SAMOYEDES , a tribe of the Ural-Altaic
See also:group, scattered in small groups over an immense
See also:area, from the Altai mountains down the basins of the Ob and
See also:Yenisei, and along the shores of the Arctic ocean from the mouth of the latter
See also:river to the'
See also:Sea . The tribe may be subdivided into three
See also:main groups: (a) The Yuraks in the
See also:coast-region from the Yenisei to the White Sea; (b) the Tavghi Samoyedes, between the Yenisei and the Khatanga; (c) the Ostiak Samoyedes, intermingled with
See also:Ostiaks, to the S. of the others, in the
See also:forest regions of
See also:Tobolsk and
See also:Yeniseisk . Their whole number may be estimated at from 20,000 to 25,000 . The so-called Samoyedes inhabiting the S. of the governments of
See also:Tomsk and Yeniseisk have been much under Tatar influence and appear to be of a different stock; their sub-groups are the Kamasin Tatars, the Kaibals, the
See also:Motors, the Beltirs, the Karagasses and the Samoyedes of the
See also:middle Ob . The proper place of the Samoyedes among the Ural-Altaians is very difficult to determine . As to their
See also:present name, signifying in its present
See also:Russian spelling " self-eaters," many ingenious theories have been advanced, but that proposed by Schrenk, who derived the name " Samo-yedes " from " Syroyadtsy ' or " raw-eaters," leaves much to be desired . Perhaps the etymology ought to be sought in quite another direction, namely, in the likeness to Suomi . The names assumed by the Samoyedes themselves are Hazovo and Nyanyaz . The Ostiaks know them under the names of Orghoy, or Workho, both of which recall the Ugrians; the name of Hui is also in use among the Ostiaks, and that of Yaron among the Syrgenians . The language now spoken by the Samoyedes belongs to the Finno-Ugrian group, and is allied to Finnish but has a more copious
See also:system of suffixes (see FINNC-UGR1c) . It is a sonorous speech, pleasant to the ear . No fewer than three
See also:separate dialects and a dozen sub-dialects are known in it .
The conclusions deducible from their anthropological features—apart from thegeneral difficulty of arriving at safe conclusions on this ground alone, on account of the variability of the ethnological type under various conditions of life—are also rather indefinite . The Samoyedes are recognized as having the
See also:face more flattened than undoubtedly Finnish
See also:stocks; their eyes are narrower, their complexion and hair darker . Zuyev describes them as like the
See also:Tunguses, with flattened
See also:nose, thick lips, little
See also:beard and black, hard hair . At first sight they may be mistaken for Ostiaks—especially on the Ob—but they are undoubtedly different . Castren considers them as a mixture of Ugrians with Mongolians, and Zograf as brachycephalic Mongolians . Quatrefages classes them, together with the Voguls, as two families of the Ugrian sub-branch, this last, together with the Sabmes (Lapps), forming
See also:part of the Ugrian or Boreal branch of the yellow or Mongolic
See also:race . It is probable that formerly the Samoyedes occupied the Altai mountains, whence they were driven N. by Turco-Tatars . Thus, the Kaibals
See also:left the Sayan mountains and took possession of the Abakan steppe (
See also:Minusinsk region), abandoned by the Kirghizes, in the earlier years of last century, and in N.E . Russia the Zyrians are still
See also:driving the Samoyedes farther N., towards the Arctic coast . Since the researches of Schrenk it may be regarded as settled that in
See also:historical times the Samoyedes were inhabitants of the so-called Ugria in the
See also:northern Urals, while Radlov considers that the number-less
See also:graves containing remains of the
See also:Period which are scattered throughout W .
See also:Siberia, on the Altai, and on the Yenisei in the Minusinsk region, are
See also:relics of Ugro-Samoyedes . According to his views this nation, very numerous at that epoch—which precededthe Iron-Period
See also:civilization of the Turco-Tatars,—were
See also:pretty well acquainted with
See also:mining; the remains of their mines, sometimes 50 ft. deep, and of the furnaces where they melted copper, tin and gold, are very numerous; their weapons of a hard bronze, their pots (one of which weighs 75 lb), and their melted and polished bronze and
See also:golden decorations testify to a high development of
See also:artistic feeling and
See also:industrial skill, strangely contrasting with the low level reached by their earthenware .
