See also:born in 1511 1 at
See also:Tudela in
See also:Navarre, his
See also:father being Hernando Villanueva, a
See also:notary of
See also:family in
See also:Aragon . His surname is given by himself as " Serveto " in his early
See also:works, " per Michaelem Serveto,
See also:alias Reues." Later he Latinized it "Servetus "; when writing French (1553) he signs " Michel Servetus." 2 It is probable that he was of the same family as the
See also:Spanish ecclesiastic Marco Antonio Serveto de Reves (d . 1598), born at Villanueva de Sigena in the
See also:diocese of Huesca (Latassa, Bibl. nueva, ;1798, i . 6o9) . At this place is the traditional
See also:mansion of the family, and in the
See also:church the family
See also:altar with the family arms (Christian
See also:Life, 29th
See also:Sept . 1888) . Servetus at
See also:Geneva makes Villanueva his birthplace, assigning it to the adjoining diocese of
See also:Lerida . His later adopted surname, Villanovanus or de Villeneufve, was no mere pseudonym since he followed his father's example . Of his
See also:education we only know that his father sent him to study
See also:law at Toulouse, where he first became acquainted with the Bible (1528) . From, 1525 he had found a
See also:patron in Juan de
See also:Quintana (d . 1534), a Franciscan 1 This date rests on his own testimony (both at Vienna and Geneva) and that of
See also:Calvin . An isolated passage of the Geneva testimony may be cited in favour of 1509 .
See also:form Servet first appears in a
See also:letter of Oecolam~ppaadius to the
See also:senate of
See also:Basel (1531) and is never used by himself . Mosheim'e " Servede " is an imaginary form . promoted in 1530 to be
See also:confessor to
See also:Charles V . In the
See also:train of Quintana he witnessed at Bologna the
See also:coronation of Charles in
See also:February 1530, visited Augsburg, and perhaps saw
See also:Luther at
See also:Coburg . The spectacle of the adoration of the
See also:pope at Bologna impressed him strongly in an
See also:anti-papal direction . He
See also:left Quintana, visited
See also:Lyons and Geneva, repaired to
See also:Oecolampadius at Basel, and pushed on to Bucer and Capito at Strassburg . Considerable
See also:attention was attracted by his first publication, De Trinitatis erroribus (1531, printed by
See also:John Setzer at
See also:Hagenau) . It is crude, but
See also:original and
See also:earnest, and shows a wide range of
See also:reading very remarkable in so
See also:young a man .
See also:Melanchthon writes " Servetum multum lego." Quintana, who describes him as di grandissimo ingegno, and gran sophista, thought the
See also:matter was Serveto's, but the execution too good to be his (H . Lammer, Monumenta Vaticana, 1861, 109) . The
See also:essay was followed in 1532 by a revised presentation of his views in
See also:dialogue form . We next find him at Lyons (1535) editing scientific works for the Trechsel
See also:firm, adopting the " Villanovanus " surname, which he constantly used till the
See also:year of his
See also:death .
At Lyons he found a new patron in Dr Symphorien Champier (Campegius) (1472-1539), whose profession he resolved to follow . Resorting (1536) to
See also:Paris, he studied
See also:medicine under Johann Gunther, Jacques
See also:Dubois and
See also:Fernel . It was in 1536, when Calvin was on a hurried and final visit to France, that in Paris he first met Servetus, and as he himself says, proposed to set him right on theological points.' Servetus succeeded Vesalius as assistant to Gunther, who extols his general culture, and notes his skill in dissection, and ranks him vix ulli secundus in knowledge of Galen . He graduated in arts, and claims to have graduated in medicine (of this there is no record at Paris), published six lectures on " syrups " (the most popular of his works), lectured on
See also:geometry and "
See also:astrology " (from a medical point of view) and defended by counsel a suit brought against him (
See also:March 1538) by the medical
See also:faculty on the ground of his astrological lectures . In
See also:June 1538 he writes from
See also:Louvain (enrolled there as a university student on the 14th of
See also:December 1537 as Michael
See also:Villanova) to his father (then
See also:resident at
See also:San Gil), explains his removal from Paris, early in
See also:September, in consequence of the death (8th
See also:August) of his
See also:master (el senor mi
See also:maestro), says he is studying
See also:theology and
See also:Hebrew, and proposes to return to Paris when peace is proclaimed . After this he practised medicine for a
See also:time at
See also:Avignon, and for a longer
See also:period at Charlieu (where he contemplated
See also:marriage, but was deterred by a
See also:physical impediment) . In September 1540 he entered himself for further study in the medical school at
See also:Montpellier, possibly gaining there a medical degree . Among attendants on his Paris lectures was
See also:Pierre Paulmier, since 1528 archbishop of Vienne . Paulmier now invited Servetus to Vienne as his confidential physician . He thus acted for twelve years (1541-1553), making
See also:money by his practice, and also by renewed editorial
See also:work for the Lyons publishers—work in which he constantly displayed his passion for original
See also:discovery in all departments . Outwardly he was a conforming Catholic; privately he pursued his theological speculations . It is probable that in 1541 he had been rebaptized (he maintained the
See also:duty of adult
See also:baptism at the age of
See also:thirty) .
