See also:born at Aubusson (
See also:Creuse) on the 19th of
See also:February 1811 . He was sent to
See also:Paris to study
See also:law, but spent much of his
See also:time with unruly students . He met Madame Dudevant (
See also:George Sand) at Le Coudray in the
See also:house of a friend, and when she came to Paris in 1831 she joined Sandeau . The intimacy did not last long, but it produced
See also:Rose et
See also:Blanche (1831), a novel written in
See also:common under the pseudonym Jules Sand, from which George Sand took the idea of her famous nom de guerre . Sandeau continued for nearly fifty years to produce novels and to collaborate in plays . His best
See also:works are Marianna (1839), in which he draws a portrait of George Sand; Le Docteur Herbeau (1841); Catherine (1845); Mademoiselle de la Seigliere (1848), a successful picture of society under
See also:Louis Philippe, dramatized in 1851; Madeleine (1848); La
See also:Chasse au
See also:roman (1849); Sacs et parchemins (1851) ; La Maison de Penarvan (1858) ; LaRoche aux mouettes (1871) . The famous,
See also:play of Le Gendre de M.Poirier is one of several which he wrote with Emile Augier—the novelist usually contributing the
See also:story and the dramatist the theatrical working up . Meanwhile Sandeau had been made conservateur of the
See also:Mazarin library in 1853, elected to the Academy in 1858, and next
See also:year appointed librarian of St
See also:Cloud . At the suppression of this latter
See also:office, after the fall of the
See also:empire, he was pensioned . He died on the 24th of
See also:April 1883 . He was never a very popular novelist, and the quiet
See also:grace of his
See also:style, and his refusal to pander to the popular taste in the morals and incidents of his novels, may have disqualified him for popularity . See G .
Planche, Portraits littiraires (1849), vol. i.; J .
See also:Claretie, J . Sandeau (1883) ; F . Brunetiere in the Revue
See also:des deux inondes (1887) . SAND-
See also:EEL, or SAND-LAUNCE . The fishes known under these names
See also:form a small
See also:family (Ammodytidae) now included with the Scombresocidae in the sub-
See also:order Percesoces . They were formerly placed in the Anacanthini and supposed to be allied to the Gadidae, but a fossil form Cobitopsis has recently been described in which the pelvic fins are
See also:present, and are abdominal in position as in Belone and Scombresox . Their
See also:body is of an elongate-cylindrical shape, with the
See also:head terminating in a long conical snout, the projecting
See also:jaw forming the pointed end . A low long dorsal fin, in which no distinction between spines and rays can be observed, occupies nearly the whole length of the back, and a long anal, composed of similar
See also:short and delicate rays, commences immediately behind the vent, which is placed about midway between the head and caudal fin . The caudal is forked and the pectorals are short . The
See also:absence of ventral fins indicates the burrowing habits of these fishes . The scales, when present, are very small; but generally the development of scales has only proceeded to the formation of oblique folds of the integuments .
The eyes are lateral and of moderate
See also:size; the dentition is quite rudimentary . Sand-eels are small littoral marine fishes, only one
See also:species attaining a length of 18 in . (Ammodytes lanceolatus) . They live in shoals at various depths on a sandy bottom, and bury themselves in the sand on the slightest alarm . Other shoals live in deeper
See also:water . When they are surprised by
See also:fish of
See also:prey or porpoises they are frequently driven to the
See also:surface in such dense masses that numbers of them can be scooped out of the water with a bucket or
See also:net . Sand- eels destroy a
See also:great quantity of fry and other small creatures, such as the lancelet (
See also:Amphioxus), which lives in similar Iocalities . They are excellent eating, and are much sought after for bait . They are captured by small meshed seines, as well as by digging in the sand . The eggs of sand-eels are small, heavier than
See also:sea-water and slightly adhesive: they are scattered among the grains of sand in which the fishes live, and the larvae and
See also:young at various stages of growth may be taken with the
See also:row-net in sandy bays in summer . Sand-eels are common in the N .
See also:Atlantic; a species scarcely distinct from the
See also:European common sand-launce occurs on the Pacific side of N .
See also:America, another on the E.
See also:coast of S . Africa . On the
See also:British coasts three species are found: the greater sand-eel (Ammodytes lanceolatus), distinguished by a tooth-like bicuspid prominence on the vomer; the common sand-launce (A. tobianus), from 5 to 7 in. long, with unarmed vomer, even dorsal fin, and with the integuments folded; and the
See also:southern sand-launce (.4. siculus), with unarmed vomer, smooth skin, and with the margins of the dorsal and anal fins undulated . The last species is common in the Mediterranean, but
See also:local farther N . It has been found near the Shetlands at depths from 8o to
See also:Ioo fathoms .
PAUL SANDBY (1725-1809)
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