freight ferries across the Mississippi with railway connexions; two bridges across the river; and a tunnel leading to one of them under the streets of the city along the river front. The Merchants' Bridge (1887-1890, $3r00oa,000), used solely by the railways, is 1366.5 ft. long in channel span, with approaches almost twice as long. The Eads Bridge (1868-1874; construction cost $6,536,730, total cost about $20,000,000) is 3 M. farther down the river; it carries both wagon ways and railway tracks, is 1627 ft. clear between shore abutments, and has three spans. Built entirely of steel above the piers, it is a happy combination of strength and grace, and was considered a marvel when erected. St Louis has exceptionally fine residential streets that are accounted among the handsomest in the world. The most notable are Portland Place, Westmoreland Place, Vandeventer Place, Kingsbury Place, &c., in the neighbourhood of Forest Park: broad parked avenues, closed with ornamental gateways, and flanked by large houses in fine grounds. The park system of the city is among the finest in the country, containing in r910 2641.5 acres (cost to 1909, $6,417,745). Forest Park (1372 acres), maintained mainly in a natural, open-country state, is the largest single member of the system. In one end of it was held the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. Tower Grove Park (277 acres) and the Missouri Botanical Gardens (45 acres), probably the finest of their kind in the country, were gifts to the city from a public-spirited citizen, Henry Shaw (1800-1889), who also endowed the botanical school of Washington University. Carondelet (18o acres), O'Fallon (158 acres) ,and Fairground(129 acres, including a 65-acre athletic field) are the finest of the other parks. King's Highway is a boulevard (partly completed in 1910) from the Mississippi on the S. to the Mississippi on the N., crossing the western part of the city. In accord with a general movement in American cities late in the 19th century, St Louis made a beginning in the provision of small " neighbourhood parks," intended primarily to better the lives of the city's poor, and vacation playgrounds for children; and for this purpose five blocks of tenements were condemned by the city. In the different parks and public places are statues of Columbus, Shakespeare (Tower Grove Park) and Humboldt (Tower Grove Park), by Ferdinand von Mueller of Munich; a replica of the Schiller monument at Marbach in Germany, and of Houdon's Washington (Lafayette Park); statues of Thomas Hart Benton (Lafayette Park; by Harriet Hosmer), of Francis Preston Blair (W. W. Gardner) and Edward Bates (J. W. McDonald), both in Forest Park, and of General Grant (R. P. Bringhurst) in the City Hall Park; all of these being in bronze. In the cemeteries of the city—of which the largest are Bellefontaine (350 acres) and Calvary (415 acres)—there are notable monuments to Henry Shaw, and to Nathaniel Lyon, Sterling Price, Stephen W. Kearny and W. T. Sherman, all closely associated with St Louis or Missouri. There are various lake, river and highland pleasure-resorts near the city; and about 12 m. S. is Jefferson Barracks, a national military post of the first class. The old arsenal within the city, about which centred the opening events of the Civil War in Missouri, has been mainly abandoned, and part of the grounds given to the municipality for a park. The annual fair, or exposition, was held in the autumn of each year—except in war time—from 1855 to 1902, ceasing with the preparations for the World's Fair of 1904. One day of Fair Week (" Big Thursday ") was a city holiday; and one evening of the week was given over after 1878 to a nocturnal illuminated pageant known as the Procession of the Veiled Prophet, with accompaniments in the style of the carnival (Mardi Gras) at New Orleans; this pageant is still continued. Among the educational institutions of the city, Washington University, a largely endowed, non-sectarian, co-educational school opened in 1857, is the most prominent. 'Under its control are three secondary schools, Smith Academy and the Manual Training School for Boys, and Mary Institute for Girls. The university embraces a department of arts and sciences, which includes a college and a school of engineering and architecture, and special schools of law, medicine (1899), dentistry, fine arts, social economy and botany. Affiliated with the university is the St Louis School of Social Economy, called until 1909 the St Louis School of Philanthropy, and in 1906–1909 affiliated with the university of Missouri. The Russell Sage Foundation co-operates with this school. In 1909 Washington University had 1045 students. In 1905 the department of arts and sciences and the law school were removed to the outskirts of the city, where a group of buildings of Tudor-Gothic style in red Missouri granite were erected upon grounds, which with about $6,000,000 for buildings and endowment, were given to the university. St Louis University had its beginnings (1818) as a Latin academy, became a college in 182o, and was incorporated as a university in 1832. One of the leading Jesuit colleges of the United States, it is the parent-school of six other prominent Jesuit colleges in the Middle West. In 1910 it comprised a school of philosophy and science (1832), a divinity school (1834), a medical school (1836), a law school (1843), a dental school (1908), a college, three academies and a commercial department; and its enrolment was 1181. It is the third largest, and the Christian Brothers' College (1851), also Roman Catholic, is the fourth largest educational institution in the state. The Christian Brothers' College had in 1910 30 instructors and 500 students, most of whom were in the preparatory department. Besides the Divinity School of St Louis University, there are three theological seminaries, Concordia (Evangelical Lutheran, 1839), Eden Evangelical College (German Evangelical Synod of North America, 185o) and Kenrick Theological Seminary (Roman Catholic, 1894). There are two evening law schools, Benton College (1896) and Metropolitan College (1901). The public school system came into national prominence under the administration (1867–188o) of William T. Harris, and for many years has been recognized as one of the best in the United States. The first permanent kindergarten in the country in connexion with the public schools was established in St Louis in 1873 by W. T. Harris (q.v.), then superintendent of schools, and Miss Susan Ellen Blow. The first public kindergarten training school was established at the same time. There is a teachers' college in the city school system, and there are special schools for backward children. Several school buildings have been successfully used as civic centres. The cityy has an excellent educational museum, material from which is avail-able for object lessons in nature study, history, geography, art, &c., in all public schools. In the year 1907–1908 the total receipts for public education were $4,219,000, and the expenditure was $3,789,604. The City Board of Education was chartered in 1897. The German element has lent strength to musical and gymnastic societies. The Museum and School of Fine Arts was established in 1879 as the Art Department of Washington University. In 1908 it first received the proceeds of a city tax of one-fifth mill per dollar, and in 1909 it was reorganized as the City Art Museum. In its building (the " Art Palace," built in 1903–1904 at a cost of $943,000 for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition; now owned by the city) in Forest Park are excellent collections (largely loaned) of sculpture and paintings (illustrating particularly the development of American art) and of art objects. The School of Fine Arts, now separate from the museum and a part of Washington University, has classes in painting, drawing, design, illustration, modelling, pottery, book-binding, &c. Among the libraries the greatest collections are those of the Mercantile Library (in 1910, 136,000 volumes and pamphlets), a subscription library founded in 1846, and the public library (1865)—a fine city library since 1894, with 312,000 volumes in 1910 and six branch libraries, the gift of Andrew Carnegie, who also gave the city $500,000 towards the new public library, which was begun in 1909 and cost $1,500,000. Other notable collections are those of the St Louis Academy of Science and of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. There are at least three newspapers of national repute: the Republic, established i n s 808 as the Missouri Gazette, and in 1822–1886 called the Missouri Republican; the Globe-Democrat (1852); and the Westliche Post (1857). In trade, industry and wealth St Louis is one of the most substantial cities of the Union. Its growth has been steady; but without such " booms " as have marked the history of many western cities, and especially Chicago, of which St Louis was for several decades the avowed rival. The primacy of the northern city was clear, however, by 1880. St Louis has borne a reputation for conservatism and solidity. Its manufactures aggregate three-fifths the value of the total output of the state. In 188o their value was $114,333,375, and in 1890 $228,700,000; the value of the factory product was $193,732,788 in 1900, and in 1905 $267,307,038 (increase 1900-1905, 38%). Tobacco goods, malt liquors, boots and shoes and slaughtering and meat-packing products were the leading items in 1905. The packing industry is even more largely developed outside the city limits and across the river in East St Louis. St Louis is the greatest manufacturer of tobacco products among American cities, and probably in the world ; the total in 1905 was 8.96% of the total out-put of manufactured tobacco in the United States; and the output of chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff in 1900 constituted 23.5% and in 1905 231% of the product of the country. St Louis is also the foremost producer of white lead, street and railway cars, and wooden ware; and in addition to these and the items above particularized, has immense manufactories of clothing, coffee and spices (roasted), paints, stoves and furnaces, flour, hardware, drugs and chemicals and clay products. One of its breweries is said to be the largest in the world. Aside from traffic in its own products, the central position of the city in the Mississippi Valley gives it an immense trade in the pro-ducts of that tributary region, among which grains, cotton, tobacco, lumber, live stock and their derived products are the staples. In addition, it is a jobbing centre of immense interests in the distribution of other goods. The greatest lines of wholesale trade are dry goods, millinery and notions; groceries and allied lines; boots and shoes; tobacco; shelf and heavy hardware; furniture; railway supplies; street and railway cars; foundry and allied products; drugs, chemicals and proprietary medicines; beer; wooden-ware; agricultural implements; hides; paints; paint oils and white lead; electrical supplies; stoves, ranges and furnaces; and furs—the value of these different items ranging from 70 to To million dollars each? According to the St Louis Board of Trade, St Louis is the largest primary fur market of the world, drawing supplies even from northern Canada. As a wool market Boston alone surpasses it, and as a vehicle market it stands in the second or third place. In the other industries just, named, it claims to stand first among the cities of the Union. It is one of the greatest interior cotton markets of the country—drawing its supplies mainly from Arkansas, Texas and Oklahoma—but a large part of its. receipts are for shipment on through bills of lading, and are not net receipts handled by its i These are arranged in the order shown by the Annual Statement for 1906 reported to the Merchants' Exchange. own factors. The gross cotton movement continues to increase, but the field of supply has been progressively lessened by the development of Galveston and other ports on the gulf. As a grain and stock market St Louis has felt the competition of Kansas City and St Joseph. River and railway transportation built up in turn the commanding commercial position of the city. The enormous growth of river traffic in the decade before i86o gave it at the opening of the Civil War an incontestable primacy in the West. In 1910 about twenty independent railway systems, great and small (including two terminal roads within the city), gave outlet and inlet to commerce at St Louis; and of these fifteen are among the greatest systems of the country: the Baltimore & Ohio South-Western, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & Alton, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the St Louis & San Francisco, the Illinois Central, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, the Missouri Pacific, the Pennsylvania, the St Louis South-Western, the Southern, the Wabash, the Louisville & Nashville, the Mobile & Ohio, and the Toledo, St Louis & Western. The construction of the Missouri Pacific Railway system was begun at St Louis in 185o, and various other roads were started in the next two years. For several decades railway development served only to increase the commercial primacy of the city in the southern Mississippi Valley, but in more recent years the concentration of roads at Kansas City enabled that place to draw from the west and south-west an immense trade once held by St Louis. River freighting is of very slight importance. St Louis is a port of entry for foreign commerce; its imports in 1907 were valued at $7,442,967; in 'clog at $6,362,770. The population of St Louis in 1840 was '6,469; in r85o it was 77,86o (seventh in size of the cities of the country); in 186o, x60,773; in 1870, 3'0,864 (third in size); in 188o, 350,518; in 1890, 451,770; in 1900, 575,238; and in 1910, 687,029. Sincer8go it has been fourth in population among the cities of the United States. Of the population in 1900 (575,238) 111,356 were foreign-born and 35,516 were negroes. Of the foreign-born in 'goo, 58,781 were Germans, 19,421 were Irish, 5800 were English, 4785 Russian. In 'goo, 154,746 inhabitants of St Louis were children of German parents. Under the state constitution of 1875 St Louis, as a city of '00,000 inhabitants, was authorized to frame its own charter, and also to separate from St Louis county. These rights were exercised in '876. The General Assembly of the state holds the same powers over St Louis as over other cities. The electorate may pass upon proposed amendments to the charter at any election, after due precedent publication thereof. The mayor holds office for four years. In 1823 the mayor was first