SAMANIDS , the first
See also:great native
See also:dynasty which sprang up in the 9th century in E .
See also:Persia, and, though nominally provincial
See also:governors under the
See also:suzerainty of the caliphs of
See also:Bagdad, succeeded in a very
See also:time in establishing an almost
See also:rule over Transoxiana and the greater
See also:part of Persia . Under the
See also:caliphate of
See also:Mamun, Saman, a Persian
See also:noble of
See also:Balkh, who was a close friend of the Arab
See also:governor of Khorasan, Asad. b . Abdallah, was converted from Zoroastrianism to
See also:Islam . His son Asad, named after Asad b . Abdallah, had four sons who rendered distinguished services to Mamun . In return they all received provinces: NO obtained
See also:Samarkand; Abmad,
See also:Ferghana; Yahya, Shash; Ilyas,
See also:Herat . Of these Abmad and his second son
See also:Ismail overthrew the Saffarids (q.v.) and the Zaidites of Tabaristan, and thus the Samanids established themselves with the sanction of the
See also:caliph Motamid in their capital
See also:Bokhara . The first ruler (874) was Nagr I . (Nagr or Nagir b . Abmad b . Asad. b .
Saman) . He was succeeded by his
See also:brother Isma'il b . Abmad (892) . His descendants and successors, all renowned for the high impulse they gave both to the patriotic feelings and the
See also:poetry of
See also:modern Persia (see PERSIA: Literature), were Abmad b . Isma'l (907-913); Nagr II. b . Abmad, the
See also:patron and friend of the great poet Rudagi (913-942) ; Nub I. b .
See also:Nast . (942-954) ; Abdalmalik I. b . Nub (954-961); Mansur I. b . Nub, whose
See also:vizier Bal'ami translated Tabari's universal
See also:history into Persian (961-976) ; Nub II. b . Mansur, whose
See also:court-poet Daqiqi (Dalilfi) began the Sheihnama (476-997); Manger II. b . Nub (997-999); and Abdalmalik 1I. b .
Nub (999), under whom the Samanid dynastywas conquered by the Ghaznevids . The rulers of this powerful
See also:house, whose
See also:silver dirhems had an extensive currency during the Ioth century all over the N. of
See also:Asia, and were brought, through
See also:Russian caravans, even so far as to
See also:Pomerania, Sweden and Norway, where Samanid coins have been found in great number, were in their turn overthrown by a more youthful and vigorous
See also:race, that of Sabuktagin, which founded the illustrious Ghaznevid dynasty and the Mussulman
See also:empire of India . Under Abdalmalik I. a
See also:Turkish slave, Alptagin, had been entrusted with the
See also:government of Bokhara, but, showing himself hostile to Mansur I., he was compelled to fly and to take
See also:refuge in the mountainous regions of
See also:Ghazni, where he soon established a semi-independent rule, to which, after his
See also:death in 977 (367 A.H.), his son-in-
See also:law Sabuktagin, likewise a former Turkish slave, succeeded . Nub II., in
See also:order to retain at least a nominal sway over those Afghan territories, confirmed him in his high position and even invested Sabuktagin's son Mahmud with the governorship of Khorasan, in
See also:reward for the powerful help they had given him In his desperate struggles with a
See also:confederation of disaffected nobles of Bokhara under the leadership of Fa'iq and the troops of the Dailamites, a dynasty that had arisen on the shores of the
See also:Sea and wrested already from the hands of the Samanids all their western provinces . Unfortunately, Sabuktagin died in the same
See also:year as Nub II . (997, 387 A.H.), and Mahmud (q.v.), confronted with an
See also:internal contest against his own brother Ismail, had to withdraw his
See also:attention for a short time from the affairs in Khorasan and Transoxiana . This
See also:interval sufficed for the old
See also:leader Fa'iq, supported by a strong Tatar army under the Ilek Khan
See also:Abu'l Hosain Nagr I., to turn Nub's successor Mansur II. into a mere puppet, to concentrate all the power in his own
See also:hand, and to induce even his nominal
See also:master to reject Mahmud's application for a continuance of his governorship in Khorasan . Mahmud refrained for the moment from vindicating his right; but, as soon as, through court intrigues, Mansur II. had been dethroned, he took possession of , Khorasan, deposed Manger's successor Abdalmalik II., and assumed as an independent monarch for the first time in
See also:Asiatic history the title of " sultan." The last
See also:prince of the house of Saman, Montagir, a bold
See also:warrior and a poet of no mean
See also:talent, carried on for some years a kind of guerilla warfare against both Mahmud and the Ilek Khan, who had occupied Transoxiana, till he was assassinated in 1005 (395 A.H.) . Transoxiana itself was annexed to the Ghaznevid
See also:realm eleven years later, To16 (407 A.H.) . See S . Lane
See also:Mahommedan Dynasties (1894), pp . 131-133; Stockvis,
See also:Manuel d'histoire (
See also:Leiden, 1888), vol. i. p .
113; also articles CALIPHATE and PERSIA: History,section B, and for the later
See also:period MAIJMUD,
See also:MONGOLS .
FELIX MARIA DE SAMANIEGO (1745-1801)
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