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Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V17, Page 653 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SCOCIA 1TR N.ARINA}' r. I naa Wiltesh. s' fg'k Esex Norse AVST .H Mine ..a. Lond.) on Suf nq F. ai rnub `.11. eset SSe t Ptolemy were translated into Arabic, and in 827, in the reign of the caliph Abdullah al Mamun, an arc of the meridian was measured in the plain of Mesopotamia. Most famous among these Arabian astronomers were Al Batani (d. 998), Ibn Yunis of Cairo (d. roo8), Zarkala (Azarchel), who determined the meridian distance between his observatory in Toledo and Bagdad to amount to 510 30', an error of 30 only, as compared with Ptolemy's error of 18°, and Abul Hassan (1230) who reduced the great axis of the Mediterranean to 44 Further materials serviceable to the compilers of maps were supplied by numerous Arabian travellers and geographers, among whom Masudi (915-940), Istakhri (950), Ibn Haukal (942-970), Al Biruni (d. ro38), Ibn Batuta (1325–1356) and Abul Feda (1331–1370), occupy a foremost place, yet the few maps which have reached us are crude in the extreme. Masudi, who saw the maps in the Horismos or Rasm el Ard, a description of Soralawhich was engraved for King Roger of Sicily upon a silver plate, or the rectangular map in 70 sheets which accompanies his geography (Nushat-ul Mushtat) take rank with Ptolemy's work. These maps are based upon information collected during many years at the instance of King Roger. The seven climates adopted by Idrisi are erroneously supposed to be equal in latitudinal extent. The Mediterranean occupies nearly half the inhabited world in longitude, and the east coast of Africa is shown as if it extended due east. The Arabians are not known to have produced a terrestrial globe, but several of their celestial globes are to be found in our collections. The oldest of these globes was made at Valentia, and is now in the museum of Florence. Another globe (of 1225) is at Velletri; a third by Ibn Hula of Mosul (1275) is the property of the Royal Asiatic Society of London; a fourth (1289) from the observatory of Maragha, in the Dresden Museum, two globes of uncertain age at Paris (see fig. 17) and another in London. All these globes are of metal (bronze), or they might not have survived so many years. The charts in use of the medieval navigators of the Indian Ocean—Arabs, Persians or Dravidas—were equal in value if not superior to the charts of the Mediterranean. Marco Polo mentions such charts; Vasco da Gama (1498) found them in the hands of his Indian pilot, and their nature is fully explained in the Mohit or encyclopaedia of the sea compiled from ancient sources by the Turkish admiral Sidi Ali Ben Hosein in 1554.1 These charts are covered with a close network of lines intersecting each other at right angles. The horizontal lines are parallels, depending upon the altitude of the pole star, the Calves of the Little Bear and the Barrow of the Great Bear above the horizon. This altitude was expressed in isbas or inches each equivalent to 1° 42' 5o". Each isba was divided into zams or eights. The interval between two parallels thus only amounted to 12' 51". These intervals were mistaken by the Portuguese occasionally for degrees, which account for Malacca, which is in lat. 2' 13" N., being placed on Cantino's Chart (1502) in lat. 14' S. It may have been a map of this kind which accounts for Ptolemy's moderate exaggerations of the size of Taprobana (Ceylon). A first meridian, separating a leeward from a windward region, passed through Ras Kumhari (Comorin) and was thus nearly identical with the first meridian of the Indian astronomers which passed through the sacred city of Ujjain (Ozere of Ptolemy) or the meridian of Azin of the Arabs. Additional meridians 1.!g; nr - eni j D "- I I4 i Don S 'a Kanem Ghana Lemlem H a b a sa U D A NGago Kawaro Kuku / _ Cltm --,-, -a _ (N JSus: - - iA -.~ id aD Asua CN, 1 2 -- f Fez.. \ Lemtuna 0hadamest Misr Barky~ _^~`IJ Da is-- D. poh Toms '-~ Fezz • "'op. K i m a k i k.. Q \. €j a ~... - s~osb ~aY ~~Ir-- t ..~ — _ 04 L.Tehama _ - r= - ~~ y /{ Gor f h 5 emu.. J -_-. ~ ®~T ice— Gons - - - `lie ~ ~ r Jetulia ~ urh_—_ Dnnobe ~- °—' ~~-- VV hozar Paris ~ s = 6-._ 'fork _.- I IDRISI ~f ® I~ B u__1 8 a 4 sth4 n 81 6 p, _ 95 1 Mts — - --.-- Nukala~ Re 1 r the world by Abu Jafar Mahommed ben Musa of Khiva, the librarian of the caliph el Mamun (833), declares them to be superior to the maps of Ptolemy or Marinus, but maps of a later date by Istakhri (950) or Ibn al Wardi (1349) are certainly of a most rudimentary type. Nor can Idrisi's map of the world, were drawn at intervals of zarns, supposed to be equal to three hours' sail. In China, maps in the olden time were engraved on bronze 1 M. Bittner, Die topogr. Capital des ind. Seespiegels (Vienna, 1897). or stone, but after the loth century they were printed from wood-blocks. Among the more important productions of more recent times, may be mentioned a map of the empire, said to be based upon actual surveys by Yhang (721), who also manufactured a celestial globe (an older globe by Ho-shing-tien, 4 metres in circumference was produced in 450), and an atlas of the empire on a large scale by Thu-sie-pun (1311–1312) of which new enlarged editions with many maps were published in the 16th century and in 1799. None of these maps was graduated, which is all the ,5Mediterranean they embody materials available even in the days before Ptolemy, while the correct delineation of the west seems to be of a later date, and may have been due to Catalan seamen. These charts are based upon estimated bearings and distances between the principal ports or capes, the intervening coast-line being filled in from more detailed surveys. The bearings were dependent upon the seaman's observation of the heavens, for these charts were in use long before the compass had been Introduced on board ship (as early as 1205, according to Guiot de Provins) although it became fully serviceable only after the needle had been attached to the compass card, an improvement probably introduced by Flavio Gioja of Amalfi in the beginning of more surprising as the Chinese astronomers are credited with having made use of the gnomon as early as moo B.C. for deter-mining latitudes. In the case of Japan, the earliest reference to a map is of 646, in which year the emperor ordered surveys of certain provinces to be made. Portolano Maps.—During the long period of stagnation in cartography, which we have already dealt with, there survived among the seamen of the Mediterranean charts of remarkable accuracy, illustrating the Portolani or sailing directories in use among them. Charts of this description are first mentioned in connexion with the Crusade of Louis XI. in 1270, but they originated long before that time, and in the eastern part of the a, According to A. Dulceti, 1389, and b, On Mercator's projection, according to modern maps. the 14th century. The compass may of course have been used for improving these charts, but they originated without its aid, and it is therefore misleading to describe them as Compass or Loxodromic charts, and they are now known as Portclano charts. II Ponente one by which they can most readily be recognized, is presented by groups or systems of rhumb-lines, each group of these lines radiating from a common centre, the 'central group being generally encircled by eight or sixteen satellite groups. In the course of time the centres of radiation of all these groups had imposed upon them ornate rose dei venti, or windroses, such as may still be seen upon our compass-cards. Each chart was furnished with a scale of miles. These miles, however, were not the ordinary Roman miles of r000 paces or 5000 ft., but smaller miles of Greek or Oriental origin, of which six were equal to five Roman miles, and as the latter were equal to 148o metres, the Portolano miles had a length of only 1233 metres, and 75.2 of the former, and 90.3 of the latter were equal to a degree. The difference between these miles ' was known, however, only to the more learned among the map-makers, and when the charts were extended to the Atlantic seaboard - the two were assumed to be identical. On these old charts the Mediterranean is delineated with surprising fidelity. The meridian distance between the Straits of Gibraltar and Beirut in Syria amounts upon them to about 3000 Portolano miles, equal in lat. 36° N. to 40.9°, as compared with an actual difference of 41.2°, and a difference of 61° assumed by Ptolemy. There exists, however, a serious error of orientation, due, ac-cording to Professor H. Wagner, to the inexperience of the cartographerswho first combined the charts of the separate basins of the Mediterranean so as to produce a chart of the whole. This accounts for Gibraltar and Alexandria being shown as lying due east and west of each other, although there is a difference of 5° of latitude between them, a fact known long before Ptolemy. The production of these charts employed numerous licensed draughtsmen in the principal seaports of Italy and Catalonia, and among seamen these MS. charts remained popular long after the productions of the printing-press had become available. The oldest of these maps which have been preserved, the so-called " Pisan chart," which belongs probably to the middle of the 13th century, and a set of eight charts, known by the name of its former owner, the Cavaliere Tamar Luxoro, of somewhat later date, are both the work of Genoese artists. Among more eminent Genoese cartographers are Joannes da Carignano (d. 1344), Petrus Vesconte, who worked in 1311 and 1327, and is the draughtsman of the maps illustrating Marino Sanuto's Liber secretorum fidelium crucis, which was to have roused Christendom to engage in another crusade (figs. 19 and 21) Battista Beccario (1426, 1435) and Bartolomeo Pareto (1455). Venice ranks next to Genoa as a centre of cartographic activity. Associated with it are Francesco Pizigano (1367—1373), Francesco de Cesanis (1421), Giacomo Giroldi (1422-1446), Andrea Bianco (1436—1448) Giovanni Leardo (1442—1452), Alvise Cadamosto, who was associated with the Portuguese explorers on the west coast of Africa (1454—1456) and whose Portolano was printed at Venice in 1490, and Fra Mauro (1457). Associated with Ancona are Grazioso Benincasa and his son Andreas, whose numerous charts were produced between 146r and 15o8, and Count Ortomano Freducci (1497—1538). The earliest among Majorcan and Catalonian cartographers is Angelino Dulcert (1325—1339) whom A. Managhi claims as a Genoese, whose true name according to him was Angelino Dalorto. None of these charts is graduated, and the horizontal and vertical lines which cross many of them represent neither parallels nor meridians. Their most characteristic feature, and TE Ono. 14 Giwra isrnv 'fry 4ondi nrAtabyF~ rytrc Th., < PER9U •,' 1Deli,;~. • INDIA PRIMAsNS,a Madag morua.T r ah Z yj.F~ .Bab ..