SALVATION ARMY , a religious philanthropic organization founded by
See also:Booth (q.v.), who in 1865 began to hold meetings for preaching in the streetg in
See also:London and in tents,
See also:music halls, theatres and other hired buildings . Large numbers attended, many of whom had never entered a place of worship, and presently an organized society was formed called " The Christian
See also:Mission." Booth was assisted by his wife, Catherine Booth, a woman of remarkable gifts, who won for the new
See also:movement the sympathy of many among the cultured classes . In 1878 the Mission, which had spread beyond London, was reorganized on a quasi-military basis, and the title of " The Salvation Army " was definitely adopted in
See also:June 1880 . The
See also:societies became "
See also:Corps," and their evangelists "
See also:Officers," with Booth as " General " of the whole
See also:body . The spiritual operations of the Army at once rapidly
See also:expanded in spite of much disorderly opposition in some places . In 1878 there were 75 corps and 120 officers the
See also:Kingdom, the amount contributed by the outside public being £1925 . Since then the number of corps and officers has greatly increased . Very large numbers who have " professed conversion " are reported annually . No figures of membership, however, are published . In
See also:doctrine, the Army is in harmony with the
See also:main principles of the evangelical bodies, " as embodied in the three creeds of the
See also:Church." Its preaching is
See also:practical and
See also:direct, asseverating the reality of Sin, " the
See also:everlasting punishment of the wicked," and Redemption . The Army proclaims the supreme
See also:duty of self-sacrifice for the
See also:sake of the salvation of others . The Army is under the
See also:control of the General for the
See also:time being, who issues all orders and regulations .
See also:powers devolve upon other officers, such as the " Chief of the
See also:Staff," the "
See also:Foreign Secretary," and the " Chancellor," who direct affairs from the "
See also:International Headquarters " in London . The
See also:system of
See also:government is autocratic, " unquestioning obedience " being required throughout all ranks . The Army is divided, usually in harmony with
See also:national boundaries, into " territories," each under a "
See also:Commissioner," with headquarters in the capital of the
See also:country . The Territories are generally divided into " Provinces " and these again into " Divisions," which include a number of corps, each supporting its own " Captain " and "
See also:Lieutenant." The " soldiers " or members are
See also:drawn from all classes of the community . The
See also:property of the Army in the United Kingdom is held by the General for the time being, for the benefit of the Army exclusively, he being constituted the
See also:sole trustee of the property, in the disposal of which and in the
See also:appointment of his successor he is placed under the government of a deed
See also:poll, executed by Booth while the body was still known as " The Christian Mission," and enrolled in the
See also:Court of
See also:Chancery in
See also:August 1878 . In other countries various modifications have been necessary, but the General's ultimate control has been practically assured . A further deed poll providing for the removal of a General in the contingency of "
See also:mental incapacity " or other " unfitness," and for the election of a successor, was executed by Booth in
See also:July 1904 . Funds are raised from the voluntary offerings of the corps, from open-air and other collections, from friends interested in evangelical and charitable
See also:work, and from the profits on publications and general trading . The
See also:financial statements of the various national headquarters funds are annually published, certified by public
See also:accountants, in each country . In 1909 the general income and
See also:expenditure account of International
See also:Head-quarters in London dealt with a
See also:total of £64,345 . Details of the aggregate income raised in the United Kingdom by the corps are not published . The
See also:annual Self-Denial offering (
See also:Great Britain) was £12,663 in 1888, £72,562 in 1906 and £69,034 in 191o .
The value of theassets of the spiritual work in the United Kingdom increased from £J58,992 in 1891 to £1,357,706 in 1909, the liabilities on account of loans upon
See also:mortgage and otherwise amounting at the latter date to £662,235 . The assets of the
See also:Trade Departments were valued at £110,657 in 1909 .
See also:Statistics of Spiritual Operations (Compiled from the " S.A .
See also:Book, 19ro ") . Corps and Officers Outposts. and Cadets . The
See also:British Isles . . 1447 3,1911 The United States 871 2,983 South
See also:America and West Indies 128 188
See also:Canada and
See also:Newfoundland . 465 950
See also:Australasia and
See also:Java . 1283 1,721 India,
See also:Japan and Korea 2584 1,626 South Africa and St Helena . 113 278 France, Belgium,
See also:Switzerland and 374 499 Italy . Germany and
See also:Holland 248 772 Sweden, Norway, Finland , Denmark 1067 1,513 and
See also:Gibraltar and Malta . 2 5 Total .
