See also:SAMUEL Or YARHINAI (c . 165-c . 257), Babylonian
See also:Rabbi, was
See also:born in Nahardea in Babylonia and died there c . 257 . He is associated with the fame of his
See also:great contemporary
See also:Rab (Abba Araka q.v.) . Besides his mastery in the traditional
See also:Law, which added much to the growing reputation of the Rabbinic Academy of his native
See also:town, Samuel was famed for his scientific attainments . In particular his knowledge of astronomy was profound, and he was one of the first to compile a
See also:Calendar of the Jewish
See also:year, thus preparing the way for the fixation of the festivals by means of scientific calculations . But Samuel's fame rests on the service which he rendered in adapting the
See also:life of the Jews of the diaspora to the law of the
See also:land . " The law of the State is binding law," was the principle which Samuel enunciated, here carrying to its logical outcome the admonition of
See also:Jeremiah . When the
See also:king of
See also:Persia, Shapur, captured Mazaca-Caesarea, the Cappadocian capital, Samuel refused to mourn for the 12,000 Jews who lost their lives in its defence . As
See also:Graetz says: " To Jeremiah and Mar Samuel Judaism owes the possibility of existence in a
See also:country." See Graetz,
See also:History of the Jews (
See also:translation), vol . .ii. ch. xix .
(I . A.) SAMUEL, BOOKS OF, two books of the Old Testament, which in the Jewish
See also:canon are ranked among the Former Prophets (
See also:Kings), in contrast to the Latter Prophets (Isaiah-
See also:Malachi) . The division into two (like the two
See also:Hebrew books of Kings) follows the Septuagint and the Vulgate, whose four books of " kingdoms " correspond to the Hebrew books of Samuel and Kings . Both Samuel and Kings, like
See also:Judges, are made up of a series of extracts and abstracts from various
See also:sources, worked over from
See also:time to time by successive editors, and freely handled by copyists down to a comparatively
See also:late date, as is shown by the numerous and often important variations between the Hebrew text and the Greek version (Septuagint) . The
See also:main redaction of Judges and Kings was made under the influence of the ideas which characterize
See also:Deuteronomy, that is, after the reforms ascribed to Josiah (2 Kings
See also:xxiii.); but in Samuel the " Deu,teronomistic
See also:hand is much less prominent and the
See also:system which runs through Judges and Kings occurs only sporadically . The
See also:book of Samuel completes the history of the " judges " of
See also:Israel, (11th century B.C.), and begins by
See also:relating the events which led to the institution of the
See also:monarchy under
See also:Saul, the
See also:part played by Samuel being especially prominent (I Sam. i.-xiv.) . The
See also:interest is then transferred to
See also:David, the founder of the Judaean
See also:dynasty, and his early life is narrated with great
See also:wealth of detail . As Saul loses the divine favour, David's position advances until, after the
See also:death of Saul and the overthrow of Israel, he gains the
See also:allegiance of a disorganized
See also:people (I Sam. xv.-2 Sam. iv.), and Jerusalem becomes the centre of his
See also:empire (v.-viii.) —c . 1000 B.C . A more connected narrative is now given of the history of David (ix.-xx.), which is separated from the account of his death and Solomon's accession (1 Kings i. ii.) by an appendix of
See also:miscellaneous contents (xxi.-
See also:xxiv.) . Three lines of interest are to be recognized: (a) that naturally taken by Israel (the
See also:kingdom) in the history of its first king, Saul; (b) the leading position of the prophets in the
See also:political and religious events; and (c) the superiority of the Judaean dynasty, a feature of paramount importance in the study of a book which has come ultimately through Judaean hands . (On the
See also:ambiguity of the name " Israel," see JEws, § 5.)
See also:Proof of the diversity of sources is found in the varying character of the narratives (
See also:historical, romantic, &c.); in the different
See also:literary styles (annalistic, detailed and vivid, Deuteronomic) ; in the
See also:representation of different standpoints and tastes; in the concluding summaries, 1 Sam. xiv .
