SCALE (1) A small thin flake,
See also:plate or
See also:shell . The word. in O . Eng. is sceale, so bean-sceale, the husk or pod of a bean; cognate forms are found in Ger . Schale, O.H.G . Scale, from which the O . Fr. escale,
See also:modern gcale, is borrowed . The ultimate
See also:root is seen in the closely allied " shell," and also in
See also:scalp, shale and skill, and means to peel off,
See also:divide . The word is used specifically (1) in botany, of the rudimentary flake-like
See also:leaf forming the covering of the leaf-buds of deciduous trees and of the bracts of the
See also:cone in conifers; (2) in zoology, of the
See also:flat, hard structures of the epidermis or exoskeleton in fishes,
See also:reptiles . Thus in ichthyology the various types of scales are classed as cycloid (Gr. abaor, circle), where the growth is in layers, equally from the anterior and posterior edges; ctenoid (Gr . KTIv,
See also:comb), where the posterior edge is toothed; ganoid (Gr. yavor, shining), with a hard enamelled
See also:surface and usually rhomboidal in shape, and placoid (Gr. irXii , tablet), as in the ossified papillae of the cutis of the
See also:shark . In reptiles the
See also:term is applied to the structures which
See also:form the covering of the true reptiles,
See also:snakes and lizards . In entomology the downy covering au-apended
See also:cradle baaf of the wings of lepidoptera consists of minute scales, really modifications of hairs, covered with
See also:fine lines, giving the bright
See also:colours .
Another form in O . Eng. scale is found glossing the
See also:Lat. lanx, flat bowl or dish, and is thus used of the dishes or cups of a
See also:balance (bilanx), the instrument itself being also called " scales." 2 . Properly a
See also:flight of steps, now only used in the derived " scaling ladder." The word is derived from the Lat. scala (originally scandla, from scandere to climb) . There are many transferred senses of the word, e.g. the distinguishing marks for purposes of measurement on a
See also:rule or other measuring instrument; hence a graduated measure or a
See also:system of proportional measurement or numeration, and particularly, in
See also:music, a series of tones at definite standard intervals (see HARMONY, MUSICAL NOTATION) .
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