(9 tll .syyi? av y es mZ4sun~ddedIII SIR PERSIA in; a i~.t A9srnu "I.. xuri Chorasia N '~tC~Q., Bpa ur,26 ania TApAf/ir,. rro °RGANAr 11'le Mclll "rr7 GeMM,NTU S y .Vsserin Mgt, n7 p7n'°nN G Y P O Ciren. icd _ : Fessa McRCGXO rrros Libia .. elulia ~.. „.. .-. /P Au ar, ~ (\ ~ rA6a` Goan del if --a, . ~ ,!?'~.,cS~°SCHA1Mn 1 , yY \ n -~9 a,aeb 'Y Dolc Gpia TM daw .Ilchlli... A,!~Ycl Asia minor SERIC ARTARIA LnppTan• ut •.sxa bunches aLANRAese~ w P.N .A ' • '~" EDestini . ~f .0 na .P.Ba males A'enduc6~_ P. SIDIR 'tipe, .P.Cea P.Meachiera tan MAMA rA CHATAJ Xani ROSSIA Jas IA T CITIA »~Y Na gin Other Catalans are Jahuda Cresques, a Jew of Barcelona, the supposed author of the famous Catalan map of the world (1375), Guglielmo Solerio (1384), Mecia de Viladestes (1413–1433) Gabriel de Valleseche (1439–1447) and Pietro Roselli, a pupil of Beccario of Genoa (1462). These maps were originally intended for the use of seamen navigating the Mediterranean and the coasts of the Atlantic, but in the course of time they were extended to the mainland and ultimately developed into maps of the whole world as then known. Thus Pizigano's map of 1367 extends as far east as the Gulf of Persia, whilst the Medicean map of 1356 (at Florence) is remarkable on account of a fairly correct delineation of the Caspian, the Shari river in Africa, and the correct direction given to the west coast of India, which had already been pointed out in a letter of the friar Giovanni da Montecorvino of 1252. Most of the expansions of Portolano maps into maps of the world are circular in shape, and resemble the wheel maps of an earlier period. This is the character of the map of Petrus Vesconte of 1320 (fig. 21), of Giovanni Leardo (1448) and of a Catalan map of 1450. Jerusalem occupies the centre of these maps, Arab sources of information are largely drawn upon, while Ptolemy is neglected and con-temporary travellers are ignored. Far superior to these maps is Fra Mauro's map (1457), for the author has availed himself not only of the information collected by Marco Polo and earlier travellers, but *was able, by personal intercourse, to gather additional information from Nicolo de' Conti, who had returned from the east in 1440, and more especially from Abyssinians who lived in Italy at that time. His delineation of Abyssinia, though unduly spread over a wide area, is indeed wonderfully correct. Very different in character is the Catalan map of 1375, for its author, discarding Ptolemy, shows India as a peninsula. On the other hand, an anonymous Genoese would-be reformer of maps (14J7; fig. 24), still adheres to the erroneous Ptolemaic Fm. 24.–Genoese Map (1457). delineation of southern Asia, and the same error is perpetuated by Henricus Marvellus Germanus on a rough map showing the Portuguese discoveries up to 1489. None of these maps is graduated, but if we give the Mediterranean a length of 3000 Portolano miles, equivalent in 36° N. to 41°, then the longitudinal extent of the old world as measured on the Genoese map of 1457 would be 136° instead of 177° or more as given by Ptolemy. The Revival of Ptolemy.—Ptolemy's great work became known in western Europe after Jacobus Angelus de Scarparia had translated it into Latin in 1410. This version was first printed in 1475 at Vicenza, but its contents had become known through MS. copies before this, and their study influenced the construction of maps in two respects. They led firstly to the addition of degree lines to maps, and secondly to the compilation of new maps of those countries which had been inadequately represented by Ptolemy. Thus Claudius Clavus Swartha (Niger), who was at Rome in 1424, compiled a map of the world, extending westward as far as Greenland. The learned Cardinal Nicolaus Krebs, of Cusa (Cues) on the Moselle, who died 1464, drew a map of Germany which was first published in 1491; D. Nicolaus Germanus, a monk of Reichenbach, in 1466 prepared a set of Ptolemy's maps on a new projection with converging meridians; and Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli in 1474 compiled a new chart on a rectangular projection, which was to guide the explorer across the western ocean to Cathay and India. Of the seven editions of Ptolemy which were published up to the close of the 15th century, all except that of Vicenza (1475) contained Ptolemy's 27 maps, while Francesco Berlinghieri's version (Florence 1478), and two editions published at Ulm (1482 and 1486), contained four or five modern maps in addition, those of Ulm being by Nicolaus Germanus. The geographical ideas which prevailed at the time Columbus started in search of Cathay may be most readily gathered from two contemporary globes, the one known as the Laon globe because it was picked up in 186o at a curiosity shop in that town, the other produced at Nuremberg in 1492 by Martin Behaim.l The Laon globe is of copper gilt, and has a diameter of 170 mm. The information which it furnishes, in spite of a legend intended to lead us to believe that it presents us with the results of Portuguese explorations up to the year 1493, is of more ancient date. The Nuremberg globe is a work of a more ambitious order. It was undertaken at the suggestion of George Holzschuher, a travelled member of the town council. The work was entrusted to Martin Behaim, who had resided for six years in Portugal and the Azores, and was believed to be a thoroughly qualified cosmographer. ' E. G. Ravenstein, Martin Behaim, his Life and his Globe (London, 1908). On the original only equator, ecliptics, tropics, polar circles and one meridian 8o° to the west of Lisbon are laid down. 2vmlur g.mvo .~crr~ocEC,manors,v ra~r~n.m;TraivzrnmrimmmtL~!+ mm_ssr 3~[31M¢a cn~~o Ma IIQa ~ ~ ~ l,n lumilLgiz/1111111111nu11/'ii1n1111i11;un 1i !1~1111~111-~1~1l1 ~~e !1h,111-1~I is I iii IRKIIIIIII11l l: 1111EIIIIl-11i1IIIMM1111n11111111111r illiii!!111111- . il~al~'.i 11111111 111111111111!11G1111111pp1~~11'~E ~..1111;1 111111IN11111MIN IlipailIlIONIIII11til'al1 M11111l1 ! 114 1l111 111111111111l1~~1i1A. aIIIINI _, Ii111 IIllll WII 1111111111111EIII IIIIN111111: ~ 211111Fa11„ I2INe111a 1 !~i1911111111-7.",'1111[I~~i~i7~l~i11111111:^Iffl~.~~~lli1111~~11,1 !1~~11i11111~i~i11111111111111]111W~~ii711.1I/111E:%I~11~'~'~ Iu~1~~1~ .1/.11[11111111111111 1111131131MA ~1'111111II111C2111111111. ~!1111~'I~Irlll!lIAIlL~!11-~ ~~~~p'111-111111-11~a11~~~!'~~!~!I!>w IIIIIIISIIIEIIIIIIIIIII::~alll/~111~~~l11\rk1111i11~:i`~1i ~a11111[1.-![rid11.1111i~i~i11~1111~71i~a11111111~~~J1ii~a,11,1!# RIIIeI]~IIIII/1111::"^.:!rliilllll~ll®:"1a~1'!11!~1.'~I~~iii~i-a11 ! 11111:1111111122111[riilill1E glPliAli '1ENC!I111211111 ~Ilji~i~l_1111!Iliel~.!!!CII1111~IIE#1~1w11~bL~1'~!~!~~1E1/111 ~1 `r. fir^ ti~ ~:`i''.:!I~~iii1l~1111111111 1 .~-' ~ ~Ic:~1~~:~51111111/I"!~S~ 1111111111. E1/1111111111-iin it billlMSEIR 1 11 MM MM MMMMM IIHMPINNAFR?Riiihiiiii1g.11111111111111 monsamri®tfiulmiaiQii[immffi MMM±M MriflaEs~in.gM .MtMMMaz:M .z The globe is of pasteboard covered with whiting and parchment, and has a diameter of 507 mm. The author followed Ptolemy not only in Asia, but also in the Mediterranean. He did not avail himself of the materials available in his day. Not even the coasts of western Africa are laid down correctly, although the author claimed to have taken part in one of the Portuguese expeditions. The ocean separating Europe from he was dependent upon dead reckoning, for although various methods for determining a longitude were known, the available astronomical ephemerides were not trustworthy, and errors of 300 in longitude were by no means rare. It was only after the publication of Kepler's Rudolphine Table (1626) that more exact results could be obtained. A further difficulty arose in connexion with the variation of the compass, which induced Pedro Reinel Asia is assumed as being only 126° wide, in accordance with Toscanelli's ideas of 1474. Very inadequate use has been made of the travels of Marco Polo, Nicolo de' Conti, and of others in the east.' On the other hand, the globe is made gay with flags and other decorations, the work of George Glockendon, a well-known illuminator of the time. The maritime discoveries and surveys of that age of great discoveries were laid down upon so-called " plane-charts," that is, charts having merely equidistant parallels indicated upon them, together with the equator, the tropics and polar circles, or, in a more advanced stage, meridians also. The astrolabe quadrant or cross-staff enabled the mariner to determine his latitude with a certain amount of accuracy, but for his longitude ' See fig. 23, Catalan Map of the World (1375).to introduce two scales of latitude on his map of the northern Atlantic (15o4; fig. 27).' The chart of the world by Juan de la Cosa, the companion of Columbus, is the earliest extant which depicts the discoveries in the new world (1500), Nicolaus de Canerio, a Genoese, and the map which Alberto Cantino caused to be drawn at Lisbon for Hercules d'Este of Ferrara (1502), illustrating in addition the recent discoveries of the Portuguese in the East. Other cosmographers of distinction were Pedro Reinel (1504-1542), Nuno Garcia de Toreno (1520), to whom we are indebted for 21 charts, illustrating Magellan's voyage, Diogo Ribero (maps of the world 1527, 1529),2 Alonzo de Santa Cruz, of Seville, whose Isolario general includes charts of all parts of the world (1541), John Rotz or Rut (1542), Sebastian Cabot (1544), as also Nicolas Desliens, Pierre Desceliers, G. Breton and V. Vallard, all of Arques, near Dieppe, whose charts were compiled between 1541 and 1554. Of the many general maps of the world or of particular countries, a large number illustrate such works as G. Reisch's Margarita philosophica (1163), the cosmographies of Peter Apianus or Bienewitz (1520, 1522, 1530), Seb. Munster (1544), J. Honter (1546) and Guliamus Postel (1561) or the Geographia of Livio Sanuto (1588); others, and these the more numerous and important, supplement the original maps of several editions of Ptolemy. Thus the Roman edition of 1507, edited by Marcus Benaventura and Joa Cota, contains 6 modern maps, and to these was added in 15o8 Joh. Ruysch's famous map of the world on a modified conical projection. The next edition published at Venice in 1511 contained a heart-shaped world by Bernhard Sylvanus. The Strassburg Ptolemy of 1513 has a supplement of as many as 20 modern maps by Martin Waldseemuller or Ilacomilus, several among which are copied from Portuguese originals. Waldseemuller was one of the most distinguished cartographers of his day. He was born at Radolfzell in Baden in 1470, was associated with Ringmann at the gymnasium of 2 J. G. Kohl published facsimiles of the American section of the maps (Weimar. 