See also:born at Exeter
See also:House in
See also:London on the 26th of
See also:February 167o/1 . He was
See also:grandson of the first and son of the second
See also:earl . His
See also:mother was
See also:Lady Dorothy
See also:Manners, daughter of
See also:John, earl of
See also:Rutland . According to a curious
See also:story, told by the third earl himself, the
See also:marriage between his
See also:father and mother was negotiated by John
See also:Locke, who was a trusted friend of the first earl . The second
See also:Shaftesbury appears to have been a poor creature, both physically and mentally . At the age of three his son was made over to the formal guardianship of his grandfather . Locke, who in hiscapacity of medical attendant to the
See also:household had already assisted in bringing the boy into the
See also:world, though not his instructor, was entrusted with the superintendence of his
See also:education . This was conducted according to the principles enunciated in Locke's Thoughts concerning (education, and the method of teaching Latin and Greek conversationally was pursued with such success by his instructress, Mrs
See also:Elizabeth Birch, that at the age of eleven, it is said, Ashley could read both
See also:languages with ease . In
See also:November 1683, some months after the
See also:death of the first earl, his father entered him at Winchester as a
See also:warden's boarder . Being shy and constantly taunted with the opinions and
See also:fate of his grandfather, he appears to have been rendered miserable by his schoolfellows, and to have
See also:left Winchester in 1686 for a course of
See also:foreign travel . He was brought thus into contact with those
See also:artistic and classical associations which exercised so marked an influence on his character and opinions . On his travels he did not, we are told by the
See also:fourth earl, " greatly seek the conversation of other
See also:young gentlemen on their travels," but rather that of their tutors, with whom he could converse on congenial topics .
In 1689, the
See also:year after the Revolution, Lord Ashley returned to England, and for nearly five years he appears to have led a quiet and studious
See also:life . There can be no doubt that the greater
See also:part of his
See also:attention was directed to the perusal of classical authors, and to the attempt to realize the true spirit of classical antiquity . He had no intention, however, of becoming a recluse, or of permanently holding himself aloof from public life . Accordingly he became a
See also:candidate for the
See also:borough of
See also:Poole, and was returned the 21st of May 1695 . He soon distinguished himself by a speech in support of the
See also:Bill for Regulating Trials in Cases of Treason, one
See also:provision of which was that a
See also:person indicated for treason or misprision of treason should be allowed the assistance of counsel . But, though a Whig, alike by descent, by education and by conviction, Ashley could by no means be depended on to give a party
See also:vote; he was always ready to support any propositions, from whatever quarter they came, that appeared to him to promote the liberty of the subject and the independence of parliament . Unfortunately, his
See also:health was so treacherous that, on the dissolution of
See also:July 1698, he was obliged to retire from
See also:parliamentary life . He suffered much from asthma, a complaint which was aggravated by the London
See also:smoke . Lord Ashley now retired into
See also:Holland, where he became acquainted with Le Clerc,
See also:Bayle, Benjamin Furly, the English Quaker
See also:merchant, at whose house Locke had resided during his stay at
See also:Rotterdam, and probably
See also:Limborch and the
See also:rest of the
See also:literary circle of which Locke had been a cherished and honoured member nine or ten years before . To Lord Ashley this society was probably far more congenial than his surroundings in England . Unrestrained conversation on the topics which most interested him—philosophy, politics, morals, religion—was at this
See also:time to be had in Holland with less danger and in greater abundance than in any other
See also:country in the world . To the
See also:period of this sojourn in Holland must probably be referred the surreptitious impression or publication of an imperfect edition of the Inquiry concerning Virtue, from a rough
See also:draught, sketched when he was only twenty years of age .