See also:Late in 1545, or very early in 1546, he opened a fatal
See also:correspondence with Calvin, forwarding the
See also:manuscript of a much-enlarged revision of his theological tracts and expressing a wish to visit Geneva . Calvin replied (13th February 1546) in a letter now lost; in which, he says, he expressed himself " plus durement que ma coustume ne
See also:porte." On the same
See also:day he wrote to Guillaume
See also:Farel, " si venerit, modo valeat mea autoritas, vivum exire nunquam patiar," and to Pierre Viret in the same terms . Evidently Servetus had warning that if he went to Geneva it was at his peril . Writing to
See also:Abel Pouppin (in or about 1547) he complains that Calvin would not return his manuscript, and adds, " mihi ob
See also:earn rem moriendum esse certo scio." The
See also:volume of theological tracts, again recast, was declined by two Basel publishers, Jean Frellon (at Calvin's instance) and Marrinus, but an edition ' Beza incorrectly makes Servetus the challenger, and the date 1534.of
See also:i000 copies was secretly printed at Vienna by Balthasar Arnollet . Ready by the 3rd of
See also:January 1553, the bulk of the impression was privately consigned to Lyons and
See also:Frankfort for the
See also:Easter market . On 26th February, a letter, enclosing a
See also:sheet of the printed
See also:book, and revealing the secret of its authorship, was written from Geneva by Guillaume H . C. de Trye, formerly echevin of Lyons, to his
See also:Antoine Arneys in that city . The letter bears no sign of dictation by Calvin (who must, how-ever, have furnished the enclosed sheet), and de Trye's
See also:part may be explained by an old grudge of his against the Lyons book-sellers . For a subsequent letter Calvin furnished (reluctantly, according to de Trye) samples of Servetus's
See also:handwriting, expressly to secure his conviction . The inquisitor-general at Lyons, Matthieu Ory (the " Doribus " of
See also:Rabelais) took up the case on 12th March; Servetus was interrogated on 16th March, arrested on 4th
See also:April, and examined on the two following days . His defence was that, in correspondence with Calvin, he had assumed the character of Servetus for purposes of discussion . At 4 A.M. on 7th April he escaped from his prison, evidently by connivance .
He took the road forSpain, but turned back in fear of arrest . How he spent the next four months is not known . His own account is that he never left France; Calvin believed he was wandering in the
See also:North of Italy; the absurd
See also:suggestion that he
See also:lay hid as a conspirator in Geneva was first started by J .
See also:Spon (Hist. de Geneve, 168o) . On Saturday the 12th of August he rode into Louyset, a
See also:village on the French side of Geneva . Next
See also:morning, having sold his
See also:horse, he walked into Geneva, put up at " the
See also:Rose," and asked for a
See also:boat to take him towards Zurich on his way to Naples . Finding he could not get the boat till next day (
See also:Monday) he attended afternoon service (he would probably have got into trouble if he had not done so), was recognized at church
See also:par quelques freres, and immediately arrested . The
See also:process against him (
See also:Nicholas de la Fontaine being in the first instance the nominal prosecutor) lasted from 14th August to 26th
See also:October, when
See also:sentence " estre brusle tout vyfz " was passed, and carried out next day at Champel (Oct . 27th, 1553) . Calvin would have had him beheaded . Meanwhile the
See also:civil tribunal at Vienne had ordered (17th June) that he be fined and burned alive; the sentence of the ecclesiastical tribunal at Vienne was delayed till 23rd December . Jacques Charmier, a
See also:priest in Servetus's confidence, was condemned to three years' imprisonment in Vienne .
