Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 383 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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HEINRICH CHRISTIAN SCHUMACHER (1780-1850), German astronomer, was born at Bramstedt in Holstein on the 3rd of September 1780. He was director of the Mannheim observatory from 1813 to 1815, and then became professor of astronomy in Copenhagen. From 1817 he directed the triangulation of Holstein, to which a few years later was added a complete geodetic survey of Denmark (finished after his death). For the sake of the survey an observatory was established at Altona, and Schumacher resided there permanently, chiefly occupied with the publication of Ephemerides (II parts, 1822-1832) and of the journal Astronomische Nachrichten, of which he edited thirty-one volumes. He died at Altona on the 28th of December 185o. His son, RICHARD SCHUMACHER (1827-1902), was his assistant from 1844 to 1850 at the. conservatory at Altona. Having become assistant to Carlos Guillelmo Moesta (1825-1884), director of the observatory at Santiago, in 1859, he was associated with the Chilean geodetic survey in 1864. Returning in 1869, he was appointed assistant astronomer at Altona in 1873, and In his work on the doctrine of the Divinity of Christ (Die Lehre von der Gottheit Christi, 1881) he follows the method of Ritschl, and contends that the deity of Christ ought to be understood as the expression of the experience of the Christian community. In his own person and work Christ represents to the community a personal revelation of God. Faith in the divinity of Christ does not rest upon a miracle in nature, but upon a miracle in the moral world. Schultz's other works include: Die Stellung des christl. Glaubens zur heiligen Schrift (1876; and ed., 1877), Lehre vom heiligen Abendmahl (1886) ; Grundriss der evang. Dogmatek (189o; and ed., 1892), Grundriss der evang. Ethik (2nd ed., 1897), and Grundriss der christl. Apologetik (2nd ed., 1902).

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