elected by popular vote and the municipal legislature became unicameral. The bicameral system was again adopted in 1839. The municipal assembly consists of a Council of 13 chosen at large for four years—half each two years—and a House of Delegates, 28 in number, chosen by wards for two years. A number of chief executive officers are elected for four years; the mayor and Council appoint others, and the appointment is made at the middle of the mayor's term in order to lessen the immediate influence of municipal patronage upon elections. Single commissioners control the parks, streets, water service, harbour and wharves, and sewers, and these constitute, with the mayor, a board of public improvement. Under an enabling act of 1907 the municipal assembly in 1909 created a public service commission, of three members, appointed by the mayor. The measure of control exercised by the state is important, the governor appointing the excise (liquor-licence) commissioner, the board of election commissioners, the inspector of petroleum and of tobacco, and (since 1861) the police board. St Louis is normally Republican in politics, and Missouri Democratic. Taxes for state and municipal purposes are collected by the city. The school board, as in very few other cities of the country, has independent taxing power. The city owns the steamboat landings and draws a small revenue from their rental. The heaviest expenses are for streets and parks, debt payments, police and education. The bonded debt in 1910 was $27,815,312, and the assessed valuation of property in that year was $550,207,640. The city maintains hospitals, a poor-house, a reformatory work-house, an industrial school for children, and an asylum for the insane. The water-supply of the city is derived from the Mississippi, and is therefore potentially inexhaustible. Settling basins and a coagulant chemical plant (1904) are used to purify the water before distribution. After the completion of the Chicago drainage canal the state of Missouri endeavoured to compel its closure, on the ground that it polluted the Mississippi; but it was established to the satisfaction of the Supreme Court of the United States that the back-flush from Lake Michigan had the contrary effect upon the Illinois river, and therefore upon the Mississippi. Except for sediment the water-supply is not impure or objectionable. No public utilities, except the water-works, markets and public grain elevators, are owned by the city. The street railways are controlled—since a state law of 1899 permitted their consolidation—by one corporation, though a one-fare, universal transfer 5-cent rate is in general operation. A single corporation has controlled the gas service from 1846 to 1873 and since 189o, though under no exclusive franchise; and the city has not the right of purchase. St Louis was settled as a trading post in '764 by Pierre Laclede Liguest (1724-1778), representative of a company to which the French crown had granted a monopoly of the trade of the Missouri river country. When, by the treaty of Paris of 1763, the portion of Louisiana E. of the Mississippi was ceded by France to Great Britain, many of the French inhabitants of the district of the Illinois removed into the portion of Louisiana W. of the river, which had passed in 1762 under Spanish sovereignty; and of this lessened territory of upper Louisiana St Louis became the seat of government. In 1767 it was a log-cabin village of perhaps 500 inhabitants. Spanish rule became an actuality in 1770 and continued until 1804, when it was momentarily sup-planted by French authority—existent theoretically since 'Soo--and then, after the Louisiana Purchase, by the sovereignty of the United States. In 1780 the town was attacked by Indian allies of Great Britain. Canadian-French hunters and trappers and boatmen, a few Spaniards and other Europeans, some Indians, more half-breeds, and a considerable body of Americans and negro slaves made up the motley population that became inhabitants of the United States. The fur trade was growing rapidly. Under American rule there was added the trade of a military supply-point for the Great West, and in 1817-1819 steamship traffic was begun with Louisville, New Orleans, and the lower Missouri river. Meanwhile, in 18o8, St Louis was incorporated as a town, and in 1823 it became a city. The city charter became effective in March 1823. The early 'thirties marked the beginning of its great prosperity, and the decade 1850-186o was one of colossal growth, due largely to the river trade. All freights were being moved by steamship as early as 1825. The first railway was begun in '85o. At the opening of the Civil War the commercial position of the city was most commanding. Its prosperity, however, was dependent upon the prosperity of the South, and received a fearful set-back in the war. When the issue of secession or adherence to the Union had been made up in 