186o). St Die, and died in 1521. He published in 1507 a huge map of the world, in 12 sheets, together with a small globe of a diameter of 110 mm., the segments for which were printed from wood-blocks. On these documents the new world is called America, .after Amerigo Vespucci, its supposed discoverer. In 1511 Waldseemuller published a large map of Europe, in 1513 he prepared his maps for the Strassburg edition of Ptolemy, and in 1516 he engraved a copy of Canerio's map of the world. The Strassburg Ptolemy of 1522 contains Waldseemuller's maps,' edited on a reduced scale by Laurentius Frisius, together with three additional ones. The same set of maps is reprinted in the Strassburg edition of 1524, newly translated by W. Pirckheimer with notes by Joh. Muller Regiomontanus, and in the Lyon edition of 1535, edited by Michael Servetus. The new maps of the Basel edition of 1J40, twenty-one in number, are by Sebastian Munster; Jacob Gastaldo supplied the Venice edition of 1548 with 34 modern maps, and these with a few additions are repeated in Girolamo Ruscelli's Italian translation of Ptolemy published at Venice in 1561. Equally interesting with these Ptolemaic supplements are collections like that of Anton Lafreri, which contains reprints of 142 maps of all parts of the world originally published between 1556 and 1572 (Geografica tavole moderne, Rome, n.d.), or that of J. F. Camocio, published at Venice in 1576, which contains 88 reprints. The number of cartographers throughout Europe was consider-able, and we confine ourselves to mentioning a few leading men. Among them Germany is then represented by G. Glockedon, the author of an interesting road-map of central Europe (1501), Sebastian Munster (1489—1552), Elias Camerarius, whose map of the mark of Brandenburg won the praise of Mercator; Wolf-gang Latz von Lazius, to whom we are indebted for maps of Austria and Hungary (1561), and Philip Apianus, who made a survey of Bavaria (1553—1563), which was published 1568 on the reduced scale of 1:144,000, and is fairly described as the topographical masterpiece of the 16th century. For maps of Switzerland we are indebted to Konrad Ttirst (1495—1497), Johann Stumpf (1J48) and Aegidius Tschudi (1538). A map of the Netherlands from actual survey was produced by Jacob of Deventer (1536—1539)• Leonardo da Vinci, the famous artist, while in the service of Cesare Borgia as military engineer, made surveys of several districts in central Italy. Other Italian cartographers of merit were Giovanni Battiste Agnese of Venice, whose atlases (1517—1564) enjoyed a wide popularity; Benedetto Bordone (1528) ; Giacomo Gastaldo, cosmographer of the Venetian Republic (1534—1568), and his successor, Paolo Forlani. New maps of Spain and Portugal appeared in 1560, the former being due to Pedro de Medina, the latter to Fernando Alvarez Secco and Hernando Alvaro. Among the French map-makers of this period may be mentioned Oronce Finee (Finaeus), who in 1525 published a map of France, and Jean Jolivet (c. 1560). Gregorio Lilly (1546) and Humphrey Lhuyd of Denbigh (d. 1510) furnished maps of the British Isles, Olaus Magnus (1539) of Scandinavia, Anton Wied (1542), Sigismund von Herberstein (1549) and Anthony Jenkinson (1562) of Muscovy. The cylindrical and modified conical projections of Marinus and Ptolemy were still widely used, the stereographical projection of Hipparchus, was for the first time employed for terrestrial maps in the 16th century, but new projections were introduced in addition to these. The earliest of these, a trapeziform projection with equidistant parallels, by D. Nicolaus Germanus (1466), naturally led to what is generally known as Flamsteed's projection. Joh. Stabius (1502) and his pupil J. Werner (1514) devised three heart-shaped projections, one of which was equivalent. Petrus Apianus (1524) gave his map an elliptical shape. H. Glareanus (151o) was the first to employ an equidistant zenithal polar projection. No reasonable fault can be found with the marine surveyors of this period, but the scientific cartographers allowed themselves too frequently to be influenced by Ptolemaic traditions. Thus ' Facsimiles of the maps of 1507 and 1517 were published by J. Fischer and F. M. von Wieser (Innsbruck, 1903). Gastaldo (1548) presents us with a map of Italy, which, except as to nomenclature, differs but little from that of Ptolemy, although on the Portolano charts the peninsula had long since assumed its correct shape. Many of the local maps, too, were excellent specimens of cartography, but when we follow any cartographer of the period into regions the successful delineation of which depended upon an intelligent interpretation of itineraries, and of information collected by recent travellers, they are generally found to fail utterly. This is illustrated by the four sketch maps shown in fig. 28. Columbus, trusting to Toscanelli's misleading chart, looked upon the countries discovered by him as belonging to eastern Asia, a view still shared about 1507 by his brother Bartolomeo. Waldseemuller (1507) was the first to separate America and Asia by an ocean of considerable width, but J. Ruysch (1508) returns to the old idea, and even joins Greenland (Gruenlant) to eastern Asia. Bologninus Zalterius on a map of 1566, and Mercator on his famous chart of 1569, separates the two continents by a narrow strait which they call Streto de Anian, thus anticipating the discovery of Bering Strait by more than a hundred and fifty years. Anian, however, which they place upon the American coast, is no other than Marco Polo's Anica or Anin, our modern Annam. Such an error could never have arisen had the old compilers of maps taken the trouble to plan Marco Polo's routes. Globes, both celestial and terrestrial, became popular after the discovery of America. They were included among the scientific apparatus of ships and of educational establishments. Columbus and Magellan had such globes, those of the latter produced by P. Reinel (1519), and Conrad Celtes tells us that he illustrated his lectures at the university of Vienna with the help of globes (1501). Globes were still engraved on copper, or painted by hand, but since 1507, in which year Waldseemuller published a small globe of a diameter of 110 mm., covered with printed segments or gores, this cheap and expeditious method has come into general use. Waldseemuller constructed his gores graphically, A. Durer (1525) and Hen. Loriti Glareanus (1527) were the first who dealt scientifically with the principles underlying their construction. Globes v.. robin I Pel Nyeelpe. covered with printed gores were produced by L. Boulenger (1514), Joh. Schoner (1515), P. Apianus, Gemma Frisius (1530) and G. Mercator (1541). Leonardo da Vinci's rough map of the world in 8 segments (c. 1513) seems likewise to have been in-tended for a globe. Of J. Schoner we know that he produced four globes, three printed from segments (1515, 1523, 1533), and one of larger size (diam. 822 mm.), which is drawn by hand, and is preserved in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg. Among engraved globes, one of the most interesting is that which was discovered by R. M. Hunt in Paris, and is preserved in the Lenox Library, New York. Its diameter is only 41 in. (127 mm.). The so-called " Nancy globe " is of chased silver, richly ornamented, the earliest works are a map of Palestine (1537), a map of the world on a double heart-shaped projection (1525); and a topographical map of Flanders based upon his own surveys (1540), a pair of globes (1541, diam. 120 mm.), and a large map of Europe which has been praised deservedly for its accuracy (1554)• He is best known by his marine chart (1569) and his atlas., The projection of the former may have been suggested by a note by W. Pirkheimer in his edition of Ptolemy (1525). Mercator constructed it graphically, the mathematical principles under-lying it being first explained by E. Wright (1594). The "Atlas" was only published after Mercator's death, in 1595. It only contained nine maps, but after the plates had been sold to Jodocus (Jesse) Hondius the number of maps was rapidly increased, although Mercator's name was retained. Mercator's maps are carefully engraved on copper. Latin letters are used through-out; the miniatures of older maps are superseded by symbols, and in the better-known countries the maps are fairly correct, but they fail lamentably when we follow their author into regions—the successful delineation of which depends upon a critical combination of imperfect information. Even before Mercator's death, Antwerp and Amsterdam had become great centres of cartographic activity, and they maintained their pre-eminence until the beginning of the 18th century. Abraham Ortelius (1527–1592), of Antwerp, a man of culture and enterprise, but not a scientific cartographer, published the first edition of his Theatrum orbis terrarum in 1570. It then contained 53 maps, by various authors. By 1595 the number of maps had increased to 119, including a Parergon or supplement of 12 maps illustrating ancient history. In 1578 was published the Speculum orbis terrarum of Gerard de Jude or de Judaeis. Lucas Janszon Waghenaer (Aurigarius) of Enkhuizen published the first edition of his Spiegel der Zeevaart (Mariners' Mirror) at Leiden in 1585. It was the first collection of marine maps, lived through many editions, was issued in several languages and became known as Charettier and Waggoner. In the same year Adrian Gerritsz published a valuable Paskaarte of the European Sea. Ten years afterwards, in 1595, W. Barentszoon published a marine atlas of the Mediterranean, the major axis of which he reduced to 42 degrees. Jodocus and formerly served the purpose of a pyx. Its diameter is Hondius has already been referred to as the purchaser of 16o mm., its date about 1530. About the same date is assigned tor's plates. The business founded by him about 1602 was to a globe by Robert de Bailly, engraved on copper and gilt !I continued by his sons and his son-in-law, Jan Janszon (Jansonius) (diam. 44o mm.). Celestial globes were manufactured by Regiomontanus (d. 1476) at Nuremberg, by Joh. Stoflier (1499), and by G. Hartmann (1535). Mercator and his Successors.