47-51 compared with xv., 2 Sam. viii. compared with x.; in the
See also:double lists in 2 Sam. viii . 15-18, xx . 23-26, &c . The religious views are so varied that a single writer or even a single age cannot be postulated; note especially 1 Sam. xv . 22 seq. contrasted with the use of
See also:teraphim in xix . 13, and the different conceptions of Yahweh (1 Sam. xii . 21 seq., xv . 22 and
See also:xxvi . 19, &c.).1 ' It is of course necessary to note carefully whether the religious ideas have any real chronological value . Thus, I Sam. xvii . 36, 46 seq. contain ideas of Yahweh characteristic of exilic and
See also:post-exilic writings (see T . K .
See also:Cheyne, Ency . Bib. col . 1755), but no proof of an early date is furnished by xxvi . 19b (cf .
See also:Ruth i . 16, I Kings xx . 23, 2 Kings xvii . 26 seq.); or 2 Sam. xxiv . 1 (cf . I Kings xxii . 20, Ezek. xlv . 9), or 2 Sam. xxi .
I (note drought as thepunishment for not Unsystematic additions appear to have been made from time to time on a considerable scale, and we not seldom find two accounts of the same events which not only differ in detail but are certainly of very different date . Thus, the saying " Is Saul also among the prophets?" (I Sam. x . 12) finds another explanation in xix . 18-24, where Samuel holds a new position as
See also:head of a community of prophets and the words are adapted to an incident in the history of David, who flees
See also:north (not south) and is wondrously preserved . The
See also:episode, with the interview between Saul and Samuel, and with its interesting attitude to Saul and to the prophets, was evidently unknown to the writer of xv . 35 . Other and more profound differences relating to the rise of the monarchy (§ 2), the career of Saul (§ 3) and David's
See also:conquest of Jerusalem (§ 4) represent irreconcilable historical background . The first part of the book is concerned with Samuel and Saul . The
See also:introductory account (i.-iv. la) of the
See also:birth, dedication and calling of the
See also:prophet Samuel is a valuable 2 . Institapicture of religious life at the sanctuary at Shiloh. don of It is connected by the prophecy of the punishment the
See also:moat of the
See also:house of Eli (iii . II sqq.) with the defeat of the ohs' . Israelites by the
See also:Philistines at Ebenezer near Aphek, the loss of the
See also:ark (iv. lb-22), and its subsequent fortunes (v.-vii .
I) . A
See also:Philistine oppression of twenty years ends when Samuel, here the recognized "
See also:judge " of Israel, gains a great victory at Ebenezer near
See also:Mizpah (vii.) . But the overthrow of the Philistines is also ascribed to Saul (xiv.), there is no
See also:room for both in the history of the prophet (see vii . 14), and it is now generally recognized that two conflicting representations have been combined . In one (a) Samuel, after his victory, continues to
See also:rule peacefully as a theocratic judge over the Israelites, the people demand a king, and although their
See also:request is viewed as hostile to the worship of Yahweh the tribes are summoned at Mizpah and the sacred lot falls upon Saul of Benjamin (vii. viii. x . 17-27) . But in the other (b) the Philistines have occupied the heart of the land, the Israelites are thoroughly disorganized, and their miserable
See also:condition moves Yahweh to send as a deliverer the otherwise unknown Saul, who is anointed by Samuel, a seer of
See also:local renown (ix . 16, xiii. xiv.) . The conclusion of the former is found in Samuel's farewell address (xii.) and the entire representation of Samuel's position, Saul's rise, and the characteristic attitude towards the monarchy (viii . 7, X . 19, xii . 12, cf .
Deut. xvii . 14-20, Judg. viii . 22 seq., Hos. viii . 4, xiii . I1),
See also:separate it sharply from the relatively fragmentary narrative in (b); see further SAMUEL . The former, now predominating, account (a) is that of the Deuteronomic school, .and, although a
See also:running narrative, appears on closer inspection to be based upon earlier sources of different origin . The account of Eli, Shiloh and the ark (i.-iii.) is the 'natural prelude to iv.-vii . I, where, however, we lose sight of Samuel and the prophecy . The punishment of Eli and his sons (iv.) becomes a passing interest, and the
See also:fate of the ark is by no means so central an idea as its wonder-working in the Philistine territory . Moreover, the sequel of the defeat in iv. is not stated, although other allusions to the fall of Shiloh (Jer. vii . 12-I5, xxvi . 6, 9, Ps. lxxviii .
