See also:Cuba, on the S.
See also:coast of the E. end of the
See also:island, capital of the province of
See also:Oriente, and next to
See also:Havana the most important city of the Republic . Pop . (1907) 45,470, of whom 56.7% was coloured and 13.6% was
See also:born . It is connected by the Cuba railway with Havana, 54o m. to the W.N.W.;
See also:railways extend into the interior through gaps in the mountains
See also:ward; and there are steamer connexions with other Cuban ports and with New
See also:York and
See also:Europe .
See also:Santiago is situated about 6 m. inland on a magnificent
See also:bay (6 m. long and 3 M. wide), connected with the Caribbean
See also:Sea by a long, narrow, winding channel with rocky escarpment walls, in places less than 200 yds. apart . The largest vessels have ready entrance to the harbour—which has a periphery of 15 M. or more in length—but
See also:access to the wharves is impossible for those of more than moderate draft (about 14 ft.) .
See also:Key, an island used as a watering-place, divides it into an
See also:outer and an inner
See also:basin . To the E. of the sea portal stand the Morro, a picturesque fort (built 16J3 seq.), on a jutting point 200 ft. above the
See also:water, and the Estrella; and to the W. the Socapa . West of the
See also:harbour are low hills, to the E. precipitous cliffs, and N. and N.E., below the superb background of the Sierra Maestra, is an amphitheatre of hills, over which the city straggles in tortuous streets . The houses are almost all of one storey, built in the
See also:style of
See also:southern Spain, with red-tile
See also:roofs, and the better ones with verandas and
See also:court gardens . There is a
See also:promenade along the harbour and a botanical
See also:garden . Facing the Plaza de Cespedes .(once Plaza de la Reina and then Plaza de Armas) are hotels and clubs, the large municipal building—formerly the
See also:governor's palace (1855 seq.)—and the
See also:cathedral .
In the cathedral, which is in bettertaste than the cathedral of Havana, Diego Velazquez (c . 1460-1524), conqueror of Cuba, was buried . It has suffered much from earthquakes and has been extensively repaired . Probably the
See also:building in Cuba is the convent of
See also:Sari Francisco (a
See also:church since the secularization of the religious orders in 1841), which
See also:dates in
See also:part from the first
See also:half of the 16th century . The 18th-century Filarmonia theatre is'now dilapidated . The other public buildings are hardly noteworthy .
See also:Great improvements have been made in the city since the end of colonial
See also:rule, especially as regards the streets, the water-supply and other public
See also:works, and sanitation . On a
See also:hill overlooking the city is a beautiful school-
See also:house of native
See also:limestone, erected by the
See also:American military
See also:government as a
See also:model for the
See also:rest of the island . Santiago is the hottest city of Cuba (mean temperature in winter about 82° F., in summer about 88°), owing mainly to the mountains that shut off the breezes from the E . There is superb
See also:mountain scenery on the roads to El Caney and
See also:San Luis (pop . 1907, 3441), in the thickly populated valley of the Cauto . In the barren mountainous
See also:country surrounding the city are valuable mines of iron, copper and
See also:manganese .
On these the prosperity of the province largely depends . There are also foundries,
See also:soap-works, tan-yards and
See also:cigar factories . The city has an important
See also:trade with the interior, with other Cuban ports, and to a less extent with New York and
See also:European ports .
See also:Mineral ores,
See also:tobacco and cigars,
See also:coffee, cacao,
See also:sugar and
See also:rum and
See also:cabinet-woods are the
See also:main articles of export . Copper ore was once exported in as great quantities as 25,000 tons annually, but the best days of the mines were in the
See also:middle of the 19th century . The mines of Cobre, a few
See also:miles W. of Santiago, have an interesting
See also:history . They were first worked for the government by slaves, which were freed in 1799 . History.—Santiago is less important politically under the Republic than it was when Cuba was a
See also:Spanish dependency . The place was founded in 1514 by Diego Velazquez, and the capital of the island was removed thither from
See also:Baracoa . Its splendid bay, and easy communication with the capital of Santo Domingo, then the seat of government of the Indies, determined its
See also:original importance . From Santiago in 1518–1519 departed the historic expeditions of Juan de Grijalva, Hernan Cortes and Pamfilo de Narvaez—the last of 18 vessels and rtoo men of arms, excluding sailors . So important already was the city that its
See also:ayuntamiento had the
See also:powers of a Spanish city of the second class .
In 1522 it received the arms andtitle of
See also:ciudad, and its church was made the cathedral of the island (Baracoa losing the
See also:honour) . But before 1550 the drain of military expeditions to the continent, the quarrels of
See also:civil, military and ecclesiastical powers, and of citizens, and the emigration of colonists to the Main (not in small part due to the abolition of the encomiendas of the
See also:Indians), produced a fatal decadence . In 1589 Havana became the capital . Santiago was occupied and plundered by French corsairs in 1553, and again by a
See also:British military force from
See also:Jamaica in 1662 . The capture of that island had caused an immigration of Spanish refugees to Santiago that greatly in-creased its importance; and the illicit trade to the same island—mainly in hides and cattle—that flourished from this
See also:time on-ward was a main prop of prosperity . From 1607 to 1826 the island was divided into two departments, with Santiago as the capital of the E. department—under a governor who until 18o1 in
See also:political matters received orders direct from the
See also:crown . After 1826 Santiago was simply the capital of a province . In
See also:July 1741 a British
See also:squadron from Jamaica under
See also:Edward Vernon and General
See also:Thomas Wentworth landed at
See also:Guantanamo (which they named
See also:Cumberland Bay) and during four months operated unsuccessfully against Santiago . The
See also:climate made great ravages among the British, who lost perhaps 2000 out of 5000 men . The bishopric became an archbishopric in 1788, when a
See also:suffragan bishopric was established at Havana . J . B .
Vaillant (governor in 1788–1796) and J . N .
See also:Quintana (governor in 1796–1799) did much to improve the city and encourage literature . After the cession of Santo Domingo to France, and after the French evacuation of that island, thousands of refugees settled in and about Santiago . They founded coffee and sugar plantations ' and gave a great impulse to trade . The population in 1827 was about 27,000 . There were destructive earthquakes in 1675, 1679, 1766 and 1852 . Dr Francesco Antommarchi (1780-1838), the physician who attended
See also:Napoleon in his last illness, died in Santiago, and a monpment in the cemetery commemorates his benefactions to the poor . In the 19th century some striking
See also:historical events are associated with Santiago . One was the Virginius " affair . The " Virginius " was a blockade-runner in the Civil War; it became a prize of the Federal government, by which it was sold in 1870 to an American, J . F .
Patterson, who immediately registered it in the New York
See also:Custom House . It later appeared that Patterson was merely acting for a number of Cuban insurgents .
SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA, or SANTIAGO (formerly writt...
SANTIAGO DE LAS VEGAS
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