—Of Gerhard Kremer (1512–1594) and others. By 1653 this firm had already produced atlases including 451 charts. Willem Janszon, the father of Hondius's partner, published a collection of charts (16o8), to which he gave the title of Het Licht der Zeevaart (the seaman's light). Another cartographic publishing firm was established at Amster-dam in 1612 by Willem Janszon Blaeu (1571-1638), a friend of Tycho Brahe, from 1633 " mapmaker " of the states-general, and a man of scientific culture. He was succeeded by his son Jan (d. 1673) and grandson Cornelius, and before the end of the century turned out a Zee-Spiegel of ro8 charts (1623), an Atlas novus (Nieuwe Atlas), 1642, enlarged in the course of time until it consisted of 12 folio volumes containing hundreds of maps. J. A. Colom in 1633 published a collection of maps under the quaint title of Vurig Colom der Zeevaert (Fiery Column of and his heirs, are stated to have published as many as 600 maps after 1700. In no other country of Europe was there at the close of the 16th century a geographical establishment capable of competing with the Dutch towns or with Sanson, but the number of those who produced maps, in many instances based upon original surveys, was large. Germany is thus represented, among others, by C. Henneberger (map of Prussia, 1576), by M. Oeder, (survey of Saxony, 1586–1607), A. Rauh (fine hill features on a map of the environs of Wangen and Lindau, 1617), rirnte.~~ia_~_ TERR .aa~aa_~aa_a•~~a_~ii.~~~~ PI7NOV 4 FT UCTA ORBIS r DESCRIPTO AD USUM _ _ Pbne et mbn) um eEmp70 ~~ P } Petzzee lam'" KOcM . Soy, :cue a9 ' • r• ' ~~ ~L~L~ .. •, t . , x F gin o YY'o 1 e an?' - araco Iw ussi z elgl - ti z? a" Inspectori S. In bas orbie descrl done um. nobis curse (octant.Primum_.. Il ' Hochelaga F AN Vir~71 ~/ ~. • ,pi r4 a~- t yam,,. NOV a~ P Cat ay i!~ uA_~ !R` Iif:YiiJ7i ,11Rt1I~1•. 30 I.~ L\"~ • to Be marts Maee.aoMo~ -/, Ca . ul'o `ill, Bf!'LYIYLLm7YYYYGGii _ Ira .pia Trop _Ca~~ Rorn > 9N 4' r. ~•. ~~ CananP;.}~ iRl3`E1 --^~~ 1 >~Ii~~' 1~ _ • ala - ~ . son 1 4 _ ~~~,•A~'' a - e i. - a saa~ .."L drone oaaopa•~ obi ~ I O -ENE Mmes ~ J e 2e to Ca~Iba' zur JLA. w, ropaas __^ ... v i^'_GJt1 rJt 1~.~~~~q ~~ :5~ °° I `. - Poi, -• magnetic Prime Capr corn. Nod lPlaat lf1~ll saeeta 1.i:U3mmM vasimna A 3121211 revis uses . ~ eak.JE agellan,. '~. hat', i1. ~[ la Pla a 4 organidirecton j ` - C '~ \ e 'i '11 Distancia locorum ~ mesurandae modus / Hk` ~ ~ .~ E~~- . !Kp "', UHIP!!iiiL i1 q IiiiF00 angiset Aureae chersonesi situ.. i i*J ITO" r . ~~ y97 in[ i Lai Part 5 9 Ikst/....EMfil \i ./ 31.–Mercator's Chart of the World (1569). Eme Welke, W . Navigation). Among more recent Dutch map publishers are Nicolaus Vischer (Piscator), R. Goos, H. Doncker, F. de Wit, and J. and G. van Keulen, whose atlases were published between 1681 and 1722. These Dutch maps and charts are generally accompanied by descriptive notes or sailing directions printed on the back of them. A similar work is the Arcano del mare of Sir Robert Dudley, duke of Northumberland, the numerous sheets of which are on Mercator's projection (1631). In France, in the meantime, an arc of the meridian had been measured (1669–167o) by Jean Picard, numerous longitudes had been observed between 1672 and r68o by the same, and by Phil. de Lahire (d. 1719), and these were utilized in a Carte de France " as corrected from the observations of the members of the Academy of Sciences " (1666–1699), in a map of the world (1694) by D. Cassini, as also in Le Neptune Francois (1693) with contributions by Pene, D. Cassini and others. These corrected longitudes were not yet available for the maps produced by Nicolas Sanson of Abbeville, since 1627. The cartographical establishment founded by him in that year was carried on after his death in 1667 by his sons, his son-in-law,, P. Duval (d. 1683) and his grandson Robert du Vaugondy (d. 1766). Among the cartographers whom he employed were M. Tavernier and Mariette, and in many instances he mentioned the authors whose maps he copied. By 1710 the maps published by the firm numbered 466. Nicolas de Fer, the great rival of Sanson, W. Schickhardt (survey of Wurttemberg, 1624–1635), and G. M. Vischer (map of Austria and Styrai, 1669–1786); Switzerland by H. C. Gyger (Canton of Zurich, a masterpiece, 1667); Italy by G. A. Magini (1558–161o), and V. Coronelli, appointed cosmographer of the Venetian Republic, 1685, and founder of the Ac. Cosmogr. dei Argonauti, the earliest geographical society, and Diogo Homem, a Portuguese settled at Venice (1558–1574); Denmark by J. Mejer of Husum (165o); Sweden by A. Buraeus, the " father of Swedish cartographers " (1650–166o); the British Islands by Ch. Saxton (County Atlas of England and Wales 1575), J. Speed (Theatrum of Great Britain, 16ro), Timothy Pont and Robert Gordon of Strathloch (map of Scotland, 16o8), and A. Moll. A Novus atlas sinensis, based upon Chinese sur veys, was published in 1655 by Martin Martini, S.J., a missionary recently returned from China. Isaac Voss, in his work De Nili (1659), published a map of central Africa, in which he anticipated D'Anville by rejecting all the fanciful details which found a place upon Filippo Pigafetta's map of that continent. The first maps illustrating the variation of the compass were published by Chris. Burrus (d. 1632) and Athanasius Kircher (Magnes, Rome, 1643), and maps of the ocean and tidal currents by the latter in his Mundus subterraneus (1665). Edmund Halley, the astronomer, compiled the first variation chart of scientific value (1683), as also a chart of the winds (1686). Globes manufactured for commercial purposes by Blaeu and others have already been mentioned, but several large globes, for show rather than for use, were produced in addition to these. Thus A. Busch, of Limburg (1656-1664), manufactured a globe for Duke Frederick of Holstein, formerly at Gottorp, but since 1713 at Tsarskoye Zelo. It has a diameter of 11 ft. (3.57 metres) and is hollow, the inner surface of the shell being covered with a star map, and the outer surface with a map of the world. Professor Erh. Weigel (1696) produced a hollow celestial globe in copper, having a small terrestrial globe in its centre. Its diameter is 3.25 metres. Lastly there is a pair of giant globes of artistic design, turned out by V. Coronelli (1623), and intended as presents to Louis XIV. Their diameter is nearly 5 metres. A pair of globes of 1592 by Emeric Molineux (diam. 6,o mm.) is now in the Temple Library, and is referred to in Blundeville's Exercises (1594). The Eighteenth Century.—It was no mere accident which enabled France to enjoy a pre-eminence in cartographic work during the greater part of the 18th century. Not only had French men of science and scientific travellers done excellent work as explorers in different parts of the world, but France could also boast of two men, Guillaume Delisle and J. B. Bourguignon d'Anville, able to utilize in the compilation of their maps the information they acquired. Delisle (1675-1726) published 98 maps, and although as works of art they were inferior to the maps of certain contemporaries, they were far superior to them in scientific value. On one of his earliest maps compiled under advice of his father Claude (1700), he gave the Mediterranean its true longitudinal extension of 41°. It was Delisle who assumed the meridian of Ferro, which had been imposed upon French navigators by royal order (1634), to lie exactly 200 to the west of Paris. The work of reform was carried further by B. D'Anville (1697-1782). Altogether he published 211 maps, of which 66 are included in ~~ LNCu.Fael.' /.{ ,;u r Burn b. • 4 ~~ f. r DI=s,D; rl \41.ts' Pr j:. 'AFC m,. Mara 1 Imo Pm I!`` a Sow . F I • =$91 ~• •. D'AN I a e °•+b.PIGAF Esc ty Spa 0P4rvW...4, W. Fio. 32. his Atlas general (1737-1780); he swept away the fanciful lakes from off the face of Africa, thus forcibly bringing home to us the poverty of our knowledge (fig. 32), delineated the Chinese Empire in accordance with the map based on the surveys con-ducted during the reign of the emperor Kanghi, with the aid of Jesuit missionaries, and published in 1718; boldly refused to believe in the existence of an Antarctic continent covering half the southern hemisphere, and always brought a sound judgment to bear upon the materials which the ever-increasing number of travellers placed at his disposal. Among other French works of importance deserving notice are Le Neptune oriental of Mannevillette (1745) and more especially the Carte geometrique de la France, which is based upon surveys carried on (1744-1783) by Cesar Francois Cassini de Thury and his son Dominique de Cassini. It is on a transversal cylindrical (rectangular) projection devised by Jacques Cassini (d. 1946). The hills are shown in rough hachures. England, which had entered upon a career of naval con-quest and scientific exploration, had reason to be proud of J. F. W. Desbarres, Atlantic Neptune (1774), a North-American Pilot (1779), which first made known the naval surveys of J. Cook and of others; and Tho. Jefferys's West Indian and American Atlases (1775, 1778). James Rennell (1742-1830), who was surveyor-general of India, published the Bengal Atlas (1781), and sagaciously arranged the vast mass of information collected by British travellers and others in India and Africa, but it is chiefly with