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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 739 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SECTION. r ,-F--f --- ; . i, I * I ! - 1WffafqP2H16blrain i i //>k/%/; testing and also allows the water gradually to escape after a test by water. Existing drains which have become defective and require to be made good must be exposed, taken up and relaid with new pipes, unless advantage be taken of a method which, it is claimed, renders it possible to make them permanently watertight so as to withstand the water test under pressure, and at the same time to disinfect them and the surrounding subsoil. This end is accomplished with the aid of patent machines which on being passed through the drain-pipe first remove all obstructions and accumulations of foul matter and then thoroughly cleanse and disinfect it, saturating the outside concrete and contaminated soil adjacent to any leak with strong disinfectants. Subsequently, loaded with the best Portland cement, another machine is passed through the drain, and, by powerful evenly-distributed circular compression, forces the cement into every hole, crack or crevice in the pipes and joints. This work leaves the inner surface of the pipes perfectly clean and smooth. After the usual time has been allowed for the cement to set the air test is applied, and the drain is claimed to be equal to, if not better than, a new drain, because the foundation is not dis- turbed by the process, and the risk of settlement, which is often the cause of leaky drains, is remote. Every sanitary fitting should be trapped by a bend on the waste-pipe; this is generally made Traps. separately and fixed up near to the sink, closet or basin, as the case may be. The traps of small wastes such as those of sinks and lavatories should be fitted with a brass screw cap to facilitate clearing when a stoppage occurs. Their object is to hold a quantity of water suffi- cient to prevent the access of foul air through the waste-pipe into the house. The depth of the water " seal " should not be less than 2 in., or it may become easily unsealed in hot weather through the evaporation of the water. Unsealing may be caused, too, by " siphonage," when a number of fittings are attached to the same main waste without he branches being properly ven- tilated just below each trap. The discharge from one fitting in this case would create a partial vacuum in the other branches and probably suck the sealing water from one or more of the traps. To obviate such an occurrence an " anti-siphon- age " pipe is fixed having its upper end open to the air and provided with branches tapping such waste-pipe just below the trap. Then, with this contrivance, a discharge from any fitting, instead of causing air to be sucked in through the trap of another fitting, thereby breaking the seal and Pipe with Anti- draws the necessary air through the anti-siphonage e siphonage Pipe. (fig 12). The eoa eemany s with forms of their for use in different positions although the principle and purposes of all are identical. Two forms commonly used are known as the S and the P trap. The bell trap and the D trap are obsolete. To collect the rain and waste water from areas, yards, laundry and other floors and similar positions an open trapped gulley is used. Galleys. It is usually of stoneware and fitted with an open iron grating which admits the water (fig. 13). Many of these gulleys are made too shallow and speedily get choked if the water they receive is charged with mud or sand. To obviate this difficulty the gulleys are made with a deep container and are often fitted with a perforated basket of galvanized iron which catches the solid matter and has a handle which allows for its easy removal when necessary. Gulleys with slipper or channel heads as shown in fig. 14 are required to be fitted in some districts to receive the waste from sinks. The warm waste water from scullery and pantry sinks contains much grease, and should discharge into a trapped gulley specially constructed to prevent the passage of the grease into the drain (fig. 15). It should be of ample size to contain sufficient cold water to solidify the fat which enters it. This forms in cakes on the top of the water tend should be frequently broken up and removed. Great attention has been directed to the design of sanitary fittings, with the object of making them as nearly self-cleansing as possible. In the fixing of closets the wood casings which used to be fixed around every water-closet are going steadily out of use, their place being taken by a hinged seat sup-ported on metal brackets—an arrangement which allows every part of the appliance to be readily cleaned with a cloth. In hospitals and similar institutions a form of closet is made fitted with lugs which are built into the wall; in this way support is obtained without any FIG. i5.