1861, the outcome in St Louis, where the fate of the state must necessarily be decided, was of national importance. St Louis was headquarters for an army department and contained a great national arsenal. The secessionists tried to manoeuvre the state out of the Union by strategy, and to seize the arsenal. The last was prevented by Congressman Francis Preston Blair, Jr., and Captain Nathaniel Lyon, first a sub-ordinate and later commander at the arsenal. The garrison was strengthened; in April the president entrusted Blair and other loyal civilians with power to enlist loyal citizens, and put the city under martial law if necessary; in May ten regiments were ready—made up largely of German-American Republican clubs (" Wide Awakes "), which had been at first purely political, then-when force became necessary to secure election rights to anti-slavery men—semi-military, and which now were quickly made available for war; and on the loth of May Captain Lyon surrounded and made prisoners a force of secessionists quartered in Camp Jackson on the outskirts of the city. A street riot followed, and 28 persons were killed by the volleys of the military. St Louis was held by the Union forces throughout the war. During a quarter century following 1857 the city was the centre of an idealistic philosophical movement that has had hardly any counterpart in American culture except New England transcendentalism. Its founders were William T. Harris (q.v.) and Henry C. Brockmeyer (b. 1828), who was lieutenant-governor of the state in 1876-1880. A. Bronson Alcott was one of the early lecturers to the group which gathered around these two, a group which studied Hegel and Kant, Plato and Aristotle. Brockmeyer published excellent versions of Hegel's Unabridged Logic,. Phenomenology and Psychology. Harris became the greatest of American exponents of Hegel. Other members of the group were Thomas Davidson (184o-1900), Adolph E. Kroeger, the translator of Fichte, Anna Callender Brackett (b. 1836), who published in 1886 an English version of Rosenkranz's History of Education, Denton Jaques Snider (b. 1841), whose best work has been on Froebel, and William McKendree Bryant (b. 1843), who wrote Hegel's Philosophy of Art (1879) and Hegel's Educational Ideas (1896). This Philosophical Society published (1867-1893) at St Louis The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, the first periodical of the sort in English. Since the war the city's history has been signalized chiefly by economic development. A period in this was auspiciously closed in 1904 by the holding of a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the purchase from France, in 1803, of the Louisiana territory—since then divided into 13 states, and containing in 1900 some 12,500,000 inhabitants. Preparations for this Louisiana Purchase Exposition began in 1898. It was the largest world's fair held to date, the site covering 1240 acres, of which 250 were under roof. The total cost, apart from individual exhibitions, was about $42,500,000, of which the national government contributed $5,000,000 and the city of St Louis and its citizens $1o,000,000. Altogether 12,804,616 paid admissions were collected (total admissions 19,694,855) during the seven months that it was open, and there was a favourable balance at the close of about $1,000,000. Up to 1848 St Louis was controlled in politics almost absolutely. by the Whigs; since then it has been more or less evenly con-tested by the Democrats against the Whigs and Republicans. The Republicans now usually have the advantage. As mentioned before, the state is habitually Democratic; " boss " rule in St Louis was particularly vicious in the late 'nineties, and corruption was the natural result of ring rule—the Democratic bosses have at times had great power—and of the low pay—only $25 monthly—of the city's delegates and councilmen. But the reaction came, and with it a strong movement for independent voting. Fire, floods, epidemics, and wind have repeatedly attacked the city. A great fire in 1849 burned along the levee and adjacent streets, destroying steamers, buildings, and goods worth, by the estimate of the city assessor, more than $6,000,000. Cholera broke out in 1832-1833, 1849-1851, and 1866, causing in three months of 1849 almost 4000 deaths, or the death of a twentieth of all inhabitants. Smallpox raged in 1872-1875. These epidemics probably reflect the one-time lamentable lack of proper sewerage. Great floods occurred in 1785, 181x, 1826, 1844, 1872, 1885 and 1903; those of 1785 and 1844 being the most remarkable. There were tornadoes in 1833, 1852 and 1871; and in 1896 a cyclone of 20 minutes' duration, accompanied by fire but followed fortunately by a tremendous rain, destroyed or wrecked 8500 buildings and caused a loss of property valued at more than $Io,000,000.
End of Article: SAINT JOSEPH
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