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MAX JOHANN SIGISMUND SCHULTZE (1825-1...

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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 383 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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MAX JOHANN SIGISMUND SCHULTZE (1825-1874), German microscopic anatomist, was born at Freiburg in Breisgau (Baden) on the 25th of March 1825. He studied medicine at Greifswald and Berlin, and was appointed extraordinary professor at Halle in 1854 and five years later ordinary professor of anatomy and histology and director of the Anatomical Institute at Bonn. He died at Bonn on the 16th of January 1874. He founded, in 1865, and edited the important Archiv f2ir mikroskopische Anatomic, to which he contributed many papers, and he advanced the subject generally, by refining on its technical methods. His works included Beitrdge zur Naturgeschichte der Turbellarien (1851), Uber den Organismus der Polythalamien (1854), Beitrdge zur Kenntnis der, Landplanarien (1857), Zur Kenntnis der elektrischen Organe der Fische (1858) and Zur Anatomic and Physiologic der Retina (1866). His name is especially known for his work on the cell theory. Uniting F. Dujardin's conception of animal sarcode with H. von Mohl's of vegetable protoplasma, he pointed out their identity, and included them under the common name of protoplasm, defining the cell as " a nucleated mass of protoplasm with or without a cell-wall " (Das Prole-plasma der Rhizopoden and der Pflanzenzellen; ein Beitrag zur Theorie der Zelle, 1863). SCHULZE-DELITZSCH, FRANZ HERMANN (1808-1883), German economist, was born at Delitzsch, in Prussian Saxony, on the 29th of August 1808. The place-name Delitzsch was added in 1848 to distinguish him from other Schulzes in the National Assembly. He studied law at Leipzig and Halle universities and, when thirty, he became an assessor in the court of justice at Berlin, and three years later was appointed patrimonialrichter at Delitzsch. Entering the parliament of 1848, he joined the Left Centre, and, acting as president of the commission of inquiry into the condition of the labourers and artisans, became impressed with the necessity of co-operation to enable the smaller trades-people to hold their own against the capitalists. He was a member of the Second Chamber in 1848-1849; but as matters ceased to run smoothly between himself and the high legal officials, he threw up his public appointments in October 1851, and with-drew to Delitzsch. Here he devoted himself to the organization and development of co-operation in Germany, and to the foundation of Vorschussvereine (people's banks), of which he had established the first at Delitzsch in 185o. These developed so rapidly that Schulze-Delitzsch in 1858, in Die arbeitenden Klassen and das Assoziationswesen in Deutschland, enumerated twenty-five as already in existence. In 1859 he promoted the first Genossenschaftstag, or co-operative meeting, in Weimar, and founded a central bureau of co-operative societies. In 1861 he again entered the Prussian Chamber, and became a prominent member of the Progressist party. In 1863 he devoted the chief portion of a testimonial, amounting to £75oo, to the maintenance of his co-operative institutions and offices. This, however, was only to meet an exceptional outlay, for he always insisted that they must be self-supporting. The next three or four years were given to the formation of local centres, and the establishment of the Deutsche Genossenschafts-Bank, 1865. The spread of these organizations naturally led to legislation on the subject, and this too was chiefly the work of Schulze-Delitzsch. As a member of the Chamber in 1867 he was mainly instrumental in passing the Prussian law of association, which was extended to the North German Confederation in 1868, and later to the empire. Schulze-Delitzsch also contributed toafterwards at Kiel. H. C. Schumacher's nephew, CHRISTIAN SNbREAS SYCHUMACHER (1810-1854), was associated with the geodetic survey of Denmark from 1833 to 1838, and afterwards (1844-1845) improved the observatory at Pulkowa.
End of Article: MAX JOHANN SIGISMUND SCHULTZE (1825-1874)
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