the name of Aaron Arrowsmith, who came to London in 1778, and his successors, with which the glory of the older school of cartographers is most intimately connected. His nephew John died in 1873. Among local cartographers may be mentioned H. Moll (d. 1732), J. Senex, whose atlas was published in 1725, and Dowet, whose atlas was brought out at the expense of the duke of Argyll. In Germany J. B. Homann (d. 1724) founded a geographical establishment in 1702, which depended at first upon copies of British and French maps, but in course of time published also original maps such as J. M. Hase's Africa (1727) and Tobias Meyer's Mappa critica of Germany (1780), J. T. Gussfeld's map of Brandenburg (1773), John Major's Wurttemburg (1710), and J. C. Miller's Bavaria, both based on trigonometrical surveys. Colonel Schmettau's excellent survey of the country to the west of the Weser (1767-1787) was never published, as Frederick the Great feared it might prove of use to his military enemies. Switzerland is represented by J. J. Scheuchzer (1712), J. Gessner (d. 1790), G. Walser (Atlas novus Helvetiae, 1769), and W. R. Meyer, Atlas der Schweiz (1786-1802). Of the Austrian Netherlands, Count Joseph de Ferrari published a chorographic map on the same scale as Cassini's Carte de la France (1777). Of Denmark a fine map was published under the auspices of the Academy of Science of Copenhagen (1766-1825) of Spain and Portugal an atlas in 102 sheets by Thomas Lopez (1765-1802); of Russia a map by J. N. Delisle in 19 sheets (1739-1745); charts illustrating the variation of the compass and of magnetic " dip " by E. Dunn (1776), J. C. Wiffe (1768); a chart of the world by W. Dampier (1789). Map projections were dealt with by two eminent mathe. maticians, J. H. Lambert (1772) and Leonh. Euler (1777). On the maps of Delisle and d'Anville the ground is still represented by " molehills." Hachures of a rude nature first made their appearance on David Vivier's map of the environs of Paris (1674), and on Cassini's Carte de la France. Contour lines (isobaths) were introduced for the first time on a chart of the Merwede by M. S. Cruquius (1728), and on a chart of the English Channel by Phil. Buache (1737). Dupain-Triel, acting on a suggestion of Du Carla, compiled a contoured map of France (1791), and it only needed the introduction of graduated tints between these contours to secure a graphic picture of the features of the ground. It was J. G. Lehmann (1783) who based his method of hill-shading or hachuring upon these horizontal contours. More than 8o methods of showing the hills have found advocates since that time, but all methods must be based upon contours to be scientifically satisfactory. Two relief maps of Central Switzerland deserve to be mentioned, the one by R. L. Pfyffer in wax, now in Lucerne, the other by J. R. Meyer of Aarau and Muller of Engelberg in papier macho, now in Zurich. Globes of the usual commercial type were manufactured in France by Delisle (1700), Forbin (1710-1731), R. and J. de Vaugondy (1752), Lalande (1771);,in England by E. and G. Adams (1710-1766) ; Germany by Homann and Seutter (1750). A hollow celestial globe 18 ft. in diameter was set up by Dr Roger Long at Cambridge; the terrestrial globe which Count Ch. Gravie of Vergennes presented to Louis XVI. in 1787 had a diameter of 26 metres, or 85 ft. Modern Cartography.—The compiler of maps of the present day enjoys many advantages not enjoyed by men similarly occupied a hundred years ago. Topographical surveys are gradually extending, and explorers of recent years are better trained for their work than they were a generation ago, whilst technical processes of recent invention—such as lithography, photography and heliogravure—facilitate or expedite the completion of his task. This task, however, has grown more difficult and exacting. Mere outline maps, such as formerly satisfied the public, suffice no longer. He is called upon more especially to give a satisfactory delineation of the ground, he must meet the requirements of various classes of the public, and be prepared to record cartographically all the facts of physical or political geography which are capable of being recorded on his maps. The ingenuity of the compiler is frequently taxed when called upon to illustrate graphically the results of statistical information. of every description. Germany since the middle of the 19th century has become the headquarters of scientific cartography. This is due as much to the inspiriting teachings of Ritter and Humboldt as to the general culture and scientific training combined with technical skill commanded by the men who more especially devote them-selves to this branch of geography, which elsewhere is too frequently allowed to fall into the hands of mere mechanics. Men like H. Berghaus (1797–1884), H. Kiepert (1818–1899), and A. Petermann (1822–1878) must always occupy a foremost place in the history of cartography. Among the geographicalestablishments of Germany, that founded by Justus Perthes (1785), at Gotha, occupies the highest rank. Among its publications are A. Stieler's Hand-Atlas (1817–1832), K. von Spruner's Historical Atlas (1438–1488), H. Berghaus' Physical Atlas (1838–1842), E. von Sydow's Wall Maps for Schools (1838–184o) and School Atlas (1847). The titles of these atlases survive, though the authors of the original editions are long dead, and the maps have been repeatedly superseded by others bringing the information up to the date of publication. To the same firm we are indebted for Petermann's Mittcilungen, started in 1855 by A. Petermann, after whose death in 1902 they were successively edited by E. Behm, A. Supan and P. Langhans, as also the Geographisches Jahrbuch (since 1866), at first edited by E. Behm, afterwards by Professor H. Wagner. Among other geographical institutes in Germany which deserve mention are the Weimar Institut, founded in 1791 by F. J. Bertuch, and directed in 1845–1852 by H. Kiepert; Paul Fleming at Glogau (K. Sohr's Handatlas, 1845), A. Ravenstein at Frankfort, D. Reimer at Berlin (H. Kiepert, Handatlas, 186o); R. Andree (Hand-Atlas, 188o), and E. Debes (Hand-Atlas, 1894) in Leipzig, and E. Holzer in Vienna (Vincenz von Haardt's maps). France is represented by the publishing firms of Ch. Delagrave (Levaseur's maps), Hachette (Vivien de St Martin's Atlas universel, in progress since 1875, F. Schrader's Atlas de geographic moderne, 188o), and Armand Colin (Vidal de la Blache's Atlas general, 1894). In Great Britain A. Arrowsmith established himself in London in 1770 (General Atlas, 1817), but the cartographical business ceased on the death of John Arrowsmith in 1873. John Walker, to whose initiative the charts published by the admiralty are indebted for the perspicuous, firm and yet artistic execution, which facilitate their use by the mariner, was also the author of the maps published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Know-ledge (1829–1840). Among more recent firms are W. and A. K. Johnston (founded 1825; Royal Atlas, 1855); J. Bartholomew & Co., now carried on by J. G. Bartholomew (Reduced Survey maps, Atlas of the World's Commerce, 1906); Philip & Sons (Imperial Atlas, 1890; Systematic Atlas by E. G. Ravenstein, 1894; Mercantile Marine Atlas, 1904, globes), and E. Stanford (London Atlas). In 1890 Professor A. Penck proposed to prepare a map of the world, including the oceans, on a scale of 1 : 1,000,000, and his scheme was promised the support of a committee which met in London in 1909, and upon which were represented the leading powers of the world. Maps on that scale of a great part of Africa, Asia and America have been published by British, French, German and United States authorities. A bathymetrical chart of the oceans, by Professor J. Thoulet was published in 1904 at the expense of Prince Albert of Monaco. Reliefs from printed maps were first produced by Bauerkeller of Darmstadt and Dondorf at Frankfort, from originals furnished by A. Ravenstein (1838–1844). The exaggeration in altitude, on these maps and on those of a later date and on a larger scale, was very considerable. No such exaggeration exists in the case of reliefs of parts of the Alps, on a large scale, by P. Kell and Pelikan (189o), X. Imfeld (1891), P. Oberlerchner (1891–1895), C. Perron (1893–1900), F. Becker (1900), A. Heim (1904) and others. A relief globe was first suggested in a letter of M. Maestlin to J. Kepler (1596). The first globe of this description for the use of the blind, was made by A. Zeune in 181o. H. Erben is the author of a rough relief on a convex surface (1842), but the finest example of this description is a relief of Italy, by Cesar Pomba and H. Fritsche, on a scale of 1 : 1,000,000 and without exaggeration of heights (188o–,884). A map of Italy in the baptistery of St Peter at Rome has occasionally been described as a relief, though it is merely a rude outline map of Italy, by Carlo Fontana (1698), carved into a convex surface. Several globes of unusual dimensions were produced in the course of last century. That which Colonel Langlois erected in the:Champs Elysees(1824) had a diameter of 39 metres. James Wyld's hollow globe, or " Georama," diam. 18 metres, occupied Leicester Square until swept away as a nuisance. The giant globe proposed by Elisee Reclus in 1895 has never been erected; he has, however, produced maps on a concave surface, as suggested by J. D. Hauber in 1742. For reports on the progress of cartography, see Geographisches Jahrbuch (Gotha, since 1866); for announcements of new publications, Bibliotheca geographica, published annually by the Berlin Geographical Society, and to the geographical Journal (London). Topographical Surveys. The year 1784 marks the beginning of the ordnance survey, for in that year Major-General Roy measured a base line of 27,404 ft. on Hounslow Heath. Six additional base united lines were measured up to 1849, including the Lough Kingdom. Foyle, in 1827–1828, and that on Salisbury Plain, in 1849. The primary triangulation was only completed in 1858, but in the meantime, in 1791, the detail survey had begun. At first it was merely intended to produce a map sufficiently accurate on a scale of 1 in. to a mile (1 : 63,360). Ireland having been surveyed (1824–1842) on a scale of 6 in. to a mile (1 : x0,560), it was determined