8582 13,726 Employees (without
See also:rank), 6269 . 1 Officers and employees (British Isles), 7538 . Booth's
See also:scheme for Social
See also:Relief, described in In Darkest England, and the Way Out (189o), attracted wide-spread
See also:interest,and was started with subscriptions amounting to over £Ioo,000 . A
See also:separate deed poll, making the General sole trustee, was executed by Booth in regard to the property and funds of this branch of work . Since then, both in Great Britain and abroad, the scheme has been actively carried on . The amount received in the year ending 30th
See also:September 1909 for cheap
See also:food and lodging in the United Kingdom was returned at £42,022 for the men's work, and £6417 for the
See also:women's . Large numbers of unemployed, ex-criminal and other needy persons have been aided or dealt with . In the year ending 30th September 1909, the number of persons received into the "
See also:elevators " or factories was reported as 6425, of women and girls received into
See also:rescue homes as 2559 . The
See also:farm colony at
See also:Hadleigh in
See also:Essex has a large acreage under cultivation, with fruit and market gardens and various
See also:industrial undertakings . The emigration department, although a development of the Darkest England Scheme, has no connexion with the rescue work; in 1907 the passage
See also:money received amounted to £85,014, and in 1909 to £38,179 . An "
See also:anti-suicide bureau " was opened in 1907, and at Boxted, near Colchester, a scheme for Small Holdings has been initiated . In 1909 the value of the property held under the Darkest England Scheme in the United Kingdom was returned at £329,645, and the income of the central fund at £50,594 .
See also:Summary of Social Operations throughout the
See also:World (Compiled from the " S.A . Year-Book, 5970 ") . There are a number of subsidiary branches of work, such as the
See also:Legion, and the
See also:Naval and Military
See also:League for work among men in the military, naval and
See also:merchant services . In England there is a
See also:bank (the Reliance Bank, Ltd.) and a
See also:Life Assurance Society, the funds of the latter amounting to £566,309 in 1909 . All officers and many of the rank and
See also:wear a
See also:uniform . Music is universally employed . While the organization has succeeded in securing recognition and favour in high places both in England and abroad, it has been seriously criticized at times, notably by
See also:Huxley and others in 189o-1891, and more recently by J .
See also:Manson in The Salvation Army and the Public, a work which led to much public discussion of the Army's religious, social and financial operations and methods . In 1910 some resignations took place among the higher officials . AUTHORITIEs.—William Booth, Orders and Regulations for Soldiers; Orders and Regulations for Field Officers; Orders and Regulations for Staff Officers; Salvation Soldiery; Interview with W . E . Gladstone; In Darkest England and the Way Out (1890); Bramwell Booth, Social Reparation; Servants of All (1899) ; Booth-Tucker, The Life of Catherine Booth (1892) ; Railton,
See also:Heathen England; Twenty-one Years' Salvation Army;
See also:White, Truth about the Salvation Army (1892, 1900 and 1906); The Great Idea (1909; 2nd ed., 1910); T .
F . G . Coates, The Life
See also:Story of General Booth (2nd ed., 1906); Harold Begbie, Broken Earthenware (19o9); various reports and accounts; The War Cry, The Social
See also:Gazette, The Salvation Army Year Book, &c .
See also:Thomas H . Huxley, " Social Diseases and Worse, Remedies " in Collected Essays, vol. ix . (1895);
See also:John Number of Institutions . United Total Kingdom . Abroad . Total . Accommo- dation . Men's Work 31 156 187 18,531 Shelters and Food Depots . Labour Bureaus .
8 5o 58 Labour Homes and Factories 28 117 145 4,936 Ex-criminal Homes . ..1 i8 18 486 Farm Colonies . 2 15 17 Women's Work 32 107 139 3,469 Rescue and Maternity Homes . Shelters and Food Depots 10 20 30 1,934
See also:Children's Homes and Creches . 2 57 59
See also:Slum Posts 44 103 147 Other Social Institutions . . 17 87 104 Total Institutions . 174 730 904 29,356 Total number of officers engaged exclusively in social work, 252o . 1 In the United Kingdom ex-criminals are now received in the ordinary labour homes and factories . Manson, The Salvation Army and the Public (1906; 3rd ed., 1908); Salvation Army Headquarters, A Calumny Refuted : A Reply to the Unfounded Charges of Sweating, &c . (19o8); United Workers' Anti-Sweating
See also:Committee, Salvation Army Sweating: A Reply to the Mis-statements of General Booth and his Officials (1908; 2nd ed., 1910); Reports of the Trades Union Congress (1907 to 1910) .
NARCISSE ACHILLE SALVANDY (1795-1856)
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