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KARL SCHWARZ (1812–1885)

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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 390 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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KARL SCHWARZ (1812–1885), German Protestant theologian, was born at Wiek on the Isle of Riigen on the 19th of November 1812. His father, Theodor Schwarz, pastor at Wiek, was well known as a preacher, and as the writer of a number of popular works (parables, romances, &c.) under the pseudonym " Theodor Melas." Karl Schwarz pursued the study of theology and philosophy at Halle, and afterwards at Bonn (1831) and Berlin (1832–1834). At Berlin he came under the influence of Schleiermacher and Hegel, whose influences are seen in his work Das Wesen der Religion (1847). In 1837 he was imprisoned for six months on account of his advanced political opinions. After his release he helped (from 1838) with the Hallische Jahrbucher. From 1843–1845 he lectured at Halle, and was then suspended by the government.. In 1849, however, he was appointed professor extraordinarius, and later received a number of distinctions (in 1858 chief court preacher, &c.). Schwarz took an important part in the founding and directing of the German Protestantenverein,`and became an eminent exponent of liberal theology. His work Zur Geschichte der neuesten Theologie (1856, 4th ed. 1869) is a valuable source for the history of theology in Germany. His other works include Lessing als Theologe (1854) and Grundriss der christi. Lehre (1873, 5th ed. 1876). He died on the 25th of March 1885. In his memory a Karl-Schwarz-stiftung was founded in connexion; with the theological faculty at Jena. See G. Rudloff, Karl Schwarz (1887); F. Hummel, Oie Bedeutung der Schrift von Karl Schwarz: Ober das Wesen der Religion (189o); and Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie. SCHWARZBURG-RUDOLSTADT, a principality of Germany, an independent member of the German empire, and one of the Thuringian states (see THURINGIA). It shares with Schwarzburg-Sondershausen the possessions ~f tv old house of Schwarzburg,consisting of the upper barony (Oberherrschaft) in Thuringia, on the Gera, Ilm and Saale, and the lower barony (Unlerherrschaft), an isolated district on the Wipper and Helbe, about 25 M. to the north, surrounded by the Prussian province of Saxony. As the dignity of prince is held in virtue of the Oberherrschaft alone, a share of both baronies was given to each sub-line of the main house. The total area of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt is 363 sq. m., of which 283 are in the upper and 8o in the lower barony; the chief towns in the former district are Rudolstadt (pop. 12,500 in 1905), the capital, and Blankenburg (2000), and in the latter Frankenhausen (6374). Both baronies are hilly, the highest elevation being attained in the Grossfarmdenkopf, 2900 ft. The scenery of the Thuringian portion of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt attracts many visitors annually, the most beautiful spots being the gorge of the Schwarza and the lovely circular valley in which the village of Schwarzburg nestles at the foot of a curiously isolated hill, crowned by the ancient castle of the princely line. Cattle-rearing and fruit-growing flourish in the lower barony, while the upper barony is finely wooded. Of the whole country 44% is under forest (mainly coniferous trees), and 5o% is devoted to agriculture and pasture. The chief grain crops are rye, oats, barley and potatoes. Great attention is paid to poultry farming and bee-keeping, and the exports from these sources are considerable. About 14% of the population are engaged in agriculture and forestry, 21% in mining and cognate industries. Trade and manufactures are insignificant; iron, lignite, cobalt, alum and vitriol are among the mineral productions. In 1905 the population was 96,835 or about 265 to the square mile. Nearly all these were Protestants. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt is a limited hereditary monarchy, its constitution resting on laws of 1854 and 1870. A diet has met at intervals since 1816, and is now entitled to be summoned every three years. The present diet consists of sixteen members elected for three years, four chosen by the highest assessed taxpayers, the others by general election. The troops of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt have been incorporated with the Prussian army since the convention of 1867. The principality has one vote in the Reichstag and one in the federal council. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt is the cadet branch of the house of Schwarzburg, descended from Albrecht VII. (16o5). In 1710 the count was made a prince, in spite of the remonstrances of the elector of Saxony, although he was prevented from taking his seat in the imperial college at Regensburg until 1754. The principality entered the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807 and the German League in 1815. In 1819 it redeemed the Prussian claims of superiority by surrendering portions of its territory. See Sigismund, Landeskunde des Fiirstenlums Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (2 vols., Rudolstadt, 1862-1863). SCHWARZBURG-SONDERSHAUSEN, a principality of Germany, and constituent state of the German empire. It shares the old Schwarzburg lands with Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. In general it may be said that while Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt forms the southern, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen occupies the northern portion of the lands once divided between them. The total area of the principality is 333 sq. m., of which 133 are in the upper and 200 in the lower barony. The chief towns are Arnstadt (pop. 16,275 in (905), which at one time gave name to a line of counts, '.n the southern, and Sondershausen (7425), the capital, in the northern (or upper) barony. The general description of the nature and resources of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt applies also to this principality, except that 62% of the whole is devoted to agriculture and pasture and 30% to forests, only about two-fifths of which are coniferous trees. The chief crops are oats, barley, wheat and rye, but by far the most land is planted with potatoes. About 15% of the population are supported by agriculture and forestry, and about 18 % by mining and cognate industries. The industries are varied, and in some branches, notably gloves (at Arnstadt), glass, sausages and sugar-refining, considerable. In 1905 the population was 85,152, or about 245 to the square mile. Almost all of these were Protestants. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen is a limited hereditary monarchy, its constitution resting on a law of 1857. The diet consists of five representatives elected by the highest taxpayers, five by general election, and five nominated for life by the prince. The first ten members are elected for four years, which is also the financial period. There is a ministry with five departments—for the prince's household, domestic affairs, finance, churches and schools, and justice. The budget for the years 1908-1911 estimates the income at £164,440 and the expenditure at the same. The state debt in 1909 was £167,970. The troops of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen have been incorporated with the Prussian army by convention since 1867. The principality has one vote in the Reichstag and one in the federal council. The house of Schwarzburg is one of the oldest and noblest in Germany; and tradition traces its descent from Widukind and the kings of the Franks. Its historical ancestors were the counts of Kafernburg, from whom the counts of Schwarzburg sprang about the beginning of the 13th century. The name Gunther became the distinctive name for the members of this house (corresponding to Heinrich in the Reuss family), the various Gunthers being at first distinguished by numbers and afterwards by prefixed names. Various subdivisions and collateral lines were formed, but by 1599 all were extinct but the present two. Count Gunther XL., who died in 1552, was the last common ancestor of both lines. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen is the senior line, although its possessions are the smaller. In 1697 the a unt was raised to the dignity of imperial prince by the emperor Leopold I. The prince had to pay 7000 thalers to the elector of Saxony and 3500 to the duke of Saxe-Weimar, and numerous disputes arose in connexion with the superiorities thus indicated. In 1807 Schwarzburg-Sondershausen entered the Confederation of the Rhine and became a sovereign state. In 1816 it joined the German League, and redeemed with portions of its territory all rights of superiority claimed by Prussia. Its domestic government has gradually, though not very quickly, improved since that time—the oppressive game-laws in particular having been abolished. A treaty of mutual succession'was made between the two families in 1713. Prince Charles Gunther succeeded on the 17th of July 1880, his father having on account of eye disease renounced the throne in favour of his son. By a law, promulgated in 1896, Sizzo, prince of Leutenberg, was recognized as the heir-presumptive to this principality and, by treaty with Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, to that principality also. See Apfelstedt, Heimatskunde des Furstentums Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (Sondersh., 1854-1857); Irmisch, Beitrage zur schwarzburgischen Heimatskunde (Sondersh., 1905-1906).
End of Article: KARL SCHWARZ (1812–1885)
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