—Stoneware Grease assistance from the floor, which is Trap. left quite clear for sweeping. Lavatory basins and sinks are also supported on cantilevers in the same way, and the wood enclosures which were formerly often fixed around these appliances are now generally omitted. There are several distinct types of water-closets. Each type is made in many different patterns, both good and bad from a sanitary point of view, and, whatever the type decided upon, Wate care is necessary in selecting to obtain one efficient and closets''-. hygienic in shape and working. The principal kinds of closets now in use are the washdown, siphonic, valve, washout and hopper. Washdown closets (fig. 16) are most commonly used. inexpensive to buy and to fix, and being made in one piece and simple in construction without any mechanical work ing parts are not liable to get out of order. When strongly made or protected by brick or concrete work they will stand very rough usage. The objection is sometimes raised with regard to washdown closets that they are noisy in action. This must be allowed with many patterns, but some of the latest designs have been greatly improved in this respect, and when fitted with a silent flushing cistern are not open to this objection. . Siphonic closets (fig. 17) are a type of washdown in which the con-tents of the pan are removed by siphonic action, an after flush arrangement providing for the resealing of the trap. They are practically silent in action and with a flush of three gallons work very satisfactorily. Where the restrictions of the water company require the usual two gallon flush the ordinary washdown pan should be used. Valve closets (fig. 18) are considered by many authorities on sanitation to be preferable to all other types. For domestic buildings, hotels, and where not subjected to the hardest wear, they are undoubtedly of great value. They should have a three gallon flush, and on this account they cannot be used in many districts owing to the water companies' regulations stipulating that a flush of not more than two gallons may be used. The washout closet (fig. 19) is a type that never attained much popularity as it has been found by practical experience to be unsanitary and objectionable. The standing water is too shallow, and the receiving basin checks the force of the flush and the trap is therefore frequently imperfectly cleared. Hopper closets are of two kinds—the long hopper and the short hopper. These are the forerunners of the washdown closet which the short hopper pan resembles, but instead of pan and trap being made in one piece the fitting consists of a fireclay or FIG. 19. Washout. stoneware hopper, with straight sloping sides and central outlet jointed to a trap of lead or other material. The joint should be placed so as to be always kept under water by They are the seal of the trap. The long hopper pan is a most objectionable type of closet which should be rigorously avoided as it easily becomes foul and is most insanitary. In most districts its use is prohibited. A water-waste preventer is a small tank fixed usually 4 or 5 ft. above a closet or urinal and connected therewith by a flushing pipe of t''-, in. or greater internal diameter. This tank usually contains a siphon, and the flush is actuated by pulling a chain which admits water to the siphon; the contents are then discharged with some force down the flushing pipe into the pan of the loset, clearing out its contents and replacing the fouled water with clean. The flushing tank is automatically refilled with water by a valve fitted with a copper ball which rising on the surface of the incoming water shuts off the flow when the tank is full. Fig. 20 is a sectional drawing of one of the latest patterns and clearly shows its construction. The water-supply is shown near the top with the regulating ball valve attached. An overflow is provided and a pipe is led from this to an external outlet. The capacity of the ordinary domestic flushing cistern is two gallons, which is the maximum quantity allowed by most water companies. A three gallon flush is much better, however, and where this larger quantity is allowed should be adopted. Larger tanks for ranges of closets or urinals are often made to flush automatically when full, and for these the rate of water supply may be fast or very slow as desired, for the siphons are so constructed that even a drop-by-drop supply will start a full flush. The by-laws of the London County Council contain very full regulations respecting the construction and fitting up of water- closets. closets. These may be summarized as follows :—A water-Regula- s a to closet or urinal must be furnished with an adequate ions a, flushing cistern distinct from any cistern used for drinking water. The service pipe shall lead to the flushing cistern and not to any other part of the closet. The pipe connecting the cistern with the pan shall have a diameter of not less than I;t in. in any part. The apparatus for the application of water to the apparatus must provide for the effectual flushing and cleansing of the pan, and the prompt and effectual removal therefrom, and from the trap connected therewith of all solid and liquid filth. The pan or basin shall be of non-absorbent material, of such shape, capacity and construction as to contain a sufficient quantity of water and to allow all filth to fall free of the sides directly into the water. No " container" or similar fitting shall be fixed under the pan. There shall be fixed immediately beneath or in connexion with the pan an efficient siphon trap constructed to maintain a sufficient water seal between the pan and the drain or soil pipe. No D trap or other similar trap is to be connected with the apparatus. If more than one water-closet is connected with a soil-pipe the trap of each closet shall be ventilated into the open air at a point as high as the top of the soil-pipe, or into a soil-pipe above the highest closet. This ventilatirw (or anti-shiphonage) pipe shall be not less than 2 in. in diameter, and connected at a point not less than 3 and not more than 12 in. from'the highest part of the trap (fig. 