Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 155 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SAN SALVADOR, the capital of the republic of Salvador; situated in the valley of Las Hamacas, on the river Asalguate, at an altitude of 2115 ft., and 30 M. inland from the Pacific. Pop. (1905) about 6o,000. San Salvador is connected by rail with Santa Ana on the north-west and with the Pacific ports of La Libertad and Acajutla. In addition to the government offices, its buildings include a handsome university, a wooden cathedral, a national theatre, an academy of science and literature, a chamber of commerce, and astronomical observatory and a number of hospitals and charitable institutions. There are two large parks and an excellent botanical garden. In the Plaza Morazan, the largest of many shady squares, is a handsome bronze and marble monument to the last president of united Central America, from whom the plaza takes its name. San Salvador is the only city in the republic which has important manufactures; these include the production of soap, candles, ice, shawls and scarves of silk, cotton cloth, cigars, flour and spirits. The city is admirably policed, has an abundant water supply, and can in many respects compare favourably with the smaller provincial capitals of Europe and America. It was founded by Don Jorge de Alvarado in 1528, at a spot near the present site, to which it was transferred in 1539. Except for the year 1839-1840 it has been the capital of the republic since 1834. It was temporarily ruined by earthquakes in 1854 and 1873. SANS-CULOTTES (French for " without knee-breeches "), the term originally given during the early years of the French Revolution to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army, and later applied generally to the ultra-democrats of the Revolution. They were for the most part men of the poorer classes, or leaders of the populace, but during the Terror public functionaries and persons of good education styled themselves citoyens sans-culottes. The distinctive costume of the typical sans-culotte was the pantalon (long trousers)—in place of the culottes worn by the upper classes—the carmagnole (short-skirted coat), the red cap of liberty and sabots (wooden shoes). The influence of the Sans-culottes ceased with the reaction that followed the fall of Robespierre (July 1994), and the name itself was proscribed. In the Republican Calendar the complementary days at the end of the year were at first called Sans-culottides; this name was, however, suppressedby the Convention when the constitution of the year III. (1795) was adopted, that of jours complementaires being substituted.
End of Article: SAN SALVADOR
SAN SEBASTIAN (Basque Iruchulo)

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