The only likeness of Servetus is a small copperplate by C . Sichem, 1607 (often reproduced); the original is not known and the authenticity is uncertain . In 1876 a statue of Servetus was erected byDon Pedro Gonsalez de Velasco in front of his Instituto Antropologico at
See also:Madrid; in 1903 an expiatory
See also:block was erected at Champel; in 1907 a statue was erected in Paris (Place de la Mairie du XIVe Arrondissement); another is at Aramnese; another was prepared (1910) for erection at Vienne . The religious views of Servetus, marked by strong individuality, are not easily described in terms of current systems . His denial of the tripersonality of the Godhead and the eternity of the Son, along with his anabaptism, made his
See also:system abhorrent to Catholics and Protestants alike, in spite of his intense Biblicism, his passionate devotion to the
See also:person of Christ, and his Christocentric
See also:scheme of the universe . His earliest theological writings, in which he approximates to the views of F .
See also:Socinus, are better known than his riper work . He has been classed with Arians, but he endorses in his own way the homoousian
See also:formula, and denounces
See also:Arius as " Christi gloriae incapacissimus." He has had many critics, some apologists (e.g . Postel and Lincurius), few followers . The fifteen condemnatory clauses, prefacing the sentence at Geneva, set forth in detail that he was guilty of heresies, blasphemously expressed, against the foundation of the Christian religion . An instance of his injurious language was found in his use of the
See also:term " trinitaires " to denote " ceux qui croyent en la Trinit6." No law, current in Geneva, has ever been adduced as enacting the capital sentence .
See also:Claude Rigot, the procureur-g6n6ral, put it to Servetus that his legal education must have warned him of the provisions of the
See also:code of Justinian to this effect; but in 1535 all the old
See also:laws on the subject of religion had been set aside at Geneva ; the only civil
See also:penalty recognized by the edicts of 1543 being banishment .
The Swiss churches, while agreeing to condemn Servetus, say nothing of capitalpunishment in their letters of advice . The
See also:extinct law seems to have been revived for the occasion . A valuable controversy followed on the question of executing heretics, in which Beza (for), Mino Celsi (against), and several
See also:anonymous writers (especially Castellio) took part . The following is a
See also:list of his writings: i . De Trinitatis erroribus libri septem (Hagenau, 1331) . 2 . Dialogorum de Trinitate libri duo (Hagenau, 1532); two reprints of 1 and 2, to pass for originals; No . I in Dutch version (162o), by Regnier Telle . 3 . Claudii Ptolomaei Alexandrini geographicae enarrationis libri octo; ex Bilibaldi Pirckheymeri translatione, sed ad Graeca et prisca exemplaria a Michaele Villanovano jam primum recogniti . Adjecta insu per ab eodem scholia, &c . Lyons, Melchior and Gaspar Trechsel (1535; 2nd ed., Lyons, Hugo a Porta (1541), i.e .
1542 fol.; printed by Caspar Trechsel at Vienne) ; on this work Tollin founds his high estimate of Servetus as a
See also:comparative geographer; the passage incriminated on his trial as attacking the verity of Moses is from Lorenz . Friese; the accounts of the language and character of
See also:modern nations show original observation . 4 . In Leonardum Fuchsium apologia . Autore Michaele Villanovano (1536, reproduced by photography, 1909) . 5 . Syruporum universa ratio, &c . (Paris, 1537); four subsequent
See also:editions; latest, Venice, 1548 (six lectures on digestion; syrups treated in fifth lecture) . 6 .
See also:Michaelis Villanovani in quendam medicum apologetica disceptatio
See also:pro astrologic (Paris, 1538; reprinted, Berlin, 188o); the medicus is jean Tagault, who interrupted Servetus's lectures on astronomy, including meteorology . 7 Biblui Sacra ex Santis Pagnini tralatione . recognita et scholiis illustrate, &c . (Lyons, Hugo a Porta, 1542, fol.), remarkable for its theory of prophecy, explained in the preface and illustrated in the notes .
8 . D'Artigny says Servetus
See also:lee argumens to a Spanish version of the Summa of Aquinas; this, and
See also:divers traits de grammaire from Latin into Spanish have not been identified . 9 . Christianismi restitutio (1553; perfect copies in Vienna and Paris); a copy in
See also:Edinburgh University Library is
See also:complete except that the missing first sixteen pages are replaced by a transcript from the original draft, containing matter not in the
See also:print (this supplementary manuscript was reproduced by photography, 1909); a transcript of other portions of the draft is in the Bibl . Nat., Paris; partly reprinted (
See also:London, 1723), (copies in London and Paris) ; reprinted (page for page) from the Vienna copy (
See also:Nuremberg, Kau . 1790) ; German version, by B . Spiess (
See also:Wiesbaden, 1892-1895) ; the last section Apologia to Melanchthon, is given in the original Latin . The book is not strictly anonymous; the initials M.S.V. are given at the end; the name Seruetus on p . 199 . The often-cited description of the pulmonary circulation (which occurs in the 1546 draft) begins p . 169; it has escaped even Sigmond that Servetus had an idea of the composition of
See also:water and of air; the hint for his re-searches was the dual form of the Hebrew words for
See also:blood, water, &c . Two
See also:Desiderius (ante 1542) and De tribus impostoribus (1598) ihave been wrongly ascribed to Servetus .
