SARDONYX , an ornamental-
See also:stone much used for
See also:seals and cameos . It usually consists of a layer of
See also:sard or
See also:carnelian with one of milk-
See also:white chalcedony, but it may
See also:present several alternating layers of these minerals . The sardonyx is therefore simply an
See also:onyx in which some of the bands are of sard or carnelian: if, however, the latter is present the stone is more appropriately called a " carnelian onyx." It was considered by
See also:ancient authorities that a
See also:Oriental sardonyx should have at least three strata—a black
See also:base, a white intermediate zone and a superficial layer of
See also:brown or red; these
See also:colours typifying the three
See also:cardinal virtues—humility (black), chastity (white) and modesty or martyrdom (red) . The ancients obtained sardonyx from India, and the
See also:Indian locality,
See also:Mount Sardonyx, referred to by
See also:Ptolemy, is supposed to have been near
See also:Broach, where agates and carnelians are still worked . In the Revised Version of the Old Testament, Ex.
See also:xxviii . 18, " sardonyx " is given in the margin as an alternative
See also:reading for "
See also:diamond," the word by which the
See also:Hebrew yahalom is usually translated . The stone known to the Romans as aegyptilla may have been a kind of sardonyx, or perhaps a nicolo, which is an onyx with a thin translucent milky layer on the
See also:surface . Imitations of sardonyx have been made by cementing together two or three stones of the required colours, while baser counterfeits have been produced in
See also:paste . By coating a sard or carnelian with sodium carbonate and then placing the stone on a red-hot iron a white layer may be produced, so that a kind of sardonyx is obtained (see CARNELIAN) . Most of the
See also:modern sardonyx is cut from South
See also:agate, modified in
See also:colour by artificial treatment .
VICTORIEN SARDOU (1831-1908)
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