This liberty was taken, during his
See also:absence, by Toland . After an absence of over a twelvemonth, Ashley returned to England, and soon succeeded his father as earl of Shaftesbury . He took an active part, on the Whig side, in the general election of 1700-1701, and again, with more success, in that of the autumn of 1701 . It is said that
See also:William III. showed his appreciation of Shaftesbury's services on this latter occasion by offering him a secretaryship of state, which, however, his declining health compelled him to decline . Had the
See also:king's life continued, Shaftesbury's influence at
See also:court would probably have been considerable . After the first few
See also:weeks of Anne's reign, Shaftesbury, who had been deprived of the
See also:admiralty of Dorset, returned to his retired life, but his letters to Furly show that he retained a keen
See also:interest in politics . In
See also:August 1703 he again settled in Holland, in the air of which he seems, like Locke, to have had
See also:great faith . At Rotterdam he lived, he says in a
See also:letter to his steward Wheelock, at the
See also:rate of less than £200 a year, and yet had much " to dispose of and spend beyond convenient living." He returned to England, much improved in health, in August 1704 . But, though he had received immediate benefit from his stay abroad, symptoms of
See also:consumption were constantly alarming him, and he gradually became a confirmed invalid . His occupations were now almost exclusively literary, and from this time forward he was probably engaged in writing, completing or revising the
See also:treatises which were afterwards included in the Characteristics . He continued, however, to take a warm interest in politics, both home and foreign, and especially in the war against France, of which he was an enthusiastic supporter . Shaftesbury was nearly
See also:forty before he married, and even then he appears to have taken this step at the urgent instigation of his friends, mainly to supply a successor to the title .
See also:object of his choice (or rather of his second choice, for an earlier project of marriage had shortly before fallen through) was a
See also:Miss Jane Ewer, the daughter of a
See also:gentleman in
See also:Hertfordshire . The marriage took place in the autumn of 1709, and on February 9, 1710/I, was born at his house at
See also:Reigate, in Surrey, his only
See also:child and
See also:heir, the fourth earl, to whose
See also:manuscript accounts we are in great part indebted for the details of his father's life . The match appears to have been happy, though Shaftesbury had little sentiment on the subject of married life . With the exception of a Preface to the Sermons of Dr
See also:Whichcote, one of the Cambridge Platonists or latitudinarians, published in 1698, Shaftesbury appears to have printed nothing himself till 1708 . About this time the French prophets,
See also:Camisards (q.v.), as they were called, attracted much attention by their extravagances and follies . Various repressive remedies were proposed, but Shaftesbury maintained that fanaticism was best encountered by " raillery " and "
See also:humour." In support of this view he wrote a letter Concerning
See also:Enthusiasm to Lord Somers, dated
See also:September 1707, which was published anonymously in the following year, and provoked several replies . In May 1709 he returned to the subject, and printed another letter, entitled Sensus Communis, an
See also:Essay on the Freedom of Wit and Humour . In the same year he also published The Moralists, a Philosophical Rhapsody, and in the following year Soliloquy, or Advice to an Author . None of these pieces seems to have been printed either with his name or his initials . In 1711 appeared the Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, in three volumes, also without any name or initials on the title-page, and without even the name of a printer . These volumes contain in addition to the four treatises already mentioned,
See also:Miscellaneous Reflections, now first printed, and the Inquiry concerning Virtue or II chit, described as " formerly printed from an imperfect copy, now corrected and published intire," and as " printed first in the year 1699." The declining state of Shaftesbury's health rendered it necessary for him to seek a warmer
See also:climate, and in July 1711 he set out for Italy . He settled at Naples in November, and lived there considerably over a year .
See also:principal occupation at this time must have consisted in preparing for the
See also:press a second edition of the Characteristics, which appeared in 1713, soon after his death . The copy, carefully corrected in his own
See also:handwriting, is preserved in the
See also:British Museum . He was also engaged, during his stay at Naples, in writing the little
See also:treatise (afterwards included in the Characteristics) entitled A Notion of the
See also:Historical Draught or Tablature of the
See also:Judgment of Hercules, and the letter concerning Design . A little before his death he had also formed a
See also:scheme of writing a Discourse on the Arts of
See also:Painting, Sculpture,
See also:Etching, &c., but when he died he had made but little progress with it . " Medals, and pictures, and antiquities," he writes to Furly, " are our chief entertainments here." His conversation was with men of
See also:art and science, " the virtuosi of this place." The events preceding the peace of Utrecht, which he regarded as preparing the way for a
See also:desertion of our
See also:allies, greatly troubled the last months of Shaftesbury's life . He did not, however, live to see the actual conclusion of the treaty (
See also:March 31, 1713)i as he died the
See also:month before, February 4, 1712/3 . He had not completed his forty-second year . His
See also:body was brought back by
See also:sea to England and buried at St
See also:Giles's, the
See also:family seat in
See also:Dorsetshire . His only son, Anthony Ashley, succeeded him as 4th earl, and his great-grandson was the famous philanthropist, the 7th earl . Shaftesbury's amiability of character seems to have been one of his principal characteristics . Like Locke he had a
See also:peculiar pleasure in bringing forward young men . Among these may be especially mentioned Michael
See also:Ainsworth, a native of
See also:Wimborne St Giles, the young man who was the recipient of the Letters addressed to a student at the university, and was maintained by Shaftesbury at University
See also:Oxford .