They were not nomads, but husbandmen, and theirirrigation canals are still to be seen . They kept horses (though in small numbers),
See also:sheep and goats, but no traces of their rearing horned
See also:cattle have yet been found . The
See also:Turkish invasion of S . Siberia, which took place in the 5th century, drove them farther N., and probably reduced most of them to
See also:slavery . The Samoyedes, who now maintain themselves by
See also:hunting and fishing on the
See also:lower Ob, partly mixed in the S. with Ostiaks, recall the
See also:condition of the inhabitants of France and Germany at the epoch of the
See also:reindeer . Clothed in skins, like the troglodytes of the Weser, they make use of the same implements in
See also:bone and
See also:stone, eat carnivorous animals—the
See also:wolf included—and cherish the same superstitions (of which those regarding the teeth of the bear are perhaps. the most characteristic) as were current among the Stone-Period inhabitants of W .
See also:Europe . Their heaps of reindeer horns and skulls—memorials of religious ceremonies—are exactly similar to those dating from the similar period of civilization in N . Germany . Their huts often resemble the well-known stone huts of the Esquimaux; their graves are mere boxes left in the tundra . The religion is
See also:fetishism mixed with
See also:Shamanism, the shaman (tadji-bei) being a representative of the
See also:great divinity, the Num . The Yalmal peninsula, where they find great facilities for hunting, is especially venerated by the Ob Ostiak Samoyedes, and there they have one of their chief idols, Khese .
They are more
See also:independent than the Ostiaks, less yielding in character, although as hospitable as their neighbours . They are said to be disappearing owing to the use of ardent
See also:spirits and the prevalence of smallpox . They still maintain the high standard of honesty mentioned by historical documents, and never will take anything left in the tundra or about the houses by their neighbours . The Yurak Samoyedes are courageous and warlike; they offered armed resistance to the Russian invaders, and it is only since the beginning of the century that they have paid tribute . The exact number of the Ostiak Samoyedes is not known; the Tavghi Samoyedes may number about 10oo, and the Yuraks, mixed with the former, are estimated at 6000 in Obdorsk (about 15o settled), 5000 in
See also:European Russia in the tundras of the Mezen, and about 350 in Yeniseisk . Of the S . Samoyedes, who are completely Tatarized, the Beltirs live by
See also:agriculture and cattle-breeding in the Abakan steppe . They profess
See also:Christianity, and speak a language closely resembling that of the Sagai Tatars . The Kaibals, or Koibals, can hardly be distinguished from the Minusinsk Tatars, and support themselves by rearing cattle . Castren considers that three of their stems are of Ostiak origin, the
See also:remainder being Samoyedic . The Kamasins, in the
See also:district of Yeniseisk, are either herdsmen or agriculturists . They speak a language with an admixture of Tatar words, and some of their stems contain a large Tatar
See also:element .
The interesting nomadic tribe of Karagasses, in the Sayan mountains, is disappearing; the few representatives are rapidly losing their anthropological features, their Turkish language and their distinctive
See also:dress . The Motors are now little more than a memory . One portion of the tribe emigrated to
See also:China and was there exterminated; the remainder have disappeared among the
See also:Tuba Tatars and the Soyotes . The Samoyedes on the Ob in Tomsk may number about 7000; they have adopted the Russian manner of
See also:life, but have difficulty in carrying on agriculture, and are a poverty-stricken population with little prospect of holding their own . The
See also:works of M . A . Castren are still the best authority on the Samoyedes . See Grammatik der samoyedischen Sprachen (1854);
See also:Dictionary (1855); Ethnologische Vorlesungen fiber die altaischen Volker (1857); Versuch einer koibalischen and karagassischen Sprachlehre (1857) . See also A . Middendorf, Reise in den dussersten Norden and Osten Sibiriens (1875) .
SAMOVAR (Russ. samovar*, an urn for making tea afte...
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