in 184o, after the whole of England and Wales, with the exception of Lancashire and Yorkshire, had been completed on one-inch scales, to adopt that scale for the whole of the United Kingdom. Finally, in 1854, a cadastral survey of the whole of the United Kingdom, only excepting uncultivated districts, was resolved upon, on a scale of I : 2500, still larger scales (r : Soo or I : moo) being adopted for town plans. Parish boundaries are laid down with the help of local meresmen appointed by justices at quarter sessions. The horizontal contours are based upon instrumental measurement, and as a whole these ordnance maps were undoubtedly superior in accuracy, with rare exceptions, to similar maps published by foreign governments. Even though the hill hachures on the older one-inch maps are not quite satisfactory, this deficiency is in a large measure compensated for by the presence of absolutely trustworthy contours. Originally the maps were engraved on copper, and the progress of publication was slow; but since the introduction of modern processes, such as electrotyping (in 1840), photography (in 1855) and zincography (in 1859), it has been rapid. A plan, the engraving of which formerly took two years, can now be produced in two days. The one-inch map for the whole of the United Kingdom was completed in 1890. It covers 697 sheets (or 488 of a " new series " in large sheets), and is published in three editions, viz. (a) in outline, with contours in black, (b) with hills hachured in brown or black, and (c) printed in five colours. Carefully revised editions of these and of the other maps are brought out at intervals of 15 years at most. Since 1898 the department has also published maps on a smaller scale, viz. a map of England and Wales, on a scale of 2 M. to I in., in two editions, both printed in colour, the one with hills stippled in brown, the other coloured on the " layer system " as a strata-relief map; a map of the United Kingdom on a scale of 4 M. to I in., also in two editions, the one in outline, showing five classes of roads and parish boundaries, the other in colours, with stippled hills; a map on a scale of 10 m. to r in., also in two editions, and finally a map of the United Kingdom on a scale of I : 1,000,000. The geological surveys of Great Britain and Ireland were connected from 1832 to 1853 with the ordnance survey, but are now carried on independently. The ordnance survey, too, no longer depends on the war office but upon the board of agriculture and fisheries. A Bathymetrical Survey of the Fresh-water Lochs of Scotland, under the direction of Sir John Murray and L. Pullar, was completed in 1908, and the results published by the Royal Geographical Society. Proposals for a new map of France, to replace the famous Cassini map of 1744–1793 were made in 1802 and again by France. R. Bonne in 18o8, but owing to the wars then devas- tating Europe no steps were taken until 1817, and the Carte de France de Petal major on a scale of r : 8o,0oo was only completed in 1880. It is engraved on copper. The hachured hills are based upon contours, and are of admirable commensurability. It has served as a basis for a Carte de la France, published by the Service Vicinal on a scale of i : ro0,000, in 596 sheets, and of a general map prepared by the ministere des travaux publics on a scale of i : 200,000 in 8o sheets. On both these maps the hills are printed in grey chalk. A third topographical map of France is being published in accordance with the recommendation of a committee presided over by General de la Noix in 1897. The surveys for this map were begun in 1905. The maps are based upon the cadastral plans (r : woo), thoroughly revised and connected 'with the triangulation of France and furnished with contours at intervals of 5 M. by precise measurement. These minutes are published on a scale of I : ro,000 or r : 20,000 for mountain districts, while the scale of the general map is 1: 50,000. Each sheet is bounded by parallels and meridians. The hills are shown in brown contours at intervals of 10 m. and grey shading in chalk (Berthaut, La Carte de France, 1750–1898; Paris, 1899). A geological map of France on a scale of r: 8o,0oo is nearly completed, there are also a map (1: 500,000) by Carez and Vasseur, and an official Carte geologique (1: 1,000,000; 1906). By the middle of the 19th century topographical maps of the various German states had been completed, and in several instances surveys of a more exact nature had been completed or begun, when in 1878 the governments of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg agreed to supersede local maps by publishing a map of the empire (Reichskarte) in 694 sheets on a scale of r:roo,000. The earlier sheets of this excellent map were lithographed, but these are gradually being superseded by maps engraved on copper. Colour-printing is employed since 1901. The hills are hachured and in some instances contours at intervals of 5o metres are introduced. The map was completed in 1909, but is continually undergoing renewal. The Messtischblatter, called Positionsblalter in Bavaria, are on a scale of 1:25,000. The older among them leave much to be desired, but those of a later date are satisfactory. This applies more especially to the maps of Saxony (since 1879) and Wurttemberg (since 1893). The features of the ground on most of these maps are shown by contours at intervals of Io metres. The map produced on this large scale numbers over 5000 sheets, and is used as a basis for the geological surveys carried on in several of the states of Germany. A general map of the German Empire (Uebersichtskarte) on a scale of I : 200,000, in 196 sheets, is in progress since 1893. It is printed in three colours, and gives contours at intervals of Io metres. In addition to these maps there are D. G. Reymann's well-known Specialkarte von Mittel Europa (I : 200,000 ), acquired by the Prussian government in 1874 (it will ultimately consist of 796 sheets), a government and Liebenow's map of central Europe (1:300,000) and C. Vogel's beautiful map of Germany (1 : 5oo,000). The Specialkarte of Austria-Hungary on a scale of 1:75,000 (765 sheets), based upon a triangulation and cadastral surveys (1816–1867), was completed in 1889, and published in heliogravure. This map was repeatedly revised, Hu $ary. but as it no longer met modern requirements as to accuracy the director of the military geographical establishment at Vienna, Field Marshal Chr. von Steeb, in 1896, organized what practically amounts to a re-survey of the entire monarchy, to be completed in 75 years. At the same time the cadastral plans, reduced to a scale of 1:25,000, are being published in photo-lithography. A general map of central Europe in 283 sheets published by the Austrian government (r:200,000) includes nearly the whole of the Balkan Peninsula. The famous map of Switzerland, with which is associated the name of General H. Dufour (d. 1875), is based upon a triangulation (18o9--1833) and surveys on a scale of 1:25,000 for the lowlands, 1:5o,000 for the alpine districts, and was published (1842–1865) on a scale of r:roo,000. The hills are hachured, the light, in the case of the loftier regions, being supposed to fall obliquely. The original surveys, carefully revised, have been published since 187o as a Topographical Atlas of Switzerland—the so-called Siegfried Atlas, in 552 sheets. They are printed in three colours, contours at intervals of Io and 20 metres being in brown, incidental features (ravines, cliffs, glaciers) in black or blue. To mountain-climbers these contour maps are invaluable, but for ordinary purposes " strata maps," such as J. M. Ziegler's hypsometric maps (1856) or so-called " relief maps," which attempt to delineate the ground so as to give the impression of a relief, are generally preferred. The new survey of Belgium was completed in 1872 and there have been published 527 plane-table sections or planchettes on a scale of 1:20,000 (i866–188o), a " Carte topo- Beiginm graphique de la Belgique," in 72 sheets, on a scale of 1:40,000 (1861–1883), and a more recent map in 26 sheets on a scale of r:roo,000 (1903–1912). The last is printed in five colours, the ground is shown in contours of ro metres interval and grey stippling. The new survey of the Netherlands, based upon General Krayenhoff's primary triangulation (18o2–1811) was completed in 1855. The results have been published on a Holland. scale of 1:25,000 (976 sheets, since 1866), 1:50,000 (Topographic and Military Map, 62 sheets, 1850—1864, and a Waterstaatskaart, 1864–1892), and 1:200,000 (Topographical Germany. Switzer-land. Atlas, 21 sheets, 1868–1871). In Denmark, on the proposal of the Academy of Science, a survey was carried out in 1766–1825, but the maps issued by the Danish general staff depend upon more Denmark. recent surveys. These include plane-table sections (Maalebordsblade), 1209 sheets on a scale of 1:20,000, with con-tours at intervals of 5 to 10 ft., published since 183o; Atlasblade of Jutland and of De Danske Oer, on a scale of 1:40,000, the former in 131 sheets, since 187o, the latter, on the same scale, in 94 sheets, since 189o, and still in progress, and a general staff map on a scale of 1: roo,000, in 68 sheets, since 189o. Maps of the Faroer and of Iceland have likewise been issued. Modern surveys in Sweden date from the organization of a corps of " Landematare," known since 1874 as a topographical Stand's department of the general staff. The maps issued by this authority include one of southern Sweden, r:roo,000, another of northern Sweden, 1:200,000, and a general map on a scale of I:1,000,000. In Norway a geographical survey (Opmaaling) has been in progress since 1783, but the topographical map of the kingdom on a scale of I:Ioo,000 in 340 sheets, has not yet been completed. Of Russia in Europe only the more densely peopled governments have been surveyed, since 1816, in the manner of other Russia. European countries, while for most regions there are only so-called "military surveys." The most readily available map of the whole country is the ro-verst map (1:420,000), known as General J. A. Strelbitzki's, and published 1865-1880. A topographic map (1:126,000) embracing the whole of western Russia, with Poland and the country of the Don Cossacks, is designed to be extended over the whole empire. Certain governments—Moscow, Kief, Volhynia, Bessarabia, the Crimea, &c.