The interest which Shaftesbury took in his studies, and the
See also:desire that he should be specially fitted for the profession which he had selected, that of a clergyman of the
See also:Church of England, are marked features of the letters . Other proteges were Crell, a young
See also:Pole, the two young Furlys and Harry
See also:Wilkinson, a boy who was sent into Furly's
See also:office at Rotterdam, and to whom several of the letters still extant in the Record Office are addressed . In the popular mind, Shaftesbury is generally regarded as a writer hostile to religion . But, however
See also:short his orthodoxy might fall if tried by the
See also:standards of any particular church, his temperament was pre-eminently religious . This fact is shown in his letters . The belief in a
See also:God, all-wise, all-just and all-merciful, governing the world providentially for the best, pervades all his
See also:works, his
See also:correspondence and his life . Nor had he any wish to undermine established beliefs, except where he conceived that they conflicted with a truer religion and a purer morality . To the public ordinances of the church he scrupulously
See also:con-formed . But, unfortunately, there were many things both in the teaching and the practice of the ecclesiastics of that.
See also:day which were calculated to repel men of sober judgment and high principle . These evil tendencies in the popular presentation of
See also:Christianity undoubtedly begot in Shaftesbury's mind a certain amount of repugnance and contempt to some of the doctrines of Christianity itself; and, cultivating, almost of set purpose, his sense of the ridiculous, he was too
See also:apt to assume towards such doctrines and their teachers a
See also:tone of raillery . But, whatever might be Shaftesbury's speculative opinions or his mode of expressing them, all witnesses bear testimony to the
See also:elevation and purity of his life and aims . As an
See also:earnest student, and ardent
See also:lover of liberty, an enthusiast in the cause of virtue, and a man of unblemished life and untiring beneficence, Shaftesbury probably had no
See also:superior in his generation .
His character and pursuits are the more remarkable, considering the
See also:rank of life in which he was born and the circumstances under which he was brought up . In many respects he reminds us of the imperial philosopher
See also:Marcus Aurelius, whose works he studied with avidity, and whose influence is stamped upon his own productions . Most of Shaftesbury's writings have been already mentioned . In addition to these there have been published fourteen letters from Shaftesbury to
See also:Molesworth, edited by Toland in 1721; some letters to Benjamin Furly, his sons, and his clerk Harry Wilkinson, included in a
See also:volume entitled
See also:Original Letters of Locke,
See also:Sidney and Shaftesbury, which was published by Mr T . Fcrster in 183o, and again in an enlarged
See also:form in 1847; three letters, written respectively to Stringer, Lord Oxford and Lord
See also:Godolphin, which appeared, for the first time, in the General
See also:Dictionary; and lastly a letter to Le Clerc, in his re-collections of Locke, first published in Notes and Queries, Feb . 8, 1851 . The Letters to a Young Man at the University (Michael Ainsworth), already mentioned, were first published in 1716 . The Letter on Design was first published in the edition of the Characteristics issued in 1732 . Besides the published writings, there are several memoranda, letters, rough drafts, &c., in the Shaftesbury papers in the Record Office . Shaftesbury took great pains in the elaboration of his
See also:style, and he succeeded so far as to make his meaning transparent . The thought is always clear . But, on the other
See also:hand, he did not equally succeed in attaining elegance, an object at which he seems equally to have aimed .
