See also:island in the
See also:North Pacific, lying between 450 57' and 540 24' N., off the
See also:coast of the
See also:Russian Maritime Province in East
See also:Siberia, divided between the Russian and
See also:Japanese empires . Its proper
See also:Ainu name, Karafuto or Karaftu, has been restored to the island by the Japanese since 1905 .
See also:Sakhalin is separated from the mainland by the narrow and shallow Strait of Tartary or Mamiya Strait, which often freezes in winter in its narrower
See also:part, and from
See also:Yezo (
See also:Japan) by the Strait of La Perouse . The island is 600 m. long, and 16 to ro5 broad, with an
See also:area of 24,560 sq. m . Its orography and
See also:geological structure are imperfectly known . Two, or perhaps three, parallel ranges of mountains
See also:traverse it from north to south, reaching 2000 to 5000 ft . (Mt . Ichara, 486o ft.) high, with two or more wide depressions, not exceeding 600 ft. above the
See also:sea . Crystalline rocks
See also:crop out at several capes; Cretaceous lime-stones, containing an abundant and specific
See also:fauna of gigantic
See also:ammonites, occur at Dui on the west coast, and
See also:Tertiary conglomerates, sandstones, marls and
See also:clays, folded by subsequent upheavals, in many parts of the island . The clays, which contain layers of
See also:coal and an abundant fossil vegetation, show that during the
See also:period Sakhalin formed part of a continent which comprised north
See also:Alaska and japan, and enjoyed a comparatively warm
See also:climate . The Pliocene deposits contain a mollusc fauna more arctic than that which exists at the
See also:time, indicating probably that the connexion between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans was broader than it is now . Only two
See also:rivers are worthy of mention .
The Tym, 250 M. long and navigable by rafts and
See also:light boats for 5o m., flows north and north-east with numerous rapids and shallows, and enters the Sea of
See also:Okhotsk . The Poronai flows south-south-east to the Gulf of
See also:Patience or Shichiro
See also:Bay, on the south-east coast . Three other small streams enter the wide semicircular Gulf of Aniva or Higashifushimi Bay at the
See also:southern extremity of the island . Owing to the influence of the raw, foggy Sea of Okhotsk, the climate is very
See also:cold . At Dui the
See also:average yearly temperature is only 33.0° Fahr . (
See also:January 3.4°;
See also:July 61 .o°), 35.0° at Kusunai and 37.6° at Aniva (January, 9-50; July, 60.2°) . At
See also:Alexandrovsk near Dui the
See also:annual range is from 81 in July to -38° in January, while at Rykovsk in the interior the minimum is -49° Fahr . The rainfall averages 223 in . Thick clouds for the most part shut out the
See also:sun; while the cold current from the Sea of Okhotsk, aided by north-east winds, brings immense ice-floes to the east coast in summer . The whole of the island is covered with dense forests, mostly coniferous . The Ayan spruce (Abies ayanensis), the Sakhalin
See also:fir (Abies sachalensis) and the Daurian larch are the chief trees; on the upper parts of the mountains are the Siberian rampant
See also:cedar (Cembra pumila) and the Kurilian
See also:bamboo (Arundinaria kurilense) . Birch, both
See also:European and Kamchatkan (Betula
See also:elba and B .
See also:cherry (Prunus padus), Taxus baccata and several willows are mixed with the conifers; while farther south the
See also:mountain ash and
See also:oak, as also the Japanese Panax ricinifolium, the Amur
See also:cork (Philodendron amurense), the spindle
See also:tree (
See also:Euonymus macropterus) and the
See also:vine (Vitis thunbergii) make their appearance . The under-woods abound in
See also:plants (e.g.
See also:crowberry, red whortleberry), berried elder (Sambucus racemosa), wild
See also:raspberry and Spiraea . Bears, foxes, otters and sables are numerous, as also the
See also:reindeer in the north, and the
See also:hares, squirrels, rats and mice everywhere . The avi-fauna is the
See also:common Siberian, and the rivers swarm with
See also:fish, especially
See also:species pf salmon (Oncorhynchus) . Numerous whales visit the sea-coast . Sea-lions,
See also:seals and dolphins are a source of profit . Sakhalin was inhabited in the Neolithic
See also:Stone Age .
See also:Flint implements, exactly like those of Siberia and Russia, have been found at Dui and Kusunai in
See also:great numbers, as well as polished stone hatchets, like the European ones,
See also:primitive pottery with decorations like those of
See also:Olonets and stone weights for nets . Afterwards a population to whom
See also:bronze was known
See also:left traces in earthen walls and
See also:kitchen-middens on the Bay of Aniva . The native inhabitants consist of some 2000 Gilyaks, 1300 Ainus, with 750 Orochons, 200
See also:Tunguses and Some Yakuts . The Gilyaks in the north support themselves by fishing and
See also:hunting . The Ainus inhabit the south part of the island .
There are also 32,000 Russians, of whom over 22,150 are convicts . A little coal is
See also:mined and some
See also:rye, wheat, oats,
See also:barley and vegetables are grown, although the period during which vegetation can grow averages less than roo days . Fishing is actively prosecuted, especially by the Japanese in the south .
See also:History.—Sakhalin, which was under
See also:Chinese dominion until the 19th century, became known to Europeans from the travels of
See also:Martin Gerritz de Vries in the 17th century, and still better from those of La Perouse (1787) and
See also:Krusenstern (1805) . Both, however, regarded it as a peninsula, and were unaware of the existence of the Strait of Tartary, which was discovered in 1809 by a Japanese, Mamiya Rinzo . The Russian navigator Nevelskoi in 1849 definitively established the existence and navigability of this strait . The Russians made their first permanent settlement on Sakhalin in 1857; but the southern part of the island was held by the Japanese until 1875, when they ceded it to Russia . By the treaty of Portsmouth (U.S.A.) of 1905 the southern part of the island below 5o° N. was re-ceded to Japan, the Russians retaining the other three-fifths of the area . See C . H . Hawes, In the Uttermost East (
See also:London, 1903) . (P .
A . K . ; J . T .
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