—have been published on a scale of 1:24,000, while Finland, as far as 61° N., was re-surveyed in 1870-1895, and a map on a scale of 1:42,000 is approaching completion. Surveys in Asiatic Russia are conducted by the topographical departments organized at Orenburg, Tashkent, Omsk, Irkutsk and Tiflis. To the latter we are indebted for a valuable map of Caucasia, 1:210,000, which since the first publication (1863-1885) has undergone careful revision. The Siberian departments have published a number of maps on a scale of 1:420,000. In addition to these the survey for the Trans-Siberian railway has been published on a scale of 1:630,000, as also maps of the Russo-Chinese frontier districts, 1:210.000 and I:I,168,000. A map of Asiatic Russia, 1:420,000, by Bolshef, in 192 sheets, is in course of publication. Passing to southern Europe we find that Portugal has completed a Charta chorographica (I:20O,000) since 1856. In Portugal Spain a plane-table survey on a scale of 1:20,000 and Spain. has been in progress since 1870, but of the map of Spain in 1(378 sheets on a scale of 1:50,000 only 15o had been issued by the dep6sito de la guerra up to 191o. Meanwhile reference may be made to B. F. Coello's Atlas de la Espana (1848-189o), the maps of which are on a scale of I: 200,000. In Italy Tavulette rilevata on a scale of 1:25,000 or 1:50,000, with contours, based on surveys made 1862-1890, are being Italy published, and a Carta del regno d'Italia, 1:100,000, is practically complete. There are a Carta idrologica and a Carla geologica on the same scale, and a Carta orografica on a scale of 1: 500,000. Greece is still dependent upon foreigners for its maps, among which the Carte de Grece (1:200,000) from rapid surveys made by General Palet in 1828, was published in a new edition in 1880. A similar map, mainly based upon surveys made by Austrian officers and revised by H. Kiepert (1:300,000), was published by the Military Geographical Institute of Vienna in 1885. Far superior to these maps is the Karte von Attika (I:Ioo,000 and 1:25,000) based upon careful surveys made by Prussian officers and published by E. Curtius and J. H. Kaupert on behalf of the German Archaeological Institute in Athens (1878), or A. Philippson's map of the Peloponnese (1:300,000; 1901). For maps of the Balkan Peninsula we are still largely indebted to the rapid surveys carried on by Austrian and Russian officers. The Austrian map of central Europe embraces the whole of the Balkan Peninsula on a scale of 1:200,000; the Russian surveys (1877-1879) are embodied in a map of the eastern part of the Balkan on a scale I: 126,000, and a map of Bulgaria and southern Rumelia, on a scale 1:200,000, both published in 1883. A map of Turkey in Europe, scale 1: 210,000, was published by the Turkish general staff (1899), and another map, scale 1:250,000, by the intelligence division of the British war office is in progress since 1906. Bosnia and Herzegovina are now included with the surveys of the Austrian Empire, the kingdom of Servia has been surveyed (1880-1891) and the results published on a scale of 1:75,000; in eastern Rumania surveys have been in progress since 1874 and the results have been published on a scale of 1:50,000; a general map of the entire kingdom, scale 1:200,000, was published in 1906-1907; a map of Montenegro (1:75,000), based on surveys by Austrian and Russian officers, was published at Vienna in 1894. In Asiatic Turkey several districts of historical interest have been surveyed, and surveys have likewise been made in the interest of railways, or by boundary commis- Asia. sions, but there is no such thing as a general survey carried on under the direction of government. We are thus, to a large extent, still dependent upon compilations, such as R. Kiepert's Asia Minor (1:400,000; 1904-1908), a map of eastern Turkey in Asia, Syria and western Persia (1:2,000,000; 191o), published by the Royal Geographical Society, or a Russian general map (1:630,000, published 188o-1885). Among maps based upon actual surveys those of Palestine, by Lieutenant G. R. Conder and H. H. (afterwards Lord) Kitchener (2:63,360, 1880), of the Sinai Peninsula by Sir C. W. Wilson and H. S. Palmer (r:I26,730, 1870), of Arabia Petraea by Dr A. Musil (1:300,000,1907) or of the Aden territory (1905) are among the more interesting. Of Cyprus an excellent map from surveys by Major (Lord) H. H. Kitchener was published in 1884 (2:63,360). In the case of Persia and Afghanistan we are still dependent upon compilations such as a Russian staff map (1:840,000, published in 1886), Colonel Sir T. H. Holdich's map of Persia (I:I,014,000, Simla, 1897-1899), or a smaller map (1:2,028,000 and 1:4,056,000), published by the geographical division of the general staff. The settlement of boundaries in northern Afghanistan (1883) and in Seistan (1870) has necessitated surveys of some interest. A trigonometrical survey of British India was begun in 1800 and the country can now boast of a survey which in most respects is equal to those of most European states. The surveys are made on scales varying according to the necessities of the case or the nature of the country, and they have been extended since 1862 beyond the boundaries of India proper. Revenue surveys for land settlement are published on a scale of 1:4000, but the usual scale for topographical maps is 1:63,360. An Indian Atlas, on a scale of 1 : 255,660, includes also Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula, but although begun so long ago as 1827 many of its sheets are unpublished. There are in addition an official map of India (2:I,000,000), the first edition of which was published in 1903, as also maps of the great provinces of India, including Burma, all on a scale of 1:2,827,520, and a variety of physical and statistical maps. Ceylon and the Straits Settlements, with the Federal Malay States, have their own surveyors-general. The British North Borneo Company published a Map of British North Borneo, on a scale of 2:633,600 (1905). In Siam a regular survey was organized by Mr J. McCarthy (1881-1883), a former official of the Indian survey, which did good work in connexion with the determination of the Franco-Siamese frontier (1906). The surveys are made on the scales of 1:4000, 1:31,680 and 1:63,360. In French Indo-China surveys have been in progress since 1881. The Bureau of the Indo-Chinese general staff, has published a map of Indo-China, including Cambodia, in 45 sheets (1:200,000, 1895), while to the service geographique de 1'Indo-Chine, organized in 1899, we owe a Carte de l'Indo-Chine (I :500,000). For China we are still largely dependent upon careful compilations like Baron F. von Richthofen's Atlas von China (1:750,000, navla. Greece. Balkan States. Berlin, 1885-189o) or Bretschneider's Map of China (I :4,600,000) a new edition of which appeared at St Petersburg in 1900. There are good survey maps of the British colony of Hong-Kong, of Wei-hai-Wei and of the country around Kiao-chou, and the establishment of topographical offices at Peking and Ngan-king holds out some promise of native surveys. In the meantime large scale maps prepared by European authorities are to be welcomed, such as maps of Chih-li and Shan-tung (1:200,000), from surveys by Prussian officers, 1901-1905, maps on East China (1:1,000,000) and of Yun-nan by British, German and Indian officers, of the Indo-Chinese frontier (1:200,000, Paris 1908), and of the upper Yangtsze-kiang by S. Chevalier (Shanghai, 190o). Japan has a regular survey department originated by Europeans and successfully carried on by natives. The primary triangulation was completed in 1880, a topographical map coloured geologically (I:200,000) was published 1889-1897, and in addition to this there are being published an agronomical map on a scale of 1:100,000 (since 1887) and others. The Japanese government has likewise published a map of Korea (I:I,000,000; 1898). The Philippine Islands are represented in a carefully compiled map by C. W. Hodgson (1:1,115,000, New York, 1908). Of Java we possess an excellent topographical map based upon surveys made 1850-1887 (i:ioo,000). A similar map has been in progress for Sumatra since 1883, while the maps for the remaining Dutch Indies are still based, almost exclusively, upon Hying surveys. For general purposes the Atlas der Nederlandsche Besittingen in Oost-Indie by J. N. Stemfoort and J. J. Ten Siethoff, of which a new edition has been published since 1900, may be consulted with confidence. In Africa nearly all the international boundaries have been carefully surveyed and marked on the ground, since 188o, and Africa yield a good basis as a guide for the map compiler. A general map of Africa, by Colonel Lannoy de Bissy, on a scale of I : 2,000,000 was first published in 1882-1888, but is carefully revised from time to time. The geographical section of the British general staff is publishing maps of all Africa on scales of I : 250,000 and i : 1,000,000. In Egypt excellent work has been done by a survey department organized and directed by Captain H. G. Lyons up to 1909. It has published a topographical map of the Nile valley (1:50,000), an irrigation map (i:ioo,000), a general map (1:250,000), numerous cadastral plans, &c. Work on similar lines is carried on in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Algeria has been in course of survey since 1868, Tunis since 1878, and the results have been published on scales of 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. Of Morocco there are many maps, among which several compiled by the French service geographique de l'armbe, including a Carte du Maroc (1:200,000), in progress since 1909. In .the British colonies of tropical and of South Africa' surveys for the most part are carried on actively. Of the Gambia Colony there is a map by Major E. L. Cowie (1:250,000, 1904-1905); the survey of the Gold Coast Colony is being published by Major F. G. Guggisberg since 1907 (I:I25,000 and 1:200,000); southern and northern Nigeria are adequately represented on the maps of the general staff (1:250,000). The states of British South Africa have each their surveyor-general, and a reconnaissance survey has been in progress since 1903. It