There is a curious affectation about his style—a falsetto note—which, notwithstanding all his efforts to please, is often irritating to the reader . Its
See also:main characteristic is perhaps best
See also:hit off by
See also:Charles Lamb when he calls it " genteel." He poses too much as a
See also:fine gentleman, and is so anxious not to be taken for a
See also:pedant of the vulgar scholastic kind that he falls into the hardly more attractive pedantry of the aesthete and virtuoso . But he is easily read and understood . Hence, probably, the wide popularity which his works enjoyed in the 18th century; and hence the agreeable feeling with which, notwithstanding all their false taste and their tiresome digressions, they impress the
See also:modern reader . Shaftesbury's philosophical importance (see ETHICS) is due mainly to his ethical speculations, in which his
See also:motive was primarily the refutaticn of
See also:Hobbes's egoistic
See also:doctrine . By the method of empirical psychology, he examined man first as a unit in himself and secondly in his wider relations to the larger units of society and the universe of mankind . His great principle was that of Harmony or
See also:Balance, and he based it on the general ground of good taste or feeling as opposed to the method of reason . (I) In the first place man as an individual is a complex of appetites, passions, affections, more or less perfectly controlled by the central reason . In the moral man these factors are duly balanced . " Whoever," he says, " is in the least versed in this moral kind of architecture will find the inward fabric so adjusted, . that the barely extending of a single passion too far or the continuance . . . of it too long, is able to bring irrecoverable ruin and misery " (Inquiry concerning Virtue or Merit, Bk . II. ii. r) .
(2) As a social being, man is part of a greater harmony, and, in
See also:order that he may contribute to the happiness of the whole, he must order his extra-regarding activities so that they shall not clash with his environs . Only when he has regulated his
See also:internal and his social relations by this ideal can he be regarded as ruly moral . The egoist and the altruist are both imperfect . In the ripe perfection of humanity, the two impulses will be perfectly adjusted . Thus, by the criterion of harmony, Shaftesbury refutes Hobbes, and deduces the virtue of benevolence as indispensable to morality . So also he has
See also:drawn a close parallel between the moral and the aesthetic criteria . Just as there is a
See also:faculty which apprehends beauty in the sphere of art, so there is in the sphere of ethics a faculty which determines the value of actions . This faculty he described (for the first time in English thought) as the Moral Sense (see H UTC HESON) or
See also:Conscience (cf .
See also:BUTLER) . In its essence, it is primarily emotional and non-reflective; in
See also:process of development it becomes rationalized by education and use . The emotional and the rational elements in the " moral sense " Shaftesbury did not fully analyse (see HOME) . From this principle, it follows (r) that the distinction between right and wrong is part of the constitution of human nature; (2) that morality stands apart from
See also:theology, and the moral qualities of actions are determined apart from the arbitrary will of God; (3) that the ultimate test of an
See also:action is its tendency to promote the general harmony or welfare; (4) that appetite and reason concur in the determination of action; and (5) that the moralist is not concerned to solve the problem of freewill and determinism .
From these results we see that Shaftesbury, opposed to Hobbes and Locke, is in close agreement with
See also:Hutcheson (q.v.), and that he is ultimately a deeply religious thinker, inasmuch as he discards the moral sanction of public opinion, the terrors of future punishment, the authority of the
See also:civil authority, as the main incentives to goodness, and substitutes the
See also:voice of conscience and the love of God . These two alone move men to aim at perfect harmony for its own
See also:sake in the man and in the universe . Shaftesbury's philosophical activity was confined to ethics,
See also:aesthetics and religion . For
See also:metaphysics, properly so called, and even psychology, except so far as it afforded a basis for ethics, he evidently had no taste . Logic he probably despised as merely an instrument of pedants—a judgment for which, in his day, and especially at the
See also:universities, there was only too much ground . The main object of the Moralists is to propound a
See also:system of natural theology, and to vindicate, so far as natural religion is concerned, the ways of God to man . The articles of Shaftesbury's religious creed were few and
See also:simple, but these he entertained with a conviction amounting to enthusiasm . They may briefly be summed up as a belief in one God whose most characteristic attribute is universal benevolence, in the moral
See also:government of the universe, and in a future state of man making up for the imperfections and repairing the inequalities of the
See also:present life . Shaftesbury is emphatically an optimist, but there is a passage in the Moralists (pt. ii.