6o sqq.), and the subsequent reappearance of the priestly
See also:family at
See also:Nob (xxi. seq.) have led most scholars to the conclusion that a
See also:fuller account of the events must have been extant . A narrative of Eli and the priesthood of Shiloh has probably been used to
See also:form an introduction to Samuel's victory (vii.), and it has been supplemented partly by the account of the early life of the future prophet and judge (note the
See also:present abrupt introduction of Eli in i . 3) and partly by narratives of the history of the ark (v. seq.) . That this section was handled at a relatively late
See also:period is clear not only from the presence of the Deuteronomic prophecy in ii . 27-36 (see § 6), but also from the insertion of Hannah's psalm (ii . I-io)—the prototype of the " Magnificat "—a post-exilic passage, " probably composed in celebration of some
See also:national success " (
See also:Driver), the present suitability of which rests upon the
See also:interpretation placed on
See also:verse 5 . For the more fragmentary account of Saul's rise (ix . I–x . 16, xiii . 2-7a, 15b-23, xiv . 1-47), see above, page 194 .
See also:Chapter xi., where he leads Israel and
See also:Judah to the
See also:rescue of their kinsmen of Jabesh-
See also:Gilead, rebuilding the
See also:Hag. i .
; or for not attending the feast of
See also:Tabernacles, Zech. xiv . 16-19) . 1 . Position and contents . represents a situation which belongs to (a) rather than to the state of
See also:chaos represented in (b) ; it describes how the newly-elected king proved his worth (cf. x . 27, xi . 12 seq.) . The compiler has used a
See also:story in which Saul is a private individual of Gibeah, whither the messengers came in the course of their
See also:mission (xi . 4 seq.) . This valuable narrative is of quite distinct origin . Further, Samuel's speech includes himself among the past judges (xii. ii, cf..vii.), and refers to an Ammonite invasion (v . 12) .
The latter finds noplace in the present history, although the local story of
See also:Jephthah's deliverance of Gilead (Judg. xi.) has been treated as the occasion of a general Ammonite oppression, which leads to an Israelite gathering, also at Mizpah (Judg. x . 7, 9, 17) . For other evidence of compositeness in this section, see A . Lods, Etudes de theologie (
See also:Paris, 1901), pp . 259-284, and below, § 6 . Saul.—Saul's reign is introduced in xiii. r where a
See also:blank has been
See also:left for his age at accession (some
See also:MSS. insert "
See also:thirty ") ; the duration of his reign is also textually uncertain . 3 . The The
See also:formula is parallel to that in 2 Sam. ii. i o seq., kingdom o/ Saul . V . 4 seq., and frequently in the Book of Kings, with the additional feature that the age at accession, there usually confined to the Judaean kings, is here given for the Israelite Saul and his son Ishbosheth (i.e . Ishbaal) . The
See also:summary in xiv .
47 sqq. is evidently by an admirer; it is immediately followed by a reference to the continuous Philistine warfare (v . 52, contrast vii . 13) which forms an introduction to the life of David . This summary gives a picture of Saul's ability and position which differs so markedly from the subsequent more extensive narratives of David's history that its genuineness has sometimes been questioned; nevertheless it is substantiated by the old poem quoted from the Book of
See also:Jashar in 2 Sam. i . 19-27, and a fundamental divergence in the traditions may be assumed . Similarly in 2 Sam. ii . 8-ioa, the length of Ishbaal's reign conflicts with the history of David (ii . 11 and iv . 1-v . 3), and the reorganization of (north) Israel with the aid of Abner does not
See also:accord with other traditions which represent David as the deliverer of (all?) Israel from the Philistine yoke (iii . 18, xix . 9) .