12). Baths may be made of many different materials; copper, cast-iron, zinc and porcelain are those most generally employed. Metal Baths. baths have the great advantage of becoming hot with the water, while baths of porcelain, stoneware and marble, which are bad conductors of heat, impart to the user a sense of chilliness even though the water in the bath be hot. Copper baths are be,t ; they may be finished on the inside by tinning, enamelling or nickel plating. Iron baths, usually tapering in shape, are very popular and are usually finished in enamel, but sometimes tinned. Fig. 21 illustrates a good type of cast-iron bath with standing waste. A good feature of this bath lies in the fact that all parts are accessible and easily cleaned. Porcelain baths are cumbersome and take a long time to heat, but they are often used for public baths. The practice of enclosing the bath with a wood casing is fast dying out; it is insanitary in that it harbours dust and vermin. Baths are now usually elevated upon short legs, so that every part of them and of the adjacent floor and wall is accessible for cleaning. Fig. 22 is a section of a good type of scullery sink, and shows the waste and trap with brass clearing cap. The fitting is supportedupon galvanized iron cantilever brackets which are built into the wall. Like closets, urinals have undergone much improvement in design and manufacture. The best types are of glazed ware, and have vertical curved backs and sides about 4 ft. high with a Urinals. flushing rim round the top and terminating in a base discharging into an open glazed channel waste, which, in the case of a range of urinals, collects the discharge from all and conveys it into a trapped gulley at one end of the range. This is the type usually fixed in street conveniences and similar positions. Plate and iron urinals are often fixed, but there is more difficulty in keeping them clean on account of the sharp angle and the unsuitability of the material. Urinals are seldom fixed in private houses or offices, an ordinary washdown pedestal closet with hinged " tip-up" seat serving every purpose. Such seats are often fitted with balance weights to cause them to lift automatically when not in use as a closet. Unless kept very clean and well flushed with water, urinals are liable to become a nuisance. In London among other towns the system of drainage is a " combined" one, that is, the storm water arid the domestic sewage and waste is all collected in one sewer. For many reasons it is more satisfactory to have the two drains quite separate. In many districts this is done, but it entails the provision of a double system of drainage for each house, one drain being provided for rain-water, the other for sewage. Where combined drainage is installed an excess of water poured into the sewers during a storm often results in back flow and the flooding of basements and cellars with sewage. Such an occurrence might take place where there is a separate sewer for the storm water, but in this case the flooding would be with comparatively harmless rain-water instead of sewage and filth. Figs. 23 and 24 show two ground plans of the same house, a semi-detached suburban residence, one with combined drainage and the other with separate drains for storm water and sewage. In both figures the rain-water drains are shown in a dotted line, and other drains in a full line. In fig. 23, A is a 4 in. cast-iron rain-water down-pipe. B is a 4 in. ventilating-pipe taken up to a point above the building. C is a trapped gulley such as is shown in fig. 13. D is a gulley with channel head (fig. 14) into which are taken the discharges from the scullery sink on the ground floor, and from the bath and lavatory on the first floor. E is an untrapped manhole, with open channel bends and sealed cast-iron cover, from which any branch of the drains can easily be cleared by the use of drain-rods. F is a soil-pipe from a water-closet on the first floor, and is carried up above the roof to serve as a ventilator. G is a trapped gulley as fig. 13, taking the discharge from the rain-water pipe over it and serving also to drain the yard; H and J are similar gulleys. K is a manhole with trap for intercepting the foul gases from the sewer and preventing them from entering the house drains. The manhole is fitted with a sealed cast-iron cover and has an inlet at L with mica flap valve to admit fresh air to the drains; in construction it is similar to the one shown in fig. 9, but has only two branches entering it instead of five. In fig. 24, A is a rain-water pipe discharging to the gulley B, which is untrapped to allow of the ventilation of the branch C-B. C is a length of piping brought up to the surface of the ground and finished with a cap, which is removed when it is found necessary to clear away any obstruction. A special shaped junction here allows the rods to be pushed up either branch as required. D and E are trapped gulleys as already described. F is an untrapped gulley serving to ventilate the drain. G, H and J the same as for fig. 23. K is a pair of man-holes built side by side, one for storm water and the other for sewage. Both are fitted with intercepting traps, and the sewage chamber is ventilated by an air inlet at L as in fig. 23. The cover of the storm water manhole need not be sealed, and if necessary could be fitted with a grating and be used to drain the forecourt.
End of Article: SECTION
SECTION (Lat. sectio, cutting, secare, to cut)

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