SALLUST [Gams SALLUSTIUS CRlspus] (86–34 B.c.) ,
See also:Roman historian, belonging to a well-known plebeian
See also:family, was
See also:born at
See also:Amiternum in the
See also:country of the Sabines . After an
See also:ill-spent youth he entered public
See also:life, and was elected tribune of the
See also:people in 52, the
See also:year in which
See also:Clodius was killed in a street brawl by the followers of Milo . Sallust was opposed to Milo and to
See also:Pompey's party and to the old aristocracy of Rome . From the first he was a decided
See also:partisan of Caesar, to whom he owed such
See also:advancement as he attained . In 50 he was removed from the
See also:senate by the censor Appius
See also:Claudius Pulcher on the ground of
See also:gross immorality, the real reason probably being his friendship for Caesar . In the following year, no doubt through Caesar's influence, he was reinstated and appointed quaestor . In 46 he was praetor, and accompanied Caesar in his
See also:campaign, which ended in the decisive defeat of the remains of the Pompeian party at
See also:Thapsus . As a
See also:reward for his services, Sallust was appointed
See also:governor of the province of
See also:Numidia . In this capacity he was guilty of such oppression and extortion that only the influence of Caesar enabled him to
See also:escape condemnation . On his return to Rome he
See also:purchased and laid out in
See also:great splendour the famous gardens on the Quirinal known as the Horti Sallustiani . He now retired from public life and devoted himself to
See also:historical literature . His account of the Catiline
See also:conspiracy (De conjuration Catilinae or Bellum Catilinarium) and of the Jugurthine War (Bellum Jugurthinum) have come down to us
See also:complete, together with fragments of his larger and most important
See also:work (Hisloriae), a
See also:history of Rome from 78-67, intended as a continuation of L .
Cornelius Sisenna's work . The Catiline Conspiracy (his first published work) contains the history of the memorable year 63 . Sallust adopts the usually accepted view of Catiline, and describes him as the deliberate foe of
See also:order and morality, without attempting to give any adequate explanation of his views and intentions . Catiline, it must be remembered, had supported the party of Sulla, to which Sallust was opposed . There may be truth in
See also:suggestion that he was particularly anxious to clear his
See also:patron Caesar of all complicity in the conspiracy . Anyhow, the subject gave him the opportunity of showing off his rhetoric at the expense of the old koman aristocracy, whose degeneracy he delighted to paint in the blackest
See also:colours . On the whole, he is not unfair towards
See also:Cicero . His Jugurthine War, again, though a valuable and interesting monograph, is not a satisfactory performance . We may assume that he had collected materials and put together notes for it during his governor-
See also:ship of Numidia . Here, too, he dwells upon the feebleness of the senate and aristocracyw'too often in a tiresome, moralizing and philosophizing vein, but as a military history the wcrk is unsatisfactory in the
See also:matter of
See also:geographical and
See also:chronological details . The extant fragments of the Histories (some discovered in 1886) are enough to show the political partisan, who took a keen pleasure in describing the reaction against the dictator's policy and legislation after his
See also:death . The loss of the work is to be regretted, as it must have thrown much
See also:light on a very eventful
See also:period, embracing the war against
See also:Sertorius, the
See also:campaigns of
See also:Lucullus against
See also:Mithradates of
See also:Pontus, and the victories of the great Pompey in the East .
Two letters (Duae epistolae de republica ordinanda), letters of political counsel andadvice addressed to Caesar, and an attack upon Cicero (Invectiva or Dedamatio in Ciceronem), frequently attributed to Sallust, are probably the work of a rhetorician of the first century A.D., also the author of a
See also:counter-invective by Cicero . Sallust is highly spoken of by Tacitus (
See also:Annals, iii . 30); and Quintilian (ii . 5, X . 1), who regards him as
See also:superior to
See also:Livy, does not hesitate to put him on a level with
See also:Thucydides On the whole the
See also:verdict of antiquity was favourable to Sallust as an historian . He struck out for himself practically a new
See also:line in literature, his predecessors having been little better than mere dry-as-dust chroniclers, whereas he endeavoured to explain the connexion and meaning of events, and was a successful delineator of character . The contrast between his early life and the high moral
See also:tone adopted by him in his writings was frequently made a subject of reproach against him; but there is no reason why he should not have reformed . In any case, his knowledge of his own former weaknesses may have led him to take a pessimistic view of the morality of his
See also:fellow-men, and to
See also:judge them severely . Ilis
See also:model was Thucydides, whom he imitated in his truthfulness and impartiality, in the introduction of philosophizing reflections and speeches, and in the brevity of his
See also:style, sometimes bordering upon obscurity . His fondness for old words and phrases, in which he imitated his contemporary
See also:Cato, was ridiculed as an affectation; but it was just this affectation and his rhetorical exaggerations that made Sallust a favourite author in the 2nd century A.D. and later .
See also:Editions and
See also:translations in various
See also:languages are numerous . Editio prineeps (1470); (text) R .
Dietsch (1874); H .
See also:Jordan (1887); A . Eussner (1887); (text and notes) F . D . Gerlach (1823-'831); F . Kritz (1828–1853; ed. minor, 1856) ; C . H . Frotscher (183o); C . Merivale (1852); F . Jacobs, H . Wirz (1894); G . Long, revised by J .
G . Frazer, withchief fragments of Histories (1884); W . W . Capes (1884);
See also:translation by A . W .
See also:Pollard (1882) . There are many
See also:separate editions of the Catilina and Jugurtha, chiefly for school use . The fragments have been edited by F . Kritz (1853) and B . Maurenbrecher (1891–1893); and there is an
See also:Italian translation (with notes) of the supposititious letters by G . Vittori (1897) . On Sallust generally J .
W . Lobell's Zur Beurtheilung
See also:des S . (1818) should still be consulted; there are also
See also:treatises by T . Vogel (1857) and M .
See also:Jager (1879 and 1884), T . Rambeau (1879); L . Constans, De sermone Sallustiano (188o); P . Bellezza, Dei fonti e dell' auloritd storica di Sallustio (1891); and
See also:lexicon by O . Eichert (1885) . The sections in Teuffel-
See also:Schwabe's History of Roman Literature are full of information; see also bibliography of Sallust for 1878–1898 by B . Maurenbrecher in C .
See also:Bursian, Jahresbericht fiber die Fortschrilte der klassischen Altertumswissenschafl (1900) .
DENIS DE SALLO
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