But ii . 8-ioa, in
See also:common with 1 Sam. xiii . 1, xiv . 47-51 (cf. also the introduction in r Sam. vii . 2 and the conclusion vii . 15-17), are of a literary character different from the detailed narratives; the redactional or annalistic
See also:style is
See also:notice-able, and they contain features characteristic of the
See also:annals which form the framework of Kings.' In Kings the Israelite and Judaean records are kept carefully separate and the in-dependent standpoint of each is at once obvious . Here, however, much complication arises from the combination of traditions of distinct origin:
See also:independent records of Saul having been revised or supplemented by writers whose interest
See also:lay in David . Little old tradition of Saul is preserved . The disastrous over-throw of Israel in the north (xxxi.) finds its explanation in an interview with the dead Samuel (
See also:xxviii . 3-25, here a famous prophet), where the Israelite catastrophe is foreshadowed, and Saul learns that he has lost the favour of Yahweh, and that his kingdom will pass to David (vv . 16-19) . Allusion is made to his
See also:campaign against Amalek (mentioned in xiv .
48 apparently as an active enemy), the story of which contains another denunciation and again a reference to the coming supremacy of David (xv . 28) . This
See also:peculiar treatment of Saul's history by writers of the prophetical school (cf . Ahab in x Kings xx . 35-43) has been adapted to the life of David, and the Amalekite war (r Sam. xv.) is now the prelude to the
See also:anointing of the youth of
See also:Bethlehem by Samuel (xvi. r sqq.) . Yet another account of Saul's rejection is found in xiii . 8-14, even before his defeat of the Philistines, and Saul is warned of the impending
See also:change (cf. v . 13 seq. with 2 Sam. vii . 11-16) . But the incident was evidently unknown to the author of
See also:chap. xv., and in this subordination of the history of Saul to that of David, in the reshaping of writings by specifically Judaean hands, we have a preliminary
See also:clue to the literary growth of the book . The unambiguous allusions in xiii . 13 seq., xv 26-28, and the anointing of David by Samuel in xvi. are ignored in the narratives of the relations between David and Saul, of whose first
See also:meeting two 'Characteristic expressions of Deuteronomic writers are found in 1 Sam. xiv .
47 seq . (cp . Judg. ii . 14 sqq.) ;'similarly in the (north) Israelite writer in 2 Kings xiii . 3 sqq . (see KINGS).contradictory accounts are given (contrast xvi . 21 sqq. and xvii . 55 sqq.) . The independent stories of David place him in the south of Judah, an outlaw with a large following, or avassal of the Philistines; and his raids upon south Judaean clans are treated as attacks upon Saul's kingdom (
See also:xxvii . 10-12) . But the earlier stages are extremely confused . Two very similar narratives describe Saul's pursuit of David in the Judaean
See also:desert (xxiv. xxvi.)' The main points are Saul's confession and his recognition that David would prevail (xxvi .
21-25); the latter is more emphatic when he foresees that David will gain the kingdom of Israel and he adjures him to spare hisseed (xxiv . 20-22) . This last feature is prominent in xxiii . 15-18 (the prelude to xxiv.), where a passage is inserted to describe the
See also:covenant between David and Saul's son Jonathan . The account of David's
See also:flight is equally intricate . The tradition that David slew
See also:Goliath, brought his head to Jerusalem, and deposited his sword in Nob (xvii., cf. xxi . 9, xxii. io) is incompatible with the simpler notice in 2 Sam. xxi . 19 (1 Chron. xx . 5 seeks to avoid the discrepancy); and even if the name Goliath be a later addition to the story of some great exploit (A . R . S .
See also:Kennedy, Sam., pp .
122, 149), or a descriptivetitle (W . E .
See also:Barnes, Chron., p. ro4), it is surely difficult, on historical grounds, to reconcile David's recurring fights with the Philistines with his subsequent
See also:escape from Saul to Achish of
See also:Gath (xxvii.; already anticipated in xxi . 10-15); see further § 6 . Saul's
See also:jealousy, however, is in some way kindled, and there is already a hint at David's succession ()viii . 8 sqq., Septuagint omits io seq.) . The stories of Merab (xviii . 17-19) and Michal (vv . 20 sqq.) are duplicate, and a number of
See also:internal difficulties throughout are only partially removed in the shorter text of the Septuagint .. In xx . David has realized Saul's hatred; but Jonathan scarcely credits it, although in xix . 1-7 Saul had instructed his attendants to slay the youth and his son had effected a reconciliation .