is based upon a careful triangulation, superintended by Sir D. Gill, and carried in 1907 within 70 M. of Lake Tanganyika. This survey is rapidly superseding other maps, such as the surveyor-general's map of Cape Colony (1:127,000) ; A. Duncan's map of the Orange River State (1:148,705; 1902-1904) and Jeppe's map of the Transvaal (1:476,000; 1899). The results of a survey of southern Rhodesia are given on the map of the British general staff (2:500,000; 1909), while of north-eastern Rhodesia we have an excellent map compiled by C. L. Beringer in 1907 (i:I,000,000). Surveys in British Central Africa were taken up in 1894; a survey of Lake Nyasa, by Lieut. E. L. ' See "The Survey in British Africa": the Annual Report of the Colonial Survey Commission. Rhoades and W. B. Phillips, was published in 1902. As regards British East Africa and Uganda, the surveys in the latter (on scales of i:2o,000 and 1:125,000) have made considerable progress. The Victoria Nyanza was surveyed by Captain B. Whitehouse (1898-1900), and the results have been published on a scale of 2:292,000. These British possessions, together with the whole of Somaliland and southern Abyssinia, are satisfactorily represented on the maps of the British general staff. Maps of the French Africa Colonies have been published by the service geographique de 1'Afrique occidental and the service geographique des colonies. A map of Senegal (1:100,000) is in progress since 1905. The official maps of the other colonies have been compiled by A. Meunier between 1902 and 2909. They include French West Africa, (1:2,000,000; and ed., 1908), French Guinea (2:500,000; 1902) and the Ivory Coast and Dahomey (2:1,500,000; 1907-1908). A map of the French Congo by J. Hansen (2:2,500,000), was published in 2907. In Madagascar a topographical bureau was established by General J. S. Gallieni in 1896, and the surveys are being published since 'goo on a scale of i:ioo,000. As regards the German colonies we are dependent upon compilations by R. Kiepert, P. Sprigade and M. Moisel. Good maps of the Portuguese colonies are to be found in an Atlas colonial Portugues, a second edition of which was published by the Commissao de Cartographia in 1909. Of the Congo State we have an official map on a scale of i:i,000,000, published in 1907. Of Italian Eritrea we have excellent maps on various scales of i:ioo,000, 1:200,000 and 1:500,000, based upon surveys made between 1888 and 1900. In the states of Australia cadastral surveys conducted by surveyors-general have been in progress for many years, as also trigonometrical surveys (Western Australia excepted), Australia. and the publication of parish and township or county maps keeps pace with the settlement of the country; but with the exception of Victoria. none of these states is in possession of a topographical map equal in accuracy to similar maps published in Europe. In Victoria the so-called geodetic survey was begun in 1858; the maps are published on a scale of 1:126,730. There exists also a general map, on a scale of 1:506,930. Maps on the same scale are available of New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania, on a scale of i :56o,000 for Western Australia, on a scale of 1:253,460 for Queensland. There are likewise maps on smaller scales, which undergo frequent revision. The map of British New Guinea is on a scale of 2:330,200 (1898). New Zealand has a good general map on a scale of 1:633,700. A trigonometrical survey was given up and only details of immediate practical use are required. The " Lands Department " of the Fiji Islands has published a map on a scale of 1:380,00o (1908). The cadastral surveys in Canada are carried on by a commission of Crown-lands in the old provinces and by a Dominion land office, which lays out townships as in the United States, but with greater accuracy. A surveyor- North America. general is attached to the department of the interior, at Ottawa. He publishes the topographical maps (1:63,366) since 1906. They are based upon theodolite traverses 15 m. apart, and connected with the United States lake and coast surveys, the details being filled in by plane-table surveys on a scale of 2:31,680. The contours, 25 ft. apart, depend upon spirit-levelling. In the Rocky Mountains surveys photographic apparatus is successfully employed. The surveyor-general issues also " sectional maps " (1:190,000 and 1:40,000) and-so-called " Standard " topographical maps for the thinly peopled west, on scales of 1:250,000 and 1:500,00o. He is responsible likewise for maps of Yukon and of Labrador, supplied by the geological survey, the former on a scale of 1:380,200, the latter of 1:1,584,000. The intelligence branch of the Canadian department of military defence is publishing since 1904 topographical maps on scales of 1:63,366 and 1:126,730, with contours. A geodetic survey department, under Dr. W. F. King, chief astronomer of the Dominion, was established in 1909. Maps of Newfoundland, orographical as well as geological, scale 1: 1,584,200, have been published. In the United States a " geological survey " was organized in 1879, under Clarence King as director, whose successor, Major J. W. Powell, rightly conceived that it was necessary to produce good topographical maps before a geological survey could be pursued with advantage. It is under his wise guidance that the survey has attained its present efficiency. It is based upon a triangulation by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. The maps of the more densely peopled parts of the Union are published on a scale of 1 : 62,500, and those of the remainder of the country on half or a quarter of that scale. The hills are shown by contours at intervals of so or Too ft. The details given are considered sufficient to admit of the selection of general routes for railways or other public works. The survey progresses at the rate of about 40,000 sq. m. annually, and in course of time it will supersede the map of the separate states, based on older surveys. A " reconnaissance " map of Alaska (on a scale of I : 250,000) was published in 1908. In Mexico the surveys are in charge of a comision geograficaexploradora attached to the secretaria de Fomento, but only Cents/ about 140 sheets of a Carta general on a scale of America. 1 : Too,000 have been published. There are also a map of the state of S. Luis Potosi (1 : 250,000), of the environs of Puebla (1 : 50,000) and a Carta general de la republica mexicana (T : 250,000). A useful map of Central America has been published by the topographical section of the British general staff on a scale of 1 : 170,300. Of great value for cartographical work is a careful survey, carried out by American engineers (1897–1898), for a continental railway running along the west coast from Mexico to Chile. In South America, in proportion to the area ofet.he country, only few surveys of a thoroughly scientific nature have been made, and it is therefore satisfactory that the service geographique of the French army should be publishing, since 1900, a map of the entire continent on a scale.of I : 1,000,000. Colombia is but inadequately represented by rough maps. For Colombia we have F. L. Vergara y Velasco's Atlas de geografia colonibiana (1906–1908); Ecuador is fairly well represented by Th. Wolf (1892) and Hans Meier (1907); in the case of Peru we still largely depend upon Paz Soldan's Atlas geografica (1865–1867) and A. Raimondi's Mapa del Peru (I :500,000) based upon surveys made before 1869. Sir Martin Conway's "Map of the Andes of La Paz" (1 : 600,000; 1900) as well as Major P. H. Fawcett's survey of the Brazilian boundary (1906–1907) are welcome additions to our knowledge of Bolivia. In Chile a comision topografico was appointed as long ago as 1848, but the map produced under its auspices by Professor F. Pissis (I : 250,000, 1870–1877), leaves much to be desired. Since that time, however, valuable maps have been published by an Oficina de mensura de tierras, by a section de geografia y minas connected with the department of public works, by the Oficina hidrografica, and more especially in connexion with surveys necessitated by the boundary disputes with Argentina, which were settled by arbitration in 1899 and 1902. The surveys which led to the latter were conducted by Sir Thomas Holdich. In Venezuela a commission for producing a piano militar or military map of the country was appointed by General Castro in 1904, but little progress seems to have been made, and mean-time we are dependent upon a revised edition of A. Codazzi's map of 1840 which was published in 1884. In Brazil little or nothing is done by the central government, but the progressive states of Sao Paulo and Mines Gerdes have commissaos geographicos e geologicos engaged in the production of topographical maps. Valuable materials have likewise been acquired by several river surveys including those of the Amazonas by Azevedo and Pinto (1862–1864) and W. Chandless (1862–1869) and of the Rio Madeira by Colonel G. Earl Church and Keller-Leuzinger (1869–1875). The proposal of a committee presided over by the Marshal H. de Beaurepaire-Rohan (1876) to prepare a map of Brazil on a scale of 1 : 200,000 has never been acted upon, and in the meantime we are dependent upon works like the Atlas do imperio do Brazil by Mendes de Almeida (1868) or the maps in our general atlases. In Argentina an official geographical institute was established in 1879, but neither A. Seelstrang's Atlas (1886–1892) nor H. Hoskold's Mapa topografica (I :2,000,000; London, 1895), which were published by it, nor any of the numerous provincial maps are based upon scientific surveys. It need hardly be said that hydrographic surveys have been of great service to compilers of maps. There are few coast-lines, frequented by shipping, which have not yet been surveyed in a definite manner. In this work the British hydrographic office may justly claim the credit of having contributed the chief share. Great Britain has likewise taken the lead in those deep-sea explorations which reveal to us the configuration of the sea-bottom, and enable us to construct charts of the ocean bed corresponding to the contoured maps of dry land yielded by topographical surveys. (E. G. R.)
End of Article: SCOCIA 1TR N

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