See also:sect . 4) which would lead us to suppose that he regarded
See also:matter as an indifferent principle, coexistent and coeternal with God, limiting His operations, and the cause of the evil and imperfection which, notwithstanding the benevolence of the Creator, is still to be found in His
See also:work . If this view of his optimism he correct, Shaftesbury, as
See also:Mill says of Leibnitz, must be regarded as maintaining, not that this is the best of all imaginable but only of all possible worlds . This brief
See also:notice of Shaftesbury's scheme of natural religion would be conspicuously imperfect unless it were added that it is popularized in
See also:Pope's Essay on Man, several lines of which, especially of the first
See also:epistle, are simply statements from the Moralists done into
See also:verse .
Whether, however, these were taken immediately by pope from Shaftesbury, or whether they came to him through the papers whichBolingbroke had prepared for his use, we have no means of determining . The influence of Shaftesbury's writings was considerable both at home and abroad . His ethical system was reproduced, though in a more precise and philosophical form, by Hutcheson, and from him descended, with certain variations, to Hume and
See also:Smith . Nor was it without its effect even on the speculations of Butler . Ofthe so-called deists Shaftesbury was probably the most important, as he was certainly the most plausible and the most respectable . No sooner had the Characteristics appeared than they were welcomed, in terms of warm
See also:commendation, by Le Clerc and Leibnitz . In 1745
See also:Diderot adapted or reproduced the Inquiry concerning Virtue in what was afterwards known as his Essai sur le Merite et la Vertu . In 1769 a French
See also:translation of the whole of Shaftesbury's works, including the Letters, was published at
See also:Geneva .
See also:Translations of
See also:separate treatises into German began to be made in 1738, and in 1776–1779 there appeared a
See also:complete German translation of the Characteristics . Hermann
See also:Hettner says that not only Leibnitz, Voltaire and Diderot, but Lessing, Mendelssohn, Wieland and Herder, drew the most stimulating nutriment from Shaftesbury . " His charms," he adds, " are ever fresh . A new-born
See also:Hellenism, or divine cultus of beauty presented itself before his inspired soul." Herder is especially eulogistic .
In the Adrastea he pronounces the Moralists to be acomposition in form well-nigh worthy of Grecian antiquity, and in its contents almost superior to it . The interest
See also:felt by German literary men in Shaftesbury was revived by the publication of two excellent monographs, one dealing with him mainly from the theological side by Dr Gideon Spicker (
See also:Freiburg in Baden, 1872), the other dealing with him mainly from the philosophical side by Dr Georg von Gizycki (
See also:Leipzig, 1876) . (T . F.; J . M . M.) AUTFIoRITIES.—In Dr
See also:Fowler's monograph on Shaftesbury and Hutcheson in the series of " English philosophers " (1882) he was able largely to supplement the printed materials for the Life by extracts from the Shaftesbury papers in the Record Office . These include, besides many letters and memoranda, two Lives of him, composed by his son, the fourth earl, one of which is evidently the original, though it is by no means always closely followed, of the Life contributed by Dr Birch to the General Dictionary . For a description and
See also:criticism of Shaftesbury's philosophy reference may also be made to
See also:Mackintosh's Progress of Ethical Philosophy, W .
See also:History of Moral Philosophy in England, Jouffroy's Introduction to Ethics (
See also:Channing's translation),
See also:Stephen's English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, Martineau's Types of Ethical Theory, Windclband's History of Philosophy (Eng. trans., 1893) ; W . M . Hatch's unfinished edition with appendices of the Characteristics (187o); J . M .
See also:Robertson's edition of the Characteristics (1900); B .
See also:Rand's Life (1900) . For his relation to the religious and theological controversies of his day, see, in addition to some of the above works, J .
See also:Leland,View of the Principal Deistical Writers, V .
See also:Lechler, Geschichte
See also:des Englischen Deismus, J .
See also:Hunt, Religious Thought in England, C . J . Abbey and J . H . Overton, English Church in the Eighteenth Century and A . S .
See also:Bampton Lectures; G .
Zart, Einfiuss der englischen Philosophen seit
See also:Bacon auf die deutsche Philosophic des 18ten Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1881) .
7TH EARL OF ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER SHAFTESBURY (1801...
SHAGIA (SHAIGIA, SHAIKIYEH)
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