This is ignored also in xix . 8-so (cf. xviii. so seq., xx . 31 sqq.), and again in vv . 11-17 where David is saved by Michal his wife (see
See also:xxv . 44), and in vv . 18-24 (David with Samuel, see § 1 end) . Even in xx. the urgent preparations for flight are delayed in vv . 11-17, where Jonathan entreats David's kindness for his descendants (seen Sam. ix . 1, below), and again in vv . 40-42, where the second meeting with a renewal of the covenant stultifies the preceding plans.' David.—All the stories of the relations between the founders of the respective monarchies are so closely interwoven that the disentanglement of distinct series of narratives is a task of the greatest difficulty .4 They reflect in varying 4' The kingdom forms the popular interest in David and are of the of David. greatest value in illustrating current traditions, thought and styles of literature . Apart from the more detailed and continuous history, there are miscellaneous passages in 2 Sam. v.-viii., with introduction (v . 1-3), and a concluding chapter rounding off his reign (viii.) .
A similar collection in xxi.-xxiv. severs the narratives in ix.-xx. from David's death in 1 Kings i.-ii . Their contents range over all periods, from the Amalekite 'war (viii . 12, cf . 1 Sam.
See also:xxx.) to David's " last words " (xxiii . 1, but see 1 Kings i. and ii . 1) . In particular they narrate the capture of Jerusalem from the Jebusites (v . 6-1o) and other fights in that
See also:district as far as
See also:Gezer (vv . 17-25), the
See also:purchase of land from a Jebusite for the erection of an
See also:altar (xxiv.; see r Chron. xxi.-xxii . 1, 2 Chron. iii . 1), and the remarkable story of the pacification of the
See also:Gibeonites (xxi . 1-14) .
With the conflicts in v. are closely connected the exploits in xxi . 15 sqq., xxiii . 8 sqq., and theprobability of some disarrangement is supported by the repetition of the
See also:list of officials in viii . 15-18 and xx . 23-26, which many scholars (after Budde) attribute to the later insertion of ix.-xx . 22 . On this view, at an earlier stage the two groups v.-viii.,`xxi.-xxiv. were contiguous-though 2 It is difficult to decide which is the older; for xxvi. see especially M . Lohr, Sam., p. xlv . ; H . Gressmann, Schriften d . A . T., ad loc .
; for xxiv. see W . W . Guth, Journ. of Bibl . Lit . (1906), pp . 114 sqq . ' The keen interest in Jonathan is also conspicuous at the very commencement of Saul's career, where the youth (in ix . Saul himself appears to be represented as an inexperienced youth) is the centre of the narrative (see xiii . 3, xiv . 1-14, 17, 21, 27-45), rather than the
See also:father who now achieves the task to which he was called by Yahweh . But the revision has been too complicated for any satisfactory discussion of the literary stages . 4 On the attempts (especially of K .
See also:Richter u . Samuel, 189o, and elsewhere) to recover here the Yahwistic (or Judaean) and Elohistic (or Ephraimite) sources of the
See also:Hexateuch, see the criticisms of B . Stade, Theolog . Lit . Zeitung (1896), No. i ; Steuernagel, ib . (1903), No. s7; W . Riedel, Theol . Lit . Blatt (1904), No . 3, col . 28; also H . P .
See also:Smith, Journ . Bibl . Lit., 15 (1896), pp . 1-8; and W . W . Guth, Die altere Schicht in den Erzahlungen fiber Saul u . David (1904) ; and " Unity of the Older Saul-David Narratives " (see note 2 above) . not necessarily in their present form or
See also:order' Budde's further conclusion that i Kings i. ii . 1-9, 13 sqq. were likewise wanting (Sam. p. xi.) is also valuable, since (a) 2 Sam. v.-viii . (with xxi.-xxiv.) finds its natural continuation, on the
See also:analogy of the Deuteronomic compiler's framework in Kings, in i Kings ii . 10-12, iii . 2, and (b) I Kings v .