Most of his few remaining letters are printed by Mosheim; his letter from Louvain was despatched in duplicate (to evadecapture), but both were seized; one is in the Record
See also:Office (U . 140), the other in the
See also:British Museum (
See also:Galba B. x.) . heim) is superseded by Mosheim's Anderweitiger Versuch (1748, with appendix, Neue Nachrichten, &c., 1750), reproducing the records of the Vienne examination (since lost) first printed by D'Artigny, Nouveaux Memoires d'hist., &c., vol . IL (1749) . Chaufepie's valuable article, Nouv . Did. historique, iv . (1756), fol . (in
See also:English, by Rev .
See also:James Yair, 1771) makes no use of Mosheim's later researches . Trechsel's Die Prot . Antitrinitaires vor F . Socin, bk. i .
(1839), uses all available material up to date . The investigations of H . Tollin, M.D . (
See also:separate articles in various
See also:journals, 1874 to 1885) have thrown much
See also:light, mixed with some conjecture . The records of the Geneva trial, first published by De la
See also:Roche, reproduced in Rilliet's Relation &c., (1844), and elsewhere, are best given in vol. viii . (187o) of the Corpus reformatorum edition of Calvin's works; Roget's Hist. du peuple de Geneve, vol. iv . (1877), has a good account of both trials . The passage on the pulmonary circulation, first noticed by W . Wotton, Reflections upon Anc. and Mod . Learning (1694), has given rise to a literature of its own; see, especially, Tollin's Die Entdeckung
See also:des Blutkreislaufs, &c . (1876);
See also:Huxley, in Fortnightly Rev . (February 1878); Tollin's Kritische Bemerkungen itber
See also:Harvey and
See also:seine Vorgdnger (1882) .
Other physiological speculations of Servetus are noted by G . Sigmond, Unnoticed Theories of Servetus (1826) . The best study of Servetus as a theologian is Tollin's Lehrsystem M . Servets (3 vols., 1876-1878) ; Punyer's De M . Serveti
See also:doctrine (1876), is useful . From a Unitarian-point of view, Servetus is treated by R .
See also:Apology (1807) W . H .
See also:Drummond, D.D . (1848); R .
See also:Wallace, Antitrin . Biog .
(185o) ; J . S .
See also:Porter, Servetus and Calvin (1854) . E . Saisset, Rev. des deux Mondes (1848), treats Servetus as a pantheist; he is followed by Menendez Pelayo, Los Heterodoxos espanoles (188o, vol. ii.), and by R . Willis, M.D., Servetus and Calvin (1877, an unsatisfactory book; cf . A .
See also:Gordon, Theol . Rev., April and
See also:July 1878) . Of Servetus's
See also:personal character the best vindication is Tollin's Characterbild M . Servets (1876, in French, with additions by Dardier, Portrait Caractere, 1879) . His
See also:story has been dramatized by Max
See also:Ring, Die Genfer (185o), by Jose Echegaray, La Muerte en los Labios (188.o), by
See also:Hamann, Servet (1881), and by Prof .
See also:Shields, The Reformer of Geneva (1897) .
See also:pamphlets by Spanish and French writers are numerous; some of the illustrations in Dr W . Osier's Michael Servetus (1909), are useful . (A .
JOSEPH MICHEL ANTOINE SERVAN (1737-1807)
Buenos dias Michael Miguel. Te escribo para informate los sigiente,estaba de vacationes en santa domingo porque my papa siempre me lleva de vacationes. Me gusta my pais pero no me gusto una cosa,que deben darle mejor entrenamiento a lo policia de trancito de ame porque como paran un camion en el medio del tunel parando el trancito como por 1 hora,enbede de sacarlo de el tunel y detenelo donde no perjudice el trancito para los demas. Por eso te estoy escribiendo porque el abion me dejo. Policia como ese deven de mandarlo en la escuela gracia michael miguel te escribe luis jose del bronx new york
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.