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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 565 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SEATTLE, the county-seat of King county, Washington, U.S.A., and the largest city in the state, situated on a neck of land between Elliott Bay (an eastern arm of Admiralty Bay, Puget Sound) and the fresh-water Lake Washington; about 865 m. by water N. of San Francisco, about 185 m. by rail N. of Portland, Oregon, and about 28 m. N. of Tacoma. Pop. (1870) 1107; (188o) 3533; (1890) 42,837; (1900) 80,671; (1910 U.S. census) 237,194. Of the population in 1900, 41,483 were of foreign parentage and 22,003 were foreign-born. The area of the city in 1910 was about 83.45 sq. m., of which 2942 sq. m. were water surface, 23 sq. m. being salt water. Seattle is the terminus of the Northern Pacific, the Canadian Pacific (using the tracks of the Northern Pacific), the Great Northern, the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound (1909), the Oregon & Washington (1910; a joint extension to Puget Sound of the Southern Pacific and Union Pacific), the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (using the tracks of the Northern Pacific), and the Columbia & Puget Sound railways. It is served by inter-urban electric lines to Tacoma and Everett; is the starting-point for steamers to Alaska and to Prince Rupert, British Columbia (Grand Trunk Pacific line), and for lines to Japan, China, Siberia, Hawaii, the Philippines, Australia, Mexico, South America and Pacific coast ports of the United States; and is a port of call for coasting vessels. The city has the excellent salt-water harbour of Elliott Bay to the W.; and to the E. there is a fresh-water harbour, Lake Washington, connected with Puget Sound by the Lake Washington Canal, an artificial improvement of the natural waterway by Lake Union, a great V-shaped body of water in the north-central part of the city, and by Salmon Bay, a narrow channel setting in from Puget Sound on the N.W. Crossing the S.W. part of the city is Duwamish river, which empties into Elliott Bay. At Bremerton, Kitsap county, about 15 M. W. by S. of Seattle, is the Puget Sound Navy Yard, protected by Fort Ward, with one dry dock (1910) 836 ft. long and 110 ft. wide, another 627 ft. long, and two docks 65o ft. long. The surface of the city is hilly, the greatest height being 500 ft. above sea-level. The higher hills, the better residential parts of the city, are reached by cable railways or by electric railways following winding routes. Many of the higher hills, especially in the business district, have been removed by hydraulic power and large parts regraded. Lake Washington, to the E., is 22 M. long, and x to 4 M. wide, with an area of 50 sq. m., a shore line of 8o m. and a maximum depth of 225 ft; its waters are deep and clear and never freeze. In the north-central part of the city is Green Lake, about r m. long and 2 m. wide. On Puget Sound and Lake Union and about these two lakes, both with well-wooded shores and both furnishing excellent boating andcanoeing, are the principal parks of the city. In 1910 the total park acreage under the park commissioners was Io58 acres. Immediately S. of Green Lake is Woodland Park (1.99 acres) with athletic fields and a zoological collection. On the southern shore of Union Bay (a circular, nearly landlocked arm of Lake Washing-ton) in the east-central part of the city is Washington Park (163 acres). Farther S. near Lake Washington are Madrona Park (9 acres), Frink Park (20 acres), which adjoins Leschi Park (4 acres), and Mount Baker Park (12 acres). Near Lake Union is Volunteer Park (48 acres) on Capitol Hill, containing a public observatory (46o ft. above sea-level) and a statue of W. H. Seward by Richard Brooks. Schmitz Park (30 acres) is woodland on the West Seattle peninsula, overlooking the Sound; and between Volunteer Park and Washington Park is Interlaken (46 acres). Kinnear Park (14 acres) is near the entrance to the harbour. Nearly all these parks command views of the Cascade and Olympic ranges. The city owns large areas which are to be improved as parks, including Ravenna Park, which has a noble native fir and cedar forest and sulphur springs. Private parks include the White City (on Lake Washington), Golden Gardens (5o acres) and, in West Seattle (annexed in 1907), Luna Park, an amusement place with a natatorium. North of the city on Lake Washington are the links of the Seattle Golf and Country Club. Practically a part of the city's park system and to be crossed by its boulevards are the campus of the university of Washington, and the fine grounds (6o5 acres given to the Federal government by the city) of Fort Lawton. On the campus of the university are a statue of Washington by Lorado Taft and a bust of J. J. Hill by Ben Frolick. The principal public buildings are the county court house (on a commanding site), the county almshouse, the municipal building, a federal building, the Y.M.C.A. building, a Labor Temple, a Carnegie library (1905), with several branches throughout the city and about 128,000 volumes in 1910, and the buildings of the university of Washington. In Georgetown, immediately S. of the main part of Seattle and nearly hemmed in by parts of the city, is the county hospital. The city has many churches, including Chinese, Japanese, Finnish, Scandinavian, German and Russian. Seattle is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop, and St James Cathedral is the finest church in the city. The First Presbyterian Church has a large auditorium. Of the many educational institutions, the most important is the university of Washington (see WASHINGTON), which was established here by the legislature of 1854-1855. Among the others are: the Washington Preparatory School for Girls; the Holy Names Academy and Normal School (under the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary); the College of Our Lady of Lourdes; Adelphia College; the Brothers' School; the Seattle College; three business colleges; the Seattle Art School, in connexion with which the Art Students' League of Seattle was formed in 1909; and a good public school system including six high schools in 1910, one of which has an excellent collection of the fauna and flora of the Pacific Coast. On Mercer Island in Lake Washington is the parental school of the municipal public school system. The city has a cosmopolitan press, including two Japanese dailies. There are an associated charities organization and a " charities endorsement committee " (1903), which is under the auspices of three commercial associations. For children there are a receiving home (1896, under the Washington Children's Home Society); the Seattle Children's Home (1884, under the Ladies' Relief Society of Washington): and a children's orthopaedic hospital (1907). The Seattle Federation of Women's Clubs supports a Girls' Home and Training School (1909). Under Roman Catholic control are a Deaconess Home, the Mount Carmel Home (under the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus), and the House of the Good Shepherd (under the Sisters of the Good Shepherd). The Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society, the Ladies' Montefiore Aid Society and the Hebrew Benevolent Association are Jewish charities. Other charities are the Seattle Seamen's Friend Society, the Florence Crittenton Home, the Lebanon Rescue Mission, the Japanese Women's Home, the Seattle Fruit and Flower Mission, and the Kenny Home for Old Ladies (Presbyterian). The principal hospitals are the Pacific (1899), the Seattle General (1894, under the Deaconess Home Association), the Providence (1877, under the Sisters of Charity), the Minor, the Wayside Emergency (1900), the Municipal and the County. The situation of Seattle makes it important commercially and industrially. For its manufactories electric power is derived from Snoqualmie Falls (N.E. of Seattle) from Puyallup river (S.W.) and from Cedar river. The total value of the factory product in 1905 (excluding Ballard) was $25,406,574 (nearly one-fifth of that of the state), or 65.8 % more than in 1900. The increase was particularly marked in the value of flour, $4,593,566, or 253.9 % more than in 1900. Other important manufactures in 1905 were: packed meats and slaughter house pro-ducts ($3,419,085); malt liquors ($2,121,631); foundry and machine shop products ($I,971.571)—there is a large manufactory of nuts and bolts; lumber and timber ($1,519,247) ; confectionery ($821,123) ; canned and preserved fish ($610,356) ; and ships and boats. In what was formerly Ballard, now the 13th ward, on Salmon Bay, there are large mills for the manufacture of red cedar shingles. Seattle is the most important seaport of the state, being the commercial and industrial centre for the customs district of Puget Sound. In 1909 the net tonnage of vessels entering the harbour (local figures) was 2,467,351 tons. The foreign exports in 1908 (Harbour Master's Report) were valued at $18,413,735, the foreign imports at $23,805,727. Its exports and imports make up the greater part of the commerce of the district, which has Port Townsend as its port of entry, and the city is rivalled only by San Francisco among the cities of the Pacific coast in the amount of its water-borne traffic. The chief exports are wheat, flour, timber, hay, potatoes, live stock, fruit, fish (salmon), oats, coal (from the mines E. of Lake Washington), hops, cotton (from the Southern States), dairy products and general merchandise; and the imports include silk, rice, coffee, tea, sugar, spices, indigo and other Oriental products. Practically all the gold from Alaska and the Yukon territory is received here, and nearly 8o% of the Alaskan trade is done through Seattle. The foreign trade is with China, Japan, Siberia, Hawaii, the Philippines, Australia, Mexico, South America and Europe. The Chamber of Commerce has an excellent commercial museum. The city was chartered in 1880, and under the charter of 1896 (as amended since) elections are biennial. By an amendment of 1908 the initiative and referendum were introduced; an initiative petition must be signed by so % of the voters at the preceding municipal election; a petition for a referendum on any ordinance passed by the city council must be signed by 8 % of the voters at the preceding municipal election. The city council is composed of one councilman elected for a two-year term from each ward (in 1910 there were 14 wards), and two councilmen elected at large and serving for four years. The municipality owns the water-supply system with its source at Cedar Lake and Cedar river, 28 m. S.E., and an electric lighting plant (for which power is derived from the falls of the Cedar river), but most of the lighting is supplied by private companies. The city has undertaken the regrading necessitated by the hilly site of Seattle. In 1909 the assessed valuation of the city was $185,317,470 and the city's debt was $8,570,380 (bonded) and $8,933,973 (net debt for local improvements). The first permanent settlement here was made in 1852 by settlers who a year before had established New York, a village at Alki Point, on the W. side of Elliott Bay and in the present city limits. The name Seattle was given to the settlement in honour of a Dwamish chief of that name, who died in 1866 and who was friendly to the whites. In 1853 a town plat was filed, King county was erected, and Seattle became the county seat. In 1855 Seattle had a population of 300. In January 1856 in an attempt to exterminate the whites the neighbouring Indians unsuccessfully attacked 'Seattle, which was defended by the U.S. sloop-of-war " Decatur." The first railway reached Seattle in 1884. In 1885-1886, when there were anti-Chinese riots here led by the Knights of Labour, martial law was declared by the governor and the Chinese were defended by local vigilance committees. A destructive fire in 1889 and the financial depression of 1893 checked the city's growth, which, however, received a new impulse from the discovery of gold in Alaska and the Yukon territory in 1897, as Seattle became the outfitting place for prospectors and the port to which gold was shipped. The town of South Seattle was annexed in 1905; and the city of South-east Seattle, the town of Ravenna, the town of South Park, the city of Columbia, the city of Ballard, the city of West Seattle, and Dunlap, Rainier Beach and Atlantic City were ;annexed in 1907. From the 1st of June to the 15th of October 1909 the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition was held in Seattle on grounds which now form part of the university campus, between Lake Union and Lake Washington; of the twelve central Exposition buildings some were afterwards turned over to the university. The purpose of the Exposition was to exploit Washington, the Yukon and the entire north-west on the Pacific slope. SEA-URCHIN. These animals belong to the great group of Echinoderms (see ECIINODERMA) and to its class Echinoidea. Both the scientific and the English names denote their resemblance to the urchin or hedgehog, the resemblance lying in the prickles with which the skin is covered. The skin itself is stiffened by a deposit of calcite (crystalline carbonate of lime) in the form of plates. If the prickles be scraped away, these plates will be seen to form a hard shell or test, in which are two openings, for the mouth and the anus. According to the position of these openings the urchins are described as Regular or Irregular. In the Regular urchins, of which Echinus esculentus, the edible egg-urchin (fig. I), and Dorocidaris papillate, the piper (fig. 2), are familiar examples, the test is spheroidal with the mouth at the lower pole and the anus at the upper. In the Irregular urchins, of which Spat- FIG. s.---A Regular Sea-urchin, Echinus angus purpureus, esculentus. The test is still covered with spines, the purple heart between which the suckers of the podia are seen in ten rows. urchin (fig. 3), is a common type, the test has been drawn out into an oval or heart shape, with the mouth shifted towards the front end and the anus towards the hinder end. The greater part of the test of a Regular urchin is divided, as a globe by meridians of longitude, into ten areas, each composed of two columns of plates. In five of these areas the plates are pierced by pairs of pores (fig. 2, Ambulacrum), and in life there issues front each pair a tubular process with a sucking disk at its end (fig. I). Within the test these processes or podia are connected with five tubes arising from a tubular ring round the mouth and running upwards to the apex, where each passes out as a single process through a special plate at the end of the area to which it belongs. Since this terminal process is sometimes surrounded by pigment, as are organs susceptible to light, it has been regarded as an eye and the plate through which it passes called an ocular (fig. 2). From the ring-canal round the mouth a single tube passes straight through the body-cavity to the apex, where it opens through a sieve-like plate—the madreporite (fig. 2). Thus all this system of tubes is placed in connexion with the outer sea-water, and is filled with it. Within the test the bottom of each podium is swollen into a little bag—ampulla—likewise full of water, and when the muscles with which it is provided pull the sides of the bag together, the Water is squeezed into the podium and dilates it, so that it is stretched far out (see ECHINODERMA, fig. 12 D). The podium can then wave about and attach its sucker to any smooth object within reach. Each of these five areas, with the podia on each side of it extended and waving, looks like a garden avenue—Latin ambulacrum—and the areas are therefore called ambulacral areas, the plates composing them ambulacrals, and the whole system of water-vessels the ambulacral system. This system forms perhaps the most characteristic feature of all living Echinoderms, but it reaches its highest development in the urchins. The five areas alternating with the ambulacral areas are called interambulacral (fig. 2, Interambulacrum) ; their plates are not pierced by pores but are generally ornamented by large tubercles bearing big prickles (spines or radioles), between and around which are smaller prickles (fig. 2). The madreporite is one of five plates that surround the anal opening and alternate in position with the oculars. Each of these plates is pierced by a pore, connected on the inside with one of the five generative glands, and giving passage to the eggs or milt when they are ripe; hence these plates are called genitals (fig. 2). The five genitals and five oculars together form the apical system of plates (see ECHINODERMA, fig. 3, A.B.). From the mouth to the anus the gut follows a coiled course, first going round the cavity of the test in one direction and then turning back on itself, while the two limbs of the loop thus formed are themselves thrown into festoons attached by strands to the wall of the test. The lower coil, next the mouth, is the stomach in which food accumulates, while the upper coil is the intestine proper. In Echinus, but not in the Cidarids, a narrow tube branches from the gut at the beginning of the first coil, runs alongside the stomach, and re-enters the gut at the end of the coil; this, which is called the siphon, permits a flow of water through the gut however full of food the stomach may be. Round the gullet is a jaw-apparatus, consisting essentially of five hard, pointed teeth, the ten jaw-pieces in which they are held, five struts between the pairs of jaws, and five cambered stays for the attachment of ligaments to keep the whole apparatus in position. The jaws are worked by muscles in such a way as to draw the teeth together or apart, inwards or out-wards. This apparatus is often called "Aristotle's lantern," though it is extremely doubtful whether Aristotle (Hist. Anim. iv. 5) was alluding to this structure. The whole of it is covered by the membrane lining the body-cavity, and from the space thus enclosed there from above, with most of the spines removed. Natural size. pass to the exterior five pairs of hollow branched appendages, the external gills; the five notches through which the gills passed can be seen in the dried test of an Echinus from which the mouth-membrane has been removed, but not in the test of the piper-urchin or other Cidarid, because there the gills are not developed. The prickles that cover the test are better studied in the piper-urchin (fig. 2), where some of them are very large and, from their resemblance to the drones of a bagpipe, have suggested the name of the animal. Each of these large spines or radioles is attached to a rounded tubercle by an enclosing ligament and outer coat of muscles, the base of the radiole being hollowed to fit on the tubercle. Thus the radiole can be moved in any direction. The attachment of the larger radioles is protected by a ring of smaller ones. These and the other small spines protect the sea-urchin, as its prickles protect a hedgehog; the larger ones may also help the animal to move or to fix itself firmly against the shock of waves. Some urchins, especially the purple egg-urchin, bore holes even in very hard rocks, and by stretching out their radioles they can hold themselves immovably in their holes; how they bore the holes is not known with certainty. Besides radioles, small pincer-like appendages called pedicellariae are attached to the test by similar ball-and-socket joints. Each consists of a long stalk bearing three blades which can meet at their points; on the inner surface of each blade is a cushion of sensitive565 skin, and often a gland which secretes a poison. The pedicellariae were once supposed to be parasites, but they are really organs of the urchin of the same nature as the radioles; they are of four different forms, three of which undoubtedly serve for defence, while the shortest ones clean the test from impurities and sand-grains that fall between the radioles. Sea-urchins other than Cidarids also bear on the test minute sensory organs called sphaeridia, each consisting of a small hard knob, supported by a stalk which may be partly calcified but always contains many nerve-fibres. It is generally supposed that they are sensitive to vibrations in the water, and to any change from the normal position which the animal may assume or be forced into. Such a regular urchin as has here been described lives with the mouth downwards, preferring a hard floor, on which it creeps by its podia and its radioles, constantly scraping the algae and seaweeds from the rock with its teeth and so feeding itself. If it does not bore a hole, or is not protected by long needle-like radioles, it may grasp bits of sea-weed or other objects with its pedicellariae and hide beneath them from the fish that seek it for food. The Irregular urchins (fig. 3) have been modified for another way of life. Some of them live in mud or ooze, through which they creep. The mouth has moved forward, has lost its jaws and often has a lip, projecting so as to scoop up the mud. The prickles have become smaller, often almost silky, and are generally directed back-wards so as not to oppose the passage of the body. The podia of the under surface still aid locomotion, but those of the upper surface, which are concentrated in five petal-shaped areas, act mainly as gills. These urchins often assume a heart shape, owing to the greater development and sinking in of the front petal. The sand-dollars and their allies, which live half-buried in sand without moving through it, retain a more or less circular outline, as well as the central position of the mouth, which has not lost its jaws; the anus, however, has moved to the side, while the podia of the upper surface are concentrated in petals and many of them modified into branched gills. The sand-dollars proper are very thin and flat, but the shield-urchins (Clypeaster, &c.) have the central region of the upper surface raised in a boss, which reaches above the sand, so that the animal can still breathe though the whole body is hidden. In many Irregular urchins the petals of the ambulacra are deeply sunk, and serve as a nursery for the young, which are covered by the spines of the parent. Sea-urchins live only in the sea, from between tide-marks down to all but the greatest depths. The abyssal forms have very thin tests, which are often flexible. Urchins eat all kinds of animal and vegetable food, and are themselves attacked by fish, by star-fish, and even by other urchins. The ripe egg-bunches are a favourite article of diet with dwellers round the Mediterranean; in other respects sea-urchins are of small importance to man, being neither useful nor harmful. In olden times the larger radioles were recommended to be powdered and taken as a remedy for the stone. For details of classification, see under Echinoidea, in the article
End of Article: SEATTLE

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