3 seq . (also Deuteronomic) explicitly points back to the summary of the
See also:wars in 2 Sam. viii . It is commonly recognized that the compiler of 2 Sam. v.-viii. has wrongly placed after the capture of Jerusalem (v . 6 sqq.) the conflict with the Philistines (v . 17 sqq.), where the " hold " is not
See also:Zion but some place of retreat, perhaps
See also:Adullam (cf. xxiii . 14) . This being so, the conflicts in xxi . 15 sqq., xxiii . 8 sqq., which are located around Gath, Lehi (so read xxiii. iI), Pasdammim (so v . 9; see 1 Chron. xi . 13), Bethlehem, and the valley of Rephaim, should also precede the occupation of Jerusalem and the subsequent
See also:partition of territory among David's sons and others (e.g. xiii . 23, near
See also:Bethel) .
These passages combine to furnish a representation of the events leading to the capture of the capital which is distinct from and now superseded by the detailed narratives in ii . 12-iv . Here, Ishbaal iseast of the
See also:Jordan, David's men are engaged in fighting Benjamin and Israel—even at
See also:Gibeon (about 6 m . N.W. of Jerusalem), the interest of the history is in David's former relations with Israel at Saul's
See also:court, and he is regarded as the future deliverer of the oppressed people . These stories are, in fact, of a
See also:stamp with the detailed narratives already noticed (§ 3), and they conflict with the fragmentary traditions of David's steps to Jerusalem as seriously as the popular narratives of Saul conflicted with older evidence . But already Josh. ix . 17, xv . 63; Judg. i . 21, 29, 35, xix . 10-12; 2 Sam. v . 6 (cf. xxi . 2), indicate the presence of a
See also:line of
See also:alien cities including Jerusalem itself, and would point to an important alien district, the existence of which obviously bears upon the trustworthiness of the
See also:group of narratives encircling Bethlehem of Judah and Gibeah of Benjamin, the traditional homes of David and Saul' On the other hand, this would ignore the representation of (north) Israelite extension over Judah by Joshua and Saul,* and it may be inferred that we have to allow for absolutely different and conflicting standpoints in regard to the history of the district, and that the Judaean traditions of David once had their own independent account of the occupation of Jerusalem and its neighbourhood .
The fragments preserved in 2 Sam. v.-viii., xxi.-xxiv. are quite distinct from ii . 12-iv.; they throw another
See also:light upon David's relations to Saul's family (xxi . 1-14) ; and the stories of heroic conflicts with
See also:giant-like figures of Gath, &c . (xxiii . 9 seq., 18, cf . I Chron. xi . II, 20) find no place by the side of the more detailed records of David's sojourn under the
See also:protection of a king of Gath, one of a
See also:confederation of Philistine cities (I Sam. xxvii.,
See also:xxix.) . It is probable that popular stories of the conquest of the earlier inhabitants have been applied to the Philistines; their general character associates them with the legends of the " sons of Anal( " who enter into Judaean (perhaps originally Calebite) tradition elsewhere (Num. xiii . 22; Josh. xi . 21 seq., xv . 14; see Budde, Sam., p . 310 seq.) * Several intricate literary problems however at ' Cornill, Nowack, Stenning and Kennedy (see Literature, below) accept Budde's
See also:suggestion that ix.–xx. were inserted by a hand later than the first Deuteronomic editor of viii.; but the further
See also:assumption that this editor had deliberately omitted ix.–xx. from his edition cannot be proved, and deals with a literary stage too early for any confident opinion or even for any critical investigation of value .
s " Jerusalem " in i Sam. xvii . 54 is usually treated as ananachronism, because of its occupation by the Jebusites, and Kirjathjearim (vii . 1, 2, perhaps Kiryat el-Enab, 9 M . W. of Jerusalem) is commonly admitted to be in alien hands . But it is clear that Nob (i Sam. xxi. seq.), about 2 M . N. of the capital, on this view, was scarcely an Israelite city, yet the presence of the priests of Shiloh there is essential to the present structure of the book . ' For Joshua, see the older portions of Josh. x., and for Saul, I Sam. xiv . 47-51 (his wars), xv . 4 (his Judaean army), xvii . 54 (Jerusalem), xxvii . 7-12 (south Judaean clans under Israelite
See also:suzerainty) and 2 Sam. i . 12 (Septuagint) .
' For this cf. the " Anakim " ofGaza, Gath and Ashdod, &c., in Josh. xi . 21 seq., with